US 3864090 A
A water chlorinating apparatus adapted to be connected to a pipe having water flowing therethrough under pressure of up to 100 lbs/sq. inch including valves and conduits for diverting a portion of the water flow into the chlorinating unit containing the chlorinating material and for conducting chlorinated water back to the pipe. The chlorinating unit comprises a base having an inlet and an outlet, an upstanding tube communicating with the inlet and a container, the container having a lower surface supporting the chlorinating tablets and a plurality of orifices in the container wall just above the lower surface and communicating with the outlet. A distributor head in the container directs streams of water flowing from the upstanding tube into contact with the tablets resting on the lower surface adjacent the orifices to dissolve the tablets. A weir is located in the base of the unit for diverting the water flow to the tablets, the weir having an adjustable by-pass orifice for varying the dosage of hypochlorite. A drain pipe and valve are provided to allow replenishment of the tablets without interruption of the water flow in the pipe.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1 [111 3,864,090
Richards Feb. 4, 1975 1 1 PRESSURE-TYPE TABLET Primary Examiner-Wilbur L. Bascomb, Jr.
HYPOCHLORINATING DEVICE  Inventor: Kenneth Richards, P.O. Box 17,
Gordon Town, Parish of St. Andrews, Jamaica, British W. Indies  Filed: Oct. 12, 1973  App]. No.: 405,769
 U.S. Cl. 23/267 E, 23/272.7, 23/272.8, 239/310, 239/317, 137/268, 210/169  Int. Cl B01d 11/02  Field of Search 23/267 B, 272.7, 272.8; 137/268; 210/169; 239/310, 317
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,335,802 4/1920 Stewart 23/267 E 1,409,248 3/1922 Sevcils 23/272.8 1,740,879 12/1929 Sonner... 23/272.8 1,767,841 6/1930 Fisher.... 299/84 1,967,909 7/1934 Sonner... 23/272.8 2,521,802 9/1950 Otto 23/272.7 2,758,877 8/1956 Gleason 23/272.7
Assistant Examiner-S. J. Emery Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Roylance, Abrams, Berdo & Kaul  ABSTRACT A water chlorinating apparatus adapted to be connected to a pipe having water flowing therethrough under pressure of up to 100 lbs/sq. inch including valves and conduits for diverting a portion of the water flow into the chlorinating unit containing the chlorinating material and for conducting chlorinated water back to the pipe. The chlorinating unit comprises a base having an inlet and an outlet, an upstanding tube communicating with the inlet and a container, the container having a lower surface supporting the chlorinating tablets and a plurality of orifices in the container wall just above the lower surface and communicating with the outlet. A distributor head in the container directs streams of water flowing from the upstanding tube into contact with the tablets resting on the lower surface adjacent the orifices to dissolve the tablets. A weir is located in the base of the unit for diverting the water flow to the tablets, the weir having an adjustable by-pass orifice for varying the dosage of hypochlorite. A drain pipe and valve are provided to allow replenishment of the tablets without interruption of the water flow in the pipe.
10 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures PRESSURE-TYPE TABLET HYPOCHLORINATING DEVICE This invention relates to a unit for chlorinating water flowing under a pressure of up to 100 lbs/sq. inch in a pipe. More particularly, this invention relates to a new and improved chlorinating unit using a hypochlorite supply, in tablet form, wherein the tablets are gradually dissolved to provide a hypochlorite solution to water flowing in a pipe.
It has been found desirable to chlorinate water flowing in a water pipe under pressure for reasons of sanitation and to prevent the water from becoming contaminated and diseased. In the past there have been certain proposals and devices which were intended to accomplish the same functions as that of the present invention, but in actual practice, such devices and proposals were found to be unsatisfactory. Such prior devices for providing hypochlorite in tablet form to water pipes resulted in a loss of. water pressure in the flow and the added necessity of using power-operated pumps to compensate for the pressure loss. Additionally, such prior devices and proposals were characterized by difficulties in adjusting hypochlorite dosages as required by variations in flow without frequent manual adjustment and were characterized by a clogging of the systems lines by lime deposits. Also, some of the systems necessitated a frequent replenishment of the tablets and an interruption of the flow of the water during such replenishment.
With the foregoing in mind, it is, therefore, a primary object of the present invention to overcome the difficulties and deficiencies associated with the prior art units of this type, and to provide a new and improved unit for chlorinating water flowing in a water pipe or main.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a chlorinating unit which operates reliably and allows the dosage of hypochlorite to be easily and accurately adjusted so that it automatically provides the desired dosage at variable rates of water flow.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a chlorinating unit capable of chlorinating a flow of water within a water pipe under high pressure.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a chlorinating unit capable of providing hypochlorite solution to water flowing in a pipe without a substantial loss of pressure and without the additional use of an auxiliary pump.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a chlorinating unit wherein the chlorine tablets can be replenished or the unit serviced without interrupting the flow of water in the pipe.
Other objects, advantages and salient features of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description, which, taken in conjunction with the annexed drawings, discloses a preferred embodiment thereof.
In general, the invention resides in a new and improved chlorinating unit adapted to be interconnected to a pipe or high-pressure water main through which water is flowing. A first conduit carries a portion of the water from the water main into a container in the unit which carries the hypochlorite tablets. In the container the water dissolves the tablets to form a chlorinated solution. A second conduit carries the chlorinated solution from the container back to the water main. A valve is located in the water main between the connection with the main of the first and second conduits for diverting a portion of the water flow into the unit. The chlorinating unit, which is interposed between the first and second conduits, is comprised of a base, an upstanding tube, a container for the tablets, and a plastic dome mounted to the base and enclosing the tube and the container. An inlet bore within the base communicates with the first conduit and the upstanding tube and allows water entering the unit to flow through the tube and into contact with the tablets in the container to dissolve a portion of them to form the chlorinated solution. A discharge chamber within the base communicates with orifices in the container wall and the second conduit and receives the chlorinated solution exiting from the orifices. A weir is located at one end of the inlet bore to divert the flow of water entering the inlet bore to the upstanding tube. An adjustable bypass orifice is located in the weir to vary the hypochlorite dosage by allowing some of the water flowing into the upstanding tube to flow directly into the discharge chamber without contacting the tablets. Referring now to the drawings which form a part of this original disclosure:
FIG. 1 is a top plan view, partially in section, of a chlorinating unit in accordance with the principles of the present invention, shown connected to a highpressure water main; and
FIG. 2 is an elevational view, partially in section, of the chlorinating unit.
Referring now to the drawings, as seen in FIG. 1, the chlorinating unit 10 is connected to the high pressure water main by an inflow first conduit 60 and a return flow second conduit 70. The water flowing in the water main 80 approaches the region of the chlorinating unit 10 along the pipe 82, which is connected to the inlet 84 in a first reducing tee fitting 86 having a branch 87 with an outlet 88 to the first conduit 60 and an outlet 90 to a short pipe 92, which leads to a valve 94. The other side of the valve 94 is connected to another short pipe 96 which is connected to an inlet 98 in a second expanding fitting tee 100, having an inlet 102 in the branch 103 receiving the second conduit 70 and an outlet 104 to a pipe 106 in the water main 80.
The first conduit 60 is comprised of a pipe 108 communicating with the first outlet 88 in the first tee 86, a union 110 between the pipe 108 and the pipe 112, a stopcock valve 114 between pipes 112 and 116, and a third tee fitting 118. This tee fitting has three openings, 120, 122 and 124, with opening communicating with the pipe 116, opening 124 communicating with a tractor tire valve 126, and opening 122 communicating with a male adaptor pipe 128 which fits into an inlet 26 in the chlorinating unit 10.
An outlet 36 in the chlorinating unit 10 is fitted with a male adaptor pipe 130 which connects with an inlet 132 in a fourth tee fitting 134 having two outlets, 136 and 138. The outlet 136 is connected through a pipe 140 to a stopcock valve 142 which is further connected to a drain pipe 144. The outlet 138 in the fourth tee 134 is connected to an inlet 146 in a fifth tee fitting 148 through a male adaptor pipe 150. An outlet 152 in the fifth tee 148 is connected to a pipe 154 which is in turn connected to a union 156 and a pipe 158 which communicates with the inlet 103 in the second tee 100 in the water main 80. The water main 80 leaves the region of the chlorinating unit via pipe 106 which is connected to the outlet 104 in the second tee 100.
A non-return valve 160 is formed in the second conduit 70 by providing a spring biased plug over the open end of the male adaptor pipe 150 in the fifth tee 148, which open end is beveled to form a valve seat. The tee 148 has threads on the interior surface at its end near outlet 162 for the reception of a short tube 164 threaded at its mid-portion and having reduced diameter end portions. The outer end portion has a bushing 166 welded around it, the end portion and the bushing being covered by a cap 168 welded thereto. Supported on the inside of the cap is a stainless steel spring 170 which is connected to a perspex rod 172 which has an enlarged plug or half round rubber tap washer 174 fit-- ted on its reduced end which is biased into a covering engagement with the beveled opening in the male adaptor pipe 150. The valve is made water-tight by providing an O-ring 176 between the rim of the cap 168 and a sleeve 178 welded to the surface of the fith tee 148 As seen in FIG. 2, the chlorinating unit consists of a base 12, an upstanding tube 14, a container -16 and a transparent plastic dome 18 oriented in an upright position. The container 16 carries a supply of hypochlorite tablets 15.
The base 12 which is formed from a suitable plastic material, non-reactive with a hypochlorite solution, is essentially a right cylinder having an open top end 20 and a closed bottom end 22. The upper portion of the interior cylindrical surface of the base wall is threaded for receiving corresponding threads on the outside of the bottom of the dome or accumulator l8. Extending vertically from the closed end 22 to immediately below the threaded portion of the base is a raised portion or land 24 filling only a portion of the enclosed volume of the cylindrical base 12. A cylindrical inlet bore 26 passes perpendicularly through the exterior cylindrical surface of the base 12 and through the land 24, terminating short of an end wall or weir 28 in the land. The top of the land 24 has a vertically formed, cylindrical bore 30 therein adjacent to the weir and communicating with the inlet bore 26, which vertical bore is substantially along the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical base 12.
Passing through the weir 28, substantially prallel to the plane of the closed end 22 of the base and having one end communicating with the vertical bore 30, is a by-pass orifice 32 which has its other end communicating with a discharge chamber 34 located on the opposite side of the weir from the inlet bore 26. The discharge chamber 34 communicates with a cylindrical outlet bore 36 in the exterior cylindrical surface of the cylindrical base 12, which outlet is diametrically opposed to the inlet bore 26.
Welded within the vertical bore 30 is a short pipe or sleeve 38 having threads on the inside surface thereof corresponding to and receiving threads on the exterior surface ofa short tube or polyvinyl chloride male adaptor 40. An aperture 42 in the wall of the tube 40 and an aperture 44 in the wall of the sleeve 38 are provided to coincide with the by-pass orifice 32 in the weir 28. A rotation of the tube 40 relative to the sleeve 38 can increase or decrease the effective cross-sectional area of the by-pass orifice 32.
The upper portion of the wall of the short tube 40 is reduced in thickness to form a shoulder for the reception of one end of the upstanding tube 14, preferably formed from polyvinyl chloride. The other end of the tube 14 is fitted snugly into the lower portion of the inside of a short tube or polyvinyl chloride female adaptor 46 which has threads along the interior of a reduced diameter upper portion thereof.
The container 16 is preferably formed from plastic material, such as that sold under the trademark Perpex which is an acrylic plastic consisting essentially of polymerized methyl methacrylate. The container 16 is essentially a right cylinder having an open end 48 and a closed end 50 having a central bore 52 therein which receives the reduced diameter portion of the tube 46. Hence, the container 16 tests on the shoulder formed by the reduced diameter portion of the tube 46. A support surface 54 in the form of an annulus with an outer diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the container 16 is supported above the bottom end 50 on a circular shoulder 56 located within the container 16 along the inner perimeter thereof. The tablets 15 rest on this support surface 54, which can be formed of the same material as that of the container 16.
A distributor head 64 for the unit is formed by a conical portion 65 which is disposed above the support surface 54 and a depending tube portion 67 which projects through a central aperture in the support surface 54. The depending tube portion 67 has external threads corresponding to and engaging the interior threads of the tube 52. A series of bores 66 are provided in the conical section 65 of the distributor head 64, which bores communicate with the interior of the tubular por' tion 67. The base of the conical element 64 lies on the support surface 54. Angularly spaced along the container wall and in substantially the same horizontal plane as the head 64 are a plurality of elongated orifices 68 which are located with their lowermost portions at the top of the support surface 54.
Completely enclosing the container 16, the upstanding tube 14, the land 24, and the discharge chamber 34 is the dome or accumulator 18 made from transparent plastic and mounted to the base at its bottom by a threaded connection. That connection is made watertight by the use of an O-ring 69.
The outer portion of the inlet bore 26 in the base 12 is threaded to receive the male adaptor 128 which is also connected to opening 122 in the third tee 118. Similarly, the outer portion of the outlet bore 36 is threaded to receive a male adaptor 130 which also fits into the fourth tee 134. Both connections have O-rings 71 for providing a fluid-tight connection.
In operation, hypochlorite tablets 15 are placed in the container 16 covering the lower support surface 54. The by-pass orifice 32 is adjusted to provide for flow therethrough by rotating the tube 40 carrying an aperture 44 relative to the tube 38 carrying the aperture 42, to thus achieve the desired effective cross-section of and flow rate through the by-pass orifice 32. Then the plastic dome or accumulator 18 is placed over the container 16 and screwed on to the base 12 with an O-ring 69 making the connection liquid and airtight.
The valve 94 in the water main is initially in a fully open position and valve 114 in the first conduit 60 is in a fully closed position. The valve 142 leading to the drain pipe 144 is additionally in a fully closed position.
With water flowing through the water main 80 under pressure, the valve 114 is gradually opened. This gradual opening prevents the possibility of a surge of water from entering the chlorinating unit 10. When valve 114 is fully opened, the valve 94 is gradually closed to divert a portion of the water flow through pipe 82 into the first conduit 60. The water not diverted continues through the valve 94 and into the second tee 100.
The water that flows through the first conduit enters the inlet bore 26 in the base 12 and flows therethrough until it contacts the weir 28, at which time it is diverted upwards into the upstanding tube 14. A portion of the water in the tube 14 flows through apertures 42 and 44 and the by-pass orifice 32 and directly into the discharge chamber 34. Another portion of the water flows up the tube 14 and into the orifices 66 located in the distributor head 64. The water flowing therethrough is directed from the bores 66 into contact with the hypochlorite tablets 15 located adjacent the orifices 68 on the support surface 54 in the container 16. The contact of the water with the tablets lying lowermost in the container results in a dissolving of a portion of the tablets, such dissolved portion being carried by the water out of the container 16 through the orifices 68. The undissolved tablets located immediately above the dissolving tablets continuously move downwards and occupy the space above the support surface vacated by the dissolved tablets.
After the chlorinated solution exits through the orifices 68, it flows downward under the force of gravity and accumulates in the discharge chamber 34 and the dome 18. Here he chlorinated solution is diluted by mixing with the water passing directly into the discharge chamber 34 from the inlet bore 26 via the bypass orifice 32. This dilute chlorinated solution then flows out the outlet bore 36 in the base 12 into the second conduit 70 and back into the water main 80 through the second tee 100 and the pipe 106. In this manner, the chlorinated solution is further diluted in the second tee 100 as it mixes with the undiverted portion of the water flowing through the valve 94 and entering the second tee 100. The non-return valve 160 in the fifth tee 148 prevents a backflow of water from the water main 80 into the chlorinating unit 10.
Since the unit is pressurized by the dome 18,-a certain amount of air is trapped in the dome. This air usually has enough pressure to prevent a build-up of water in the dome to a height which would submerge the tablets in the container 16. If the pressure is not sufficient, additional air can be pumped into the dome via the valve 126 in the third tee 118.
The water flowing in the pipe 106 and leaving the region of the chlorinating unit is tested to determine the hypochlorite concentration in order that the dosage of hypochlorite may be adjusted in the chlorinating unit 10.
This adjustment may be accomplished in two alternative ways. The first way is by manipulating the valve 94 to cause more or less water to flow into the chlorinating unit 10 from the water main 80, and to concommitantly dissolve more or less of the tablets. The second way is to vary the cross-sectional area of the by-pass orifice 32. This is accomplished by closing the valve 114, opening the valve 142, removing the dome l8, and rotating the tube 40 relative to the sleeve 38. This rotation moves the aperture 44 in the tube 40 relative to the aperture 42 in the sleeve 38. This reduces or increases the cross-sectional area of the by-pass orifice 32. A larger cross'sectional area allows more water to flow therethrough and less to proceed up the upstanding tube 14 to dissolve tablets, and therefore a smaller dosage is provided. If the by-pass orifice is made smaller in cross-section, then more water flows up the tube 14 and dissolves more of the tablets, therefore providing an increase in the concentration of the hypochlorite solution delivered from the chlorinating unit 10 to the water main 80. a 5 In order to replenish the supply of hypochlorite tablets in the container 16, the valve 114 in the first conduit 60 is closed and the valve 142 leading to the drain pipe 144 is opened. This allows all of the fluid in the chlorinating unit 10 to flow out the drain pipe 144 and to reduce the pressure in the dome. The non-return valve 160 prevents a flow of water from the water main 80 from reaching the chlorinating unit 10. The dome is removed and additional tablets are placed in the container 16. This replenishment as outlined above is performed without interrupting the flow of water in the water main 80.
Lime deposits can be removed from the apparatus by opening the valve 142 to release the pressure in the unit, which also flushes out some of the lime, and by removing the non-return valve 160 by screwing off the cap 168, at which time the lime deposits may be physically removed.
Utilizing an apparatus described above, 5000 gallons of water can be chlorinated per charge at 60 pounds/ square inch of pressure without the need for additional air being pumped into the dome. And 200,000 gallons of water can be chlorinated per charge at 100 pounds/- square inch of pressure with the assistance of air being pumped into the dome. It has also been determined that a flow of as low as 2 gallons of water per minute can be chlorinated at 1 part per million.
While one advantageous embodiment has been chosen to illustrate the invention, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications can be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
1. An apparatus for chlorinating water, the combination comprising; i
a pipe means adapted to have water flowing under pressure therein;
a chlorinating unit containing hypochlorite tablets;
a first conduit means for conducting water from said pipe means to said chlorinating unit;
a second conduit means for conducting a chlorinated solution of water from said unit to said pipe means;
a valve means in said pipe means for diverting a portion of said water flow into said first conduit means;
said chlorinating unit including a container means for supporting said tablets,
a base, having an inlet bore communicating with said first conduit and an outlet bore communicating with said second conduit,
a tube means centrally carried by said base and communicating with said inlet bore in said base and said container means for conducting water from said inlet bore to said container means and supporting said container a substantial distance above said base.
a conical distribute means, mounted at one end of said tube means and located within said container means, for directing water flowing up said tube means into contact with said tablets,
a plurality of orifices located in said container means adjacent the bottom thereof and in substantially the same horizontal plane as said distributor means, and
dome means removably mounted to said base and enclosing said tube means and said container means for pressurizing said chlorinating unit;
said apparatus being operative so that water is diverted into said container means from said pipe means along said first conduit, said inlet bore and said tube means by operation of said valve means and such water contacts and dissolves said tablets forming a chlorinated solution which solution flows through said orifices, through said outlet, said second conduit and back into said pipe means,
said container means being formed as a right cylinder having an open end at the top and a closed end at the bottom, said closed end having a central bore therein receiving said tube means, and
said container means further including an annular support surface which is solid and flat and is supported abovesaid closed end, said support surface supporting said tablets said orifices being located in the side of said container means above said annular support surface.
2. An apparatus according to claim 1 and further including a weir located in said base for diverting the water flow from said inlet bore to said tube means.
3. An apparatus according to claim 2 and further including a by-pass orifice means in said weir communicating at one end with said tube means and at the other end with said outlet, allowing water to flow from said inlet and out said outlet without traveling through said container means for varying the amount of hypochlorite dissolved.
4. An apparatus according to claim 3 and further including means for varying the cross-sectional area of said by-pass orifice means in said weir for further varying the dosage of hypochlorite.
5. An apparatus according to claim 4 and further including means for introducing pressurized air into said unit to prevent the tablets from bein submerged.
6. A chlorinating unit operative, upon coupling to a source of water flowing under pressure in a pipe, to chlorinate the water in the pipe, said unit comprising;
a container means for supporting hypchlorite tablets;
a base, having an inlet communicating with said pipe and an outlet communicating with said pipe;
a tube means centrally carried by said base and having one end communicating with said base and the other end communicating with said container means for conducting water from said inlet to said container means and supporting said container a substantial distance above said base.
a conical distributor means connected to said tube means at its other end fordirecting water into contact with said tablets;
a plurality of orifices located in said container means adjacent the bottom thereof and in substantially the same horizontal plane as said distributor means;
dome means mounted to said base and enclosing said tube means and said container means for pressurizing the unit;
weir means located in said base for diverting water flow from said inlet into said tube means; and
a by-pass orifice means located in said weir means for conducting water from said tube means directly into said outlet;
said unit being operative so that water flowing from said pipe into said inlet strikes said weir means and is diverted into said tube means, a first portion thereof flowing through said by-pass orifice means and out said outlet and a second portion thereof flowing through said tube means and said distributor means into contact with and dissolving said tablets, said second portion then flowing through said orifices and out said outlet, both of said portions returning to said pipe,
said container means being formed as a right cylinder having an open end at the top and a closed end at the bottom, said closed end having a central bore therein receiving said tube means, and
said container means further including an annular support surface which is solid and flat and is supported above said closed end, said support surface supporting said tablets, said orifices being located in the side of said container means above said annular support surface.
7. A unit according to claim 6 and further including means for varying the cross-sectional area of said bypass orifice means for varying the dosage of hypochlorite.
8. A unit according to claim 7 and further including a land located in said base carrying said inlet bore,
a vertical bore in said land adjacent said weir means wherein said means for varying the cross-sectional area of said by-pass orifice means includes a sleeve rigidly connected to the wall of said bore and having an aperture therein coinciding with said bypass orifice means,
a tube rotatably received in said sleeve and having an aperture therein coinciding with said aperture in said sleeve, wherein rotation of said tube moves the aperture therein relative to the aperture in said tube.
9. An apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said distributor means includes a conical portion disposed above said support surface and a depending tube portion projecting through said annular support surface.
10. An apparatus according to claim 9, wherein said base has a cylindrical surface and a land and a weir therein,
said inlet bore passes perpendicularly through the exterior of said cylindrical surface through said land and terminates short of said weir,
said tube means communicates with said inlet bore via a cylindrical bore formed in said land, the axis of said cylindrical bore being perpendicular to the axis of said inlet bore, and said dome means is spaced from said container means.