US 3862590 A
An expansion engine employing metered injections of water into a composite injection chamber in the cylinder head. The injection chamber is lined with a stable high alloy surrounded by a thermal insulator to retain developed heat in the injection chamber zone and to avoid its dissipation into the mass of the cylinder head.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Mengeler 1 1 Jan. 28, 1975  EXPANSION ENGINE AND l.612,853 1/1927 Broderick .1 92/164 INJECTION-CHAMBER HEAD 298L575 4/196 9 3,648,572 3/l972 llSChCI' i. 92/l7l  Inventor: Hermann Mengeler, Meerbusch 3, R24.223 9/1956 Ford ct a1. 1. 92/171 4005 Am Langenbruchbach 5, Germany FoRE1oN PATENTs OR APPLICATIONS 452. 92 2 1221 Filed: 06!. 24, 1973 ("mum ] Appl. No.2 409,290 Primary E.\'aminerPuul E. Muslousky Related Application Data Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Sherman and Shulluway  Continuation-impart of Ser. Nov 385,467, Aug. 3,
1973.  ABSTRACT  US. Cl. 92/163, 92/169 An expansion engine employing metered injections of  Int. Cl. F0lb 31/08, F16j 1 H02 water into a composite injection chamber in the cylin- Fi9'11 of Search der head. The injection chamber is lined with a stable 9 9 193 H high alloy surrounded by a thermal insulator to retain developed heat in the injection chamber zone and to  References Cited avoid its dissipation into the mass of the cylinder head.
UNITED 'sTATEs PATENTS 612,695 10/1898 Backman 92/169 5 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures 14 i j/ I 'll lg 1 22 19 20 L 1: x a
A 5 4 26 4 I lcONDENSER 1 1 1--' L r 3. //l l;
PATENTED JANZ 8 i975 CONDEN SER EXPANSION ENGINE AND INJECTION-CHAMBER HEAD This application is a continuation-in-part of my copending application, Ser. No. 385,467, filed Aug. 3, 1973, and titled Expansion Engine.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to liquid-vaporizing engines which are driven solely by the non-combustion vapors derived from a liquid injected into the gases compressed in the engine and is concerned, more particularly, with an injection-chamber head which confines the heat of compression of the engine to the injection-chamber zone.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART As set forth in my afore-mentioned copending application, Ser. No. 385,467, now abandoned, a variety of attempts have been made in the hope of developing a practical engine which will operate reliably on the vapors resulting from introducing water into compressed gases.
However, these prior units have required a supply of external power, such as supercharging or electricallyheated flash or vaporizing plates.
The engine disclosed in my application, Ser. No. 385,467, has solved this long-standing problem and has proved itself capable of running for extended periods, under load, without drawing on external power sources.
However, I have found that my new engine, in which the injection chamber is thermally insulated against heat loss except into the gases and vapors, is susceptible to new problems as a result of the localized heat and the sudden and repeated thermal changes.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In general, the preferred form of the present invention comprises an expansion engine including a cylinder head having an injection chamber received therein, the injection chamber including an inner wall of a highly stable and durable material and an outer wall of thermally insulating material which engages the head and positions the inner wall in the head for alignment with the head and the remainder of the engine.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to provide a liquid vapor engine which is operable without heat input from external sources.
It is a further object to provide an engine which uses the heat of gas compression to maintain a working temperature in an insulated injection zone for the vaporization of aqueous injections.
It is a still further object of the invention to introduce aqueous injections into an engine and remove the resultant vapors from the engine in an uncondensed form.
It is an additional object of the invention to provide an engine which operates solely on the vaporization of aqueous injections and in the absence of direct or auxiliary combination of hydrocarbons.
It is a particular object of the invention to provide an expansion engine having an injection chamber having a stable inner wall surrounded by a thermally insulating wall secured in the head of the engine.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The above and other objects of the invention may be better understood from the following description and accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a partly schematic view of the preferred form of the invention; and
FIG. 2 is an exploded view of the injection-chamber head of FIG. 1.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the preferred form of the invention comprises a two-cycle, single cylinder engine. However, it is to be understood that the invention is pertinent to multiple cylinder engines and to engines operating on other than two cycles.
The engine 1 is conventional in that it includes a block 2, a cylinder 3 anda crankshaft 4 carrying a connecting rod 5 mounting a piston 6. The engine is appropriately equipped with, for example, a lubrication system, a flywheel or an injection nozzle which are not shown here for reasons of simplicity.
The cylinder 3 is closed by an injection-chamber head assembly 7 including a head 8 which is mountable on the block 2 by conventional means. The head 8 has a threaded bore 9 therein which receives an externally threaded insulator wall 10.
The insulator wall 10 preferably is formed in two portions 11 and 12, as shown, for ease of accurate construction and assembly. However, it is to be understood that the insulator wall may be formed as a single unit, if desired.
The insulator wall 10 is formed of a non-metallic material having a low thermal conductivity and which is stable at temperatures well in excess of l,000C. I have found that ceramic materials are particularly suitable for this service.
The insulator wall 10 has a central threaded bore 13 which receives chamber inserts 14 and 15 each having substantially hemispherical recesses 16 and 17, respectively, which form a spherical injection chamber 18.
When assembled, the chamber insert 15 and the insulating wall align respective injector ports 19 and 20 with an injector bore 21 in the head 8. The chamber insert 15 has a port 22 in its lower wall which provides communication between the injection chamber 18 and the cylinder 3. The port 22 is located substantially centrally, with regard to the insert 15, and is formed with rounded edges 23 and 24 to provide for a smooth flow of gases therethrough.
The chamber inserts 14 and 15 preferably are formed of an alloy steel which presents a relatively tight,, non-porous surface to the chamber and which is substantially immune to corrosion in the presence of water and air at high temperatures. The smooth machining of the chamber is greatly facilitated by the provision of the mating inserts l4 and 15. With this insert-half structure, it is even feasible to provide a ground or polished surface for the inner wall of the injection chamber.
When assembled, the inserts 14 and 15 are tightly threaded against each other to seal against each other within the insulating wall 10 which is, in turn, securely threaded into the head 8. Where the insulating wall 10 is formed in halves l1 and 12, those halves preferably are joined at a different level than the inserts and are tightly threaded against each other to form a continuous surface in the wall against the escape of gas or heat. The injection-chamber head assembly 7 may then be installed on any engine for which the head 8 is dimensioned.
I prefer, however, that engines to which my new head is applied also include the low-friction, high-melting polymeric linings P on the cylinder and piston rings, as taught in my afore-mentioned application, Ser. No. 385,467.
The engine includes, in the 2-cycle embodiment shown, the accessories disclosed in my application, Ser. No. 385,467, including a combined intake-exhaust and an associated condenser 26 delivering condensate to a tank 27. Also, an injection pump 28, preferably also driven by the engine, draws water from the tank 27 for metered and timed delivery through the injector bore 21. A starter 29, battery 30 and starter switch 31 provide means for starting the engine.
OPERATION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT In operation, the engine of the present invention is similar to the engine disclosed in my afore-mentioned application, Ser. No. 385,467. That is, the water injected into the hot, compressed air in the injection chamber is vaporized through the port 22 to drive the piston through its stroke and to exhaust. Upward travel of the piston compresses further air for a subsequent injection and power stroke.
In the engine of the present invention, however, the relatively small mass of the alloy steel chamber inserts l4 and 15, being surrounded by the insulating wall 10, retain the heat of compression immediately available in the injection zone. The heat is thus confined from dissipation even into the metallic mass of the head 8, thereby assuring the presence of sufficient heat for reliable vaporization of the water and continued operation of the engine.
It is of particular advantage to my new engine that the pressure of vaporization is confined and structurally contained in the steel chamber 18, thereby permitting the use of a less dense or more porous insulating wall with a resultant high degree of heat-retention at the injection chamber.
Also, my new injection chamber permits the ease of precise manufacture of a steel injection chamber while permitting such thermal confinement to the injection zone.
Further, I have found that it is even feasible to convert existing internal-combustion engines with the simple installation of an injection-chamber head of the present invention, along with an injection system and a source of water. When thus converted. the engines are capable of running under load for indefinite periods, as long as they are properly served, such as by adequate lubrication.
Considerations such as the supply of sufficient water to prevent overheating and other teachings of my afore-mentioned application, Ser. No. 385,467, are pertinent to the present invention and are to be understood as being incorporated herein.
Various changes may be made in the details of the invention as described, without sacrificing the advantages thereof or departing from the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
I. An injection-chamber head for reciprocatingpiston engines including a cylinder head,
an insulator bore in said cylinder head,
a non-metallic thermal insulator in said cylinder head and having a chamber bore therein,
a first chamber element having a chamber recess therein,
a second chamber element having a chamber recess and a gas port therein,
said non-metallic insulator and one of said chamber elements each having an injection port therein, said ports being aligned when assembled, and an injection bore in said head and in communication with said aligned injection ports when assembled.
2. The injection-chamber head of claim 1 in which said first and second chamber elements are formed of metal.
3. The injection-chamber head of claim 2 in which said non-metallic thermal insulator is formed of 21 ccramic.
4. The injection-chamber head of claim 3 in which said gas port has rounded edges.
5. The injection-chamber head of claim 3 in which said non-metal|ic thermal insulator is formed in two pie :es, said insulator pieces are threadably mountable in said insulator bore, said first and second chamber elements are threadably mountable in said insulator, and the joint between said insulator pieces is positioned at a different point in said assembly from the joint between said first and second chamber elements.