US 3864157 A
An impervious cover structure is produced by laying a polyolefin fabric fused on one side only, fused side against the surface to be covered and the unfused side is coated with a mixture containing asphalt and asbestos fibers.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Bresson et al.
Feb. 4, 1975 IMPERVIOUS BARRIER COMPRISING POLYOLEFIN FABRIC, ASPHALT AND ASBESTOS Inventors: Clarence R. Bresson; Forrest D.
Spaulding, both'of Bartlesville, Okla.
Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, Okla.
Dec. 14, 1971 Appl. No.: 207,800
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,733,159 1/1956 Scoggin et al. 106/282 3,474,625 10/1969 Draper et a1 161/92 3,505,260 4/1970 Woodruff 260/285 A 3,719,546 3/1973 Parlin 161/154 3,729,373 4/1973 Hildebrandt et a1 161/205 Primary Examiner-William J. Van Balen Assistant Examiner-James J. Bell  ABSTRACT U Q Cl 117/138 8 E l06/282 7/168 An impervious cover structure is produced by laying a 'g i''i' m 161/170 161/205 polyolefin fabric fused on one side only, fused side ln t. CL... 1332b 27/00 surface be Field of Search 161/81, 82,151,154,155, 161/156, 164, 170, 205; 156/148; 117/138.8
is coated with a mixture containing asphalt and ashestos fibers.
E, 168; 106/282 2 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure 2 COATS CATIONIC ASPHALT EMULSION CONTAINING 65% SOLIDS 1.7 LBS/SQ YD AT 22 FT DEPTH (10 P816) 2 coATs CUTBACK AIR-BLOWN ASPHALT 2.0 LBS/SQ YD AT 67 FT DEPTH (3o Pslc) 2 COATS CUTBACK AIR-BLOWN ASPHALT WITH 5% ASBESTOS ONLY IN 2ND COAT 4.0 LBS/SQ YD AT 67 FT. 7 DAY AIR CURE l COAT CUTBACK AIR-BLOWN ASPHALT WITH 5% ASBESTOS 3.8 LBS/SQ YD AT 6'! F116 DAY AIR CURL 2 COATS CUTHACK AIR-BLOWN ASPHALT WITH 5 9f, ASBESTOS ONLY IN 2ND COAT 3.0 LBS/SQ YD AT 67 FT. FINAL CURE BHRS A1140 F IN AIR CIRCULATING OVEN l 1 l I 3o 40 50 so T I ME (HOURS) 1 COAT CUTBACK AIR-BLOWN ASPHALT WITH 5% ASBESTOS 4.2 LBS/SQ YD AT 67 FT. FINAL CURE 12 HRS AT 140F IN AIR CIRCULATING OVEN (I) INDICATES NO FAILURE (TEST TERMINATED) 12) ALL sAMPLEs WERE ON 5 02/361 YD FABRIC I3) SIMULATED DEPTH BY APPLIED PRESSURE IN A TEST APPARATUS IMPERVIOUS BARRIER COMPRISING POLYOLEFIN FABRIC, ASPHALT AND ASBESTOS This invention relates to an impervious cover structure. ln one of its aspects, it relates to a cover structure comprising a polyolefin fabric, asphalt and asbestos fibers. in another of its aspects, the invention comprises a surface or object to which has been applied an impervious cover structure comprising a polyolefin, for example, a non-woven polyolefin fabric, mat, or web, the polyolefin being impregnated with a mixture containing asphalt and asbestos fibers. It also relates to a method for producing covers or coatings as described herein. Further, in a specific aspect, the invention relates to a reservoir or pond or other container which is rendered fluid retentive by applying thereto an impervious cover structure according to the invention.
In one of its concepts the invention provides a cover structure which is produced by fusing externally on one side, or at least on one side, a polyolefin fabric, mat, or web, laying said fabric, mat, or web with its fused side against an object surface or ground to be rendered impervious and then coating said fabric, mat, or web on a provided unfused external side with a mixture containing asphalt and asbestos fibers.
In another of its concepts the invention provides a reservoir, container or pond having a liner or structure applied to the surface thereof as herein described.
Various liners have been provided for covering objects or surfaces or the ground to render these impervious to fluids, for example, to water, or other liquids. In places at which the fluid or liquid exerts considerable pressure against the covering structure or liner, leakage is often observed. The leakage occurs at so-called pin hole openings in the coating or covering structure. These leaks have been observed, particularly with nonwoven fabrics which have been coated with various sealants. Thus, in fairly deep pond liner applications, it has been observed that asphalt sealed non-woven polypropylene fabric can develop pin hole leaks which may be due to cold flow.
We have now conceived of an improved cover structure. Thus, we have conceived that if the non-woven fabric is provided with a fused external side and a nonfused external side, and is laid fused side against the object to be covered or fused side down on the ground as in the lining of a pond and is then covered or coated with asphalt-containing asbestos fibers, as further described herein, the resulting structure will not develop leaks.
An object of the invention is to provide a cover structure. A further object of the invention is to provide a fluid or liquid impervious cover structure suitable for application to objects to be protected against fluid or liquid. A further object of the invention is to provide a liner for liquid storage ponds. A still further object of the invention is to provide a cover structure of improved character in that it will withstand liquid pressure of considerable magnitude, yet not develop leaks. A further object of the invention is to provide a cover structure comprising a non-woven fabric covered with asphalt which will not flow, once cured, clue to cold flow through windows in the non-woven fabric.
Other aspects, concepts, objects and the several advantages of the invention are apparent from this disclosure and the appended claims.
According to the invention, there is provided an impervious cover structure which comprises a non-woven polyolefin fabric, mat, or web, fused externally on one side and having unfused fiber on the other external side thereof, the fused side being laid against the material to be covered, the unfused fibrous side being coated with a mixture containing asphalt and asbestos fibers.
The asphalt-asbestos mixture which is applied is usually applied as a cut-back asphalt. The cut-back asphalt is prepared from an air-blown asphaltic material having a penetration of about 20-50, preferably 25-35, a minimum ductility at 77 F of 5, and a Ring and Ball softening temperature of l60-l75 F.
The cut-back solvent used to prepare the cut-back asphalt is selected from kerosene, cycle oil, Stoddard solvent or, in general a hydrocarbon based material having an initial boiling point in the range of l60-450 F, preferably 200-300 F.
Sufficient cut-back oil is used to make the resultant blend applicable to the surface by hot application not exceeding about 250 F (melting point of polypropylene) at a temperature which will not adversely melt the fabric or by spray or brush technique at ambient temperatures. Usually about 20-100 parts by weight of solvent, preferably about 40-70 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of asphaltic material, are used.
The asbestos fiber is added to the cut-back asphalt in amounts from about 4-10 parts/100 parts by weight of cut-back asphalt. It can have a fiber length of about 0.0l-0.l in., preferably about 0.03-0.06 in. While the presence of longer fibers can be tolerated, the preferred range is more readily handled by the usual equipment and best improves the desirable properties of the asphalt, such as the penetration values.
It has been found that using an approximately 4 oz- /yd fabric, an asbestos fiber content of about 6-8, or more, parts/100 parts of cut-back asphalt is preferred, while for a 5 02. web a fiber content of about 5-6 in the cut-back asphalt is sufficient.
The fabric is made from about 2-20 denier, preferably about 3-8 denier crimped staple about one-half to about 3 in. long; a batt of these fibers is needle punched by conventional means and the needle punched fabric is then passed through a pair of nip rolls, one of which is heated above the melting point of the fibers to heatfuse the fibers on one side. The amount of fusion is adjusted to give the final product a tensile strength of from about 10 lbs. to about lbs/inch of width, the strength depending both on the amount of fusion, weight of fabric and denier of the fiber. The fabric is about 1-5 mm thick under no compression and ordinarily less than about 10% of the thickness of the fabric is fused.
The polypropylene fabric should have a weight of at least about 3.5-4 ox/yd and is fused on one side only. A heavier fabric weighing about 5-6 ox/yd is now preferred. Much heavier fabrics become uneconomical and heavy to handle.
A capped product, i.e., a light fabric fused on both sides, having a cap of [-2 oz/yd of additional fiber, e.g., nylon, attached to one side thereof by an added needle punch operation and having a total weight between about 4.0 and about 5.5 oz/sq yard is also suitable. The added fiber now acts as does the unfused side of the fabric which is fused on one side only. Thus, the capped side is the one to which the cut-back asphalt/asbestos mixture is applied.
It is obvious that there are a number of variables which coact to provide an effective leak-proof liner. Under mild conditions, for example, a shallow, sweet water pit or ditch, an asphalt with higher penetration can be used and a more fluid cutback formulation containing less asbestos can be used. For more severe conditions, deep water, high temperature and brine, for example, a lower penetration asphalt is used with a heavier mat and more asbestos; this more viscous material may have to be applied hot (v.s.). These and other variables can be determined by mere routine testing by one skilled in the art in possession of this disclosure.
It is essential, however, that the asbestos fibers in the mixture be forced by the flow of the liquid through the mat into immediate contact with the surface of the mat where they become imbedded in the unconsolidated top surface of the fabric and lodge in the interstitial voids present therein.
The bar graphs reflect results obtained without and by using the invention. These are comparable.
Referring now to the bar graph, these indicate by their lengths the time in hours at certain pressures required for failure of the cover structure indicated.
The pressure was applied in a test apparatus into which water was fed and maintained under pressure against the test covered structure supported on a screen.
There are six tests shown in the bar graph. Failure or end of test with failure is indicated by the bars which have smooth or straight line endings. The cut-away endings in tests 4 and 6 indicate that the tests were still under way at the indicated time in hours.
The final oven cure for tests 5 and 6 was for 8 and 12 hours at 140 F in an air circulating oven, respectively.
It can be seen that one coat covering with cut-back asphalt containing asbestos according to the invention yields results which are far superior to those obtained even with two coats of covering when the asbestos is only in the second coat. Thus, the tests demonstrate a coaction between the asbestos in the asphalt and the fabric to which it is applied.
It will be evident to one skilled in the art in possession of this disclosure and having studied the same that there must needs be, according to the invention, loose or unfused fibers on the external surface of the fabric to which the asphalt-asbestos mixture is applied. Thus, it is within the scope of the invention to use a fabric which has been fused on both sides but to which there has been applied additional fiber in some manner or other as by a needle punch operation.
The asbestos fiber now preferred is Johns-Manville 7MO2 fibers. These asbestos fibers were used in the specific tests reported in the bar graphs. The fabric used was a non-woven polypropylene five ounce per square yard fabric, heat-fused on one side. This fabric is now preferred. The mixture of asphalt-asbestos and solvent should be readily sprayable at temperature of ll 80 F. and as such can be applied to vertical surfaces as well as horizontal ones. Applications in addition to those described are various. Various shaped objects in addition to ponds can be covered. Inside of tanks of various shapes can be covered. Rooftops, especially those which may be structured to accumulate and to retain liquid as a shield against heat can also be covered. Indeed, though the structure of the invention is particularly well suited for use under considerable hydrostatic pressure, it can, of course, be used in all those places where fabric reinforced asphalt containing coverings are used.
The following examples include data from which the bar graph has been prepared, as well as other data.
EXAMPLE 1 Polypropylene fibers of staple length, about 6 denier, were carded and needle-punched to a consolidated fibrous bat. The bat was subjected to a heating step in which it was passed through a pair of nip rolls, one of which is heated to about 400 F to fuse the fibers on that side. The resulting nonwoven fabric has a weight of about 5 oz/yd and an average thickness of about 2 PREPARATION OF CUT-BACK ASPHALT/ASBESTOS MIX The cut-back asphalt was prepared from an air blown asphaltic material having a penetration of 35, a ductility of 77 F of5 and a Ring and Ball softening temperature of 165 F. The asphalt was cut back with naphtha, boiling range 200400 F, at a ratio of 100 parts of asphalt and 50 parts of naptha. To this blend were added asbestos fibers with an average fiber length of about 0.05 in. Sufficient fibers were added to provide about 5 parts by weight asbestos fibers in 100 parts of cutback asphalt.
TEST PROCEDURE A sample of the non-woven fabric (5 oz/sq yd) was spray-coated with the cut-back asphalt containing 5 percent asbestos fibers at a rate of two-thirds gal/yd and allowed to cure for 12 hours at 140 F in a hot air oven. The fabric had no pin holes and was an effective hydraulic barrier at 67 ft. at 80 F. The test was carried out in a static load apparatus in which a sample fabric is subjected to a static hydraulic load at a controlled temperature and the time measured to develop a leak. This sample was tested for 60 hours without failure when the test was discontinued.
EXAMPLES II V Other samples of 5 oz/yd fabric were variously treated and tested as in Example I.
1. Single coats of a cationic asphalt emulsion were applied on 2 consecutive days and then allowed to cure in air at ambient temperature for 1 week. The sample failed under 10 psi load after about 6 minutes.
2. Two coats of air-blown. cut-back asphalt (2.0 lbs. asphalt/sq yd) without asbestos fibers on fabric samples were tested at 30 psi (67 ft) and failed after 60 minutes.
3. Two coats of air-blown cut-back asphalt were applied, the first coat without asbestos fibers and after a l-day cure the second coat containing 5 parts asbestos fibers/ parts of cut-back asphalt (4.0 lbs asphalt/sq yd). This sample failed after 45 minutes (7-day air cure).
4. One coat air-blown cut-back asphalt with 5 parts asbestos fibers/I00 parts cut back asphalt (3.08 lbs/sq yd), 7-day air cure. The sample did not fail after 22 hours at 30 psi (67 ft) when test was terminated.
EXAMPLE VI Samples of 4 oz non-woven fabric fused on one side were coated with a cut-back asphalt containing 5 and 7 parts by weight of asbestos fibers per 100 parts of cutback asphalt, respectively, cured and tested as before. The 4 oz material coated with the 5/100 mixture failed after 5 hours while with the 7/100 mixture the test was discontinued at 95 hours without failure.
EXAMPLE VI] A non-woven fabric was prepared by carding and needle-punching 6 denier polypropylene staple and the about l /2 oz/sq yd nylon 66 staple was needle-punched into the bat and the polypropylene side was fused. This nylon capped fabric had an approximate weight of 5 /2 oz/sq yd.
A sample of this material was coated with two-thirds gal/sq yd of 5/100 asbestos cut-back asphalt mixture and allowed to cure for 8 days. Under hydraulic test at 80 F and 30 psi (67 ft) no failure occurred after 130 hours when the test was discontinued.
EXAMPLE Vlll A similar capped coated fabric was prepared, except that 6 denier polypropylene fiber was substituted for the nylon of Example Vll. One coat of 5/l00 asbestos- /asphalt (one'half gal/sq yd) mix was applied as in Example Vll and the cured fabric was tested at 80 F and 30 psi (67 ft). No failure had occurred after hours when the test was discontinued.
It is evident from Example I that the spray coated fabric which had been cured was free from pin holes and was an effective barrier against hydraulic pressure for a period of 60 hours.
In Examples ll V, it is shown that (l single coating asphalt emulsion applied on 2 consecutive days or (2) single coats of cut-back asphalt applied on 2 consecutive days, failed to provide an effective barrier under comparative conditions. Also application ofa first coat (3) without and a second coat with asbestos fibers likewise failed to provide a suitable barrier. A single coating including asbestos fibers (4) provided such a barrier.
Examples VII and Vlll show the use of a capped fabric, that is, a fabric which has a coating of, say, nylon or polypropylene thereon. These fabrics also produce excellent test results against hydraulic pressure.
Reasonable variation and modification are possible within the scope of the foregoing disclosure and the appended claims of the invention, the essence of which is that there has been set forth an impervious cover structure which comprises a non-woven polyolefin fabric, mat or web fused externally on one side and placed with that side against a surface or area to be protected or rendered impervious and then covering the other side on which the surface fibers are unfused with a mix ture containing asphalt and asbestos fibers, substantially as described.
1. A method of providing a surface covering comprising a non-woven polyolefin fabric, mat or web, fused externally on one side and having unfused fiber on the other external side, which method comprises placing said polyolefin fabric, mat or web, which can be needle-punched, against a surface to be rendered impervious to fluids, the side of the fabric placed against the surface to be covered having been fused and then coating the other side of the fabric which presents unfused fibers with a mixture containing asphalt and asbestos fibers.
2. A method according to claim 1 wherein the fabric is polypropylene fabric made by needle punching together a mass of non-woven fibers and wherein the asphalt-asbestos mixture is cut-back with a sufficient amount of a solvent or oil to make the resultant blend applicable to said other external side by hot application at a temperature below that which will adversely melt said polyolefin fabric, mat or web, and the cut-back asphalt-asbestos mixture is applied to said other side at the rate of approximately 3-5 pounds per square yard of the fabric of the asphaltic mixture, and the mixture applied to said other side is allowed to cure in air at ambient temperature.