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Publication numberUS3865595 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 11, 1975
Filing dateNov 9, 1972
Priority dateNov 9, 1972
Publication numberUS 3865595 A, US 3865595A, US-A-3865595, US3865595 A, US3865595A
InventorsWatkinson Leonard James
Original AssigneeHowson Algraphy Ltd
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Lithographic printing plates
US 3865595 A
Abstract
A sheet material for bimetallic printing plate production comprises a base metal layer, a thin bimetallic layer comprising lithographically different metals, and a barrier layer between the base metal layer and the bimetallic layer. The barrier layer may be an anodic layer on the base metal layer or a film or sheet of suitable plastics material. The layers are laminated together and the barrier layer prevents corrosion by electrochemical action and by the decomposition products of the constituents of the adhesives used. Additionally, in the case where the barrier layer is of plastics material, the plate is resistant to fragmentation during printing. The sheet material may be produced in continuous lengths and results in printing plates which are relatively light in weight.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [1 1 Watkinson LITIIOGRAPHIC PRINTING PLATES [75] Inventor: Leonard James Watkinson, Leeds,

England [73] Assignee: Howson-Algraphy Limited, London,

England [22] Filed: Nov. 9, 1972 [21] Appl. No.: 304,978

[52] US. Cl 96/87 R, 96/33, 101/458, 101/459 [51] Int. Cl G03c l/78 [58] Field of Search 96/33, 86 R; 101/458, 459

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,811,734 6/1931 Trist lOl/458 3,201,239 8/1965 Neugebauer et al 96/33 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 716,402 lO/l954 Great Britain [01/459 936,913 9/1963 Great Britain 96/86 R [451 Feb. 11,1975

Primary Examiner-David Klein Attorney, Agent, or Firm--Nichol M. Sandoe 5 7 ABSTRACT A sheet material for bimetallic printing plate production comprises a base metal layer, a thin bimetallic layer comprising lithographically different metals, and a barrier layer between the base metal layer and the bimetallic layer. The barrier layer may be an anodic layer on the base metal layer or a film or sheet of suitable plastics material. The layers are laminated together and the barrier layer prevents corrosion by electrochemical action and by the decomposition products of the constituents of the adhesives used. Additionally, in the case where the barrier layer is of plastics material, the plate is resistant to fragmentation during printing. The sheet material may be produced in continuous lengths and results in printing plates which are relatively light in weight.

6 Claims, No Drawings LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTING PLATES This invention relates to lithographic printing plates and, more particularly, is concerned with bimetallic lithographic printing plates.

Bimetallic printing plates are well known and are formed from a bimetallic layer comprising a layer of relatively ink-receptive metal such as copper and a layer of a relatively water-receptive metal such as chromium or nickel. The bimetallic layer is processed in a manner such that the resultant printing plate includes printing areas formed of ink-receptive metal and nonprinting areas formed of water receptive metal. Generally, the bimetallic layer is formed on a suitable base layer e.g. of metal or of synthetic plastics material.

Generally conventional bimetallic plates are produced by a batch process and/or are heavy to handle when mounting on a printing machine.

It is one object of the present invention to provide continuous lengths of sheet material for the production of printing plates which are relatively light in weight.

In the case where the base layer is formed of metal and cracking of the layers occurs when the plate is bent, there is a risk that the plate may become fragmented during printing. This would constitute a danger to personnel in the vicinity of the printing machine and may also damage the blanket cylinder of the machine.

It is one object of the present invention to provide a bimetallic printing plate which is resistant to such fragmentation.

In the case where the base layer is formed of plastics material, problems frequently arise due to stretching of the plastics material in use of the printing plate thus causing distortion of the printing areas. Stretching is particularly likely to occur in the case of large printing plates. Thus, printing plates comprising a bimetallic layer on a plastics material base can generally only be used for producing small printing plates for use on small printing machines.

It is one object of the present invention to provide a printing plate which is resistant to stretching.

In the case where the bimetallic layer is supported on a sub-layer of a base metal such as aluminium, corrosion can occur on storage due to the formation of electro-chemical cells constituted by aluminium from the sub-layer and the relatively noble copper from the bimetallic layer. A similar effect can occur when there are used sub-layers formed of other base metals such as steel and bimetallic layers which include other relatively noble metals. Such corrosion has a detrimental effect on the quality of the copies obtained on printing.

It is one object of the present invention to provide a bimetallic printing plate in which corrosion of this type is reduced.

In the production of bimetallic printing plates, the bimetallic layer is generally laminated to the base layer using adhesives. The adhesives generally used are epoxy resins or polyurethane resins and, in practice, these adhesives frequently include methylene chloride or similar chlorinated solvent as a vehicle liquid. Methylene chloride and similar chlorinated solvents, have a tendency to form hydrochloric acid under certain conditions and particularly in the presence of light and moisture. Thus. when such adhesives are used in the production of the aforementioned laminated plates, there is a danger that hydrochloric acid will be formed on storage. The hydrochloric acid may attack the metal of the base layer and cause hydrogen evolution. As a result, the printing plate may blister. Such blistering is detrimental to the quality of the copies obtained on printing.

It is one object of the present invention to reduce the possibility of blistering occuring when using adhesives which contain compounds which tend to form hydrochloric acid.

According to the present invention there is provided a sheet material suitable for the production of a bimetallic lithographic printing plate, which sheet material comprises a. a base metal layer b. a bimetallic layer, one metal of the bimetallic layer being an ink-receptive metal and the other metal of the bimetallic layer being a water-receptive metal, and

c. an inert barrier layer between the base metal layer and the bimetallic layer.

The base metal layer may be, for example, formed of aluminium (including aluminium alloys), zinc (including zinc alloys), or tin plate. The use of aluminum or aluminum alloy is preferred because of its lightness and also because it is available in reel form and hence be laminated with the bimetallic layer in a continuous process.

The inert barrier layer may be an anodic layer formed on the base metal layer, particularly in the case where the base metal is aluminium or aluminium alloy. In this embodiment the bimetallic layer is laminated to the anodic layer on the base metal layer. In the case of aluminium or aluminium alloy, the anodic layer may be produced by anodising the base metal layer using sulphuric acid as electrolyte. The presence of the anodic barrier layer renders the base metal layer resistant to attack by any hydrochloric acid emanating from the conventionally used methylene chloride containing adhesives and also prevents the setting up of localised electrochemical cells between the base metal and the bimetallic layer. Further it seems likely that the presence of the anodic barrier layer causes a reduction in the tendency of the methylene chloride to decompose and form hydrochloride acid. In addition, the anodic layer constitutes a superior anchoring base for the adhesive used to laminate the bimetallic layer to the base metal layer.

In an alternative embodiment, the inert barrier layer may be in the form of a self-supporting film or sheet of dimensionally stable plastics material such as a linear polyester for example polyethylene terephthalate. In this embodiment, the base metal layer is laminated to one surface of the film or sheet of plastics material and the bimetallic layer is laminated to the other surface of the film or sheet of plastics material. The film or sheet of plastics material similarly prevents the setting up of localised electrochemical cells between the base metal and the bimetallic layer. In addition, bimetallic printing plates incorporating a barrier layer of plastics material in accordance with embodiment are resistant to fragmentation and stretching.

If desired the inert barrier layer may be a composite layer comprising an anodic layer on the base metal layer and a self-supporting film or sheet of dimensionally stable plastics material. In this embodiment, the anodic layer on the base metal layer is laminated to one surface of the film or sheet of plastics material and the bimetallic layer is laminated to the other surface of the film or sheet of plastics material. In this embodiment,

the resultant printing plates are resistant to fragmentation, stretching and localised electrochemical corrosion and, in the case where methylene chloride containing adhesives are used, are resistant to blistering caused by hydrochloric acid emanating from the methylene chloride.

The ink-receptive metal of the bimetallic layer is a thin layer of, for example, copper, a copper alloy such as brass, zinc, or zinc alloy and the water-receptive metal of the bimetallic layer is a thin layer of, for example, chromium, nickel, or nickel phosphide. The bimetallic layer is preferably produced by electrolytically depositing the water-receptive metal, e.g. chromium or nickel, onto a self-supporting layer of the ink-receptive metal, e.g. copper, which has itself been produced by electrodeposition. It is possible to produce the sheet material of the present invention in a continuous economical manner by laminating together a contimuous foil of base metal such as aluminium or alloy thereof (which may be anodised as appropriate), a continuous film or sheet of plastics material as appropriate and a continuous bimetallic foil. The continuous sheet material can then be cut as desired and processed to form readily handleable printing plates.

Preferably, the bimetallic layer is such that the inkreceptive layer is nearer to the barrier layer so that the water-receptive layer of the bimetallic layer constitutes an outer layer. Alternatively, the water-receptive layer may be nearer to the barrier layer so that the inkreceptive layer constitutes an outer layer.

The base metal layer may be of thickness from, for example, about 0.005 to 0.015 of an inch, and the thickness of the barrier layer of plastics material, if present, may be from, for example, about 0.001 to 0.015 of an inch. in accordance with the present invention the base metal layer, the barrier layer of plastics material, if present, and the lower layer of the bimetallic layer are laminated together using an adhesive. The adhesive may be based on, for example, an epoxy resin or a polyurethane.

In use of the sheet material to form a lithographic printing plate, a radiation-sensitive material may be applied to the free surface of the bimetallic layer to form a radiation-sensitive plate. The radiation-sensitive material may be applied to a continuous length of the sheet material in a continuous manner. The radiationsensitive material used may be one which becomes insoluble on exposure to light or other appropriate radiation. For example, such radiation-sensitive material may be a dichromated gum arabic or dichromated polyvinyl alcohol materialor a radiation-sensitive material suitable for the production of a presensitised plate such as a diazosensitised polyvinyl alcohol. Alternatively, the radiation-sensitive material used may be one which becomes more soluble on exposure to light or other appropriate radiation such as the quinone-diazide type of materials disclosed in our copending British Patent application No. 37485/67 (Ser. No. 1,243,963). By suitably image-wise exposing and developing the radiationsensitive coating of the plate to form a resist on the outer surface of the bimetallic layer and then etching away the outer layer of the bimetallic layer to reveal the underlying layer in those areas not protected by the resist, a positive image constituted by the ink-receptive matal of the bimetallic layer can be produced in a manner known per se.

The following Examples illustrate the invention EXAMPLE 1 A layer of chromium 1.4 microns thick was electroplated onto one side of a film of electrolytic copper of thickness about 1.5 thousandths of inch. The resultant bimetallic layer was then laminated to a film of Mylar (polyethylene terephthalate) one half of a thousandth of an inch thick using an epoxy resin based adhesive so that the copper surface of the bimetallic layer was adjacent to the Mylar. Thereafter, a sheet of aluminium l0 thousandths of an inch thick was laminated to the other surface of the Mylar film using an epoxy resin adhesive.

The chromium outer surface of the resultant sheet material was coated in a conventional manner with a dichromated gum arabic light-sensitive material. The light-sensitive layer was then exposed to a positive original so that the light-struck areas of the light-sensitive material became relatively insoluble. The exposure was carried out in a printing down frame using a 50 amp carbon are light source for 5 minutes at a distance of 3 feet. The image-wise exposed coating was then swabbed with an aqueous solution of calcium and zinc chlorides to remove the non-light struck areas of the coating and reveal the chromium surface underlying these areas. The revealed chromium surface was then etched away using an etch solution containing hydrochloric acid to reveal the copper layer underlying the chromium. Thereafter, the resist constituted by the light-struck areas of the light-sensitive coating were removed by soaking with water and scrubbing. There was thus obtained a bimetallic lithographic printing plate comprising a positive printing image constituted by the copper revealed when the overlying chromium had been removed and non-printing areas constituted by the chromium surface protected by the resist during the etching. The resultant printing plate was dimensionally stable and there was no evidence of corrsion on storage.

EXAMPLE 2 A sheet material was prepared in a manner similar to that described in Example 1. In this case, however, the thickness of the polyethylene terephthalate film was ten thousandths of an inch. The chromium outer surface of the sheet material was then coated with a lightsensitive coating solution formed by dissolving 3 g. of 2,3,4-trihydroxy benzophenone naphthoquinone- (l,2)-diazide-(2)-5-sulphonic acid ester and 10 g. of meta cresol-formaldehyde novolak resin in a mixture of cc of glycol monomethyl eter and 20 cc of butyl acetate. The resultant light-sensitive coating was imagewise exposed under a negative original whereby the light-struck areas became relatively more soluble in alkaline. These areas were removed by developing using trisodium phosphate solution and the underlying chromium surface revealed was then etched away using an etchant containing hydrochloric acid until the underlying copper had been revealed. the non-light-struck areas which consitituted a resist during the etching step were then exposed to light and removed with trisodium phosphate solution. There was thus obtained a lithographic printing plate comprising a positive copper printing image and non-printing areas constituted by the chromium revealed after the resist had been removed. The plate was dimensionally stable and there was no evidence of corrosion on storage.

EXAMPLE 3 A sheet of cleaned and degreased aluminium was immersed in 25% v/v aqueous solution of 1.75 8.0. ortho phosphoric acid. The sheet was then connected up in a circuit as the anode, the cathode being made of lead, and a current having a density of 1.5 amperes per square decimetre of anode was passed through the sheet for 8 minutes whilst the electrolyte was maintained at a temperature of 30C. The anodised sheet, which had a thickness of about ten thousandths of an inch, was then rinsed with water and dried.

A proprietary bimetallic layer consisting of chromium electrolytically deposited onto 1 ounce copper foil was laminated to a film of Mylar (polyethylene terephthalate) one half of one thousandth of an inch thick using an epoxy resin based adhesive so that the copper surface of the bimetallic layer was adjacent to the Mylar. The other surface of the Mylar film was then laminated to the anodised surface of the aluminium using the expoxy resin adhesive. The adhesive used included methylene chloride as vehicle liquid. The resultant sheet material was stored for a considerable period and no evidence was found of any blistering.

The chromium outer surface of the above sheet material was coated in a conventional manner with a dichromated gum arabic light-sensitive material. The light-senstive layer was then exposed to a positive original so that the light-struck areas of the light'sensitive material became relatively insoluble. The exposure was carried out in a printing down frame using 50 amp car bon are light source for 5 minutes at a distance of 3 feet. The image-wise exposed coating was then swabbed with an aqueous solution of calcium and zinc chlorides to remove the non-light-struck areas of the coating and reveal the chromium surface underlying these areas. The revealed surface was then etched away using an etch comprising hydrochloric acid to reveal the copper layer underlying the chromium. Thereafter the resist constituted by the light-struck areas of the light-sensitive coating were removed by soaking with water and scrubbing. There was thus obtained a bimetallic lithographic printing plate comprising a positive printing image constituted by the copper revealed when the overlying chromium had been removed and non-printing areas constituted by the areas of the chromium surface protected by the resist during the etching. The resultant printing plate produced very many accurate copies of the positive original.

EXAMPLE 4 A sheet of cleaned and degreased aluminium was immersed in sulphuric acid solution. The sheet was connected up as the anode in an electrical circuit and a current was passed through the sheet for 8 minutes at 12 volts whilst the electrolyte was maintained at a temperatrue of C. The anodised sheet was then rinsed with water and dried.

A proprietary bimetallic layer consisting of chromium electrolytically deposited onto 1 ounce copper foil was laminated to the anodised surface of the aluminium so that the copper surface of the bimetallic layer was adjacent to the anodised surface. The adhesive used was a polyurethane resin based adhesive containing methylene chloride as vehicle liquid. The resultant sheet material was stored for a considerable period with no visible signs of any blistering or corrosion.

The chromium outer surface or the sheet material was then coated with the light-sensitive coating solution used in Example 2. The resultant light-sensitive coating was image-wise exposed under a negative original whereby the light-struck areas became relatively more soluble in alkaline. The areas were removed by developing using trisodium phosphate solution and the underlying chromium surface revealed was then etched away using an etchant containing hydrochloric acid until the underlying copper had been revealed. The non-light-struck areas which constituted a resist during the etching step were then exposed to light and removed with trisodium phosphate solution. There was thus obtained a lithographic printing plate comprising a positive copper printing image and non-printing areas constituted by the chromium revealed after the resist had been removed. The plate provided many accurate copies of the negative original.

EXAMPLE 5 A foil of electrolytic copper alloy 0.0005 inch thick was electroplated with a layer of clean matt surfaced chromium approximately 0.0001 inch thick. The resultant bi-metallic layer was laminated to a sheet of commercial grade aluminium alloy 0.011 inch thick and having a surface which had been anodised using sulphuric acid electrolyte so that the copper alloy layer was adjacent to the anodic layer. Care was taken to keep the chromium surface clean during this operation. A layer of positive working light sensitive resin as described in British Patent No. 1.243.963 was then applied to the chromium surface of the resultant sheet material. When thoroughly dry the light sensitive plate obtained was exposed to ultra violet and blue light whilst located beneath a suitable line positive reproduction of an original pen-and-ink drawing. After 4% minutes exposure, the plate was removed from the exposing frame and developed by rubbing with an aqueous alkaline solution having a pH of 12.0. After two applications of developer to completely remove the exposed resin layer, the plate was thoroughly washed with water and a 5% v/v solution of phosphoric acid in a similarly concentrated aqueous solution of gum arabic was applied. I V

The resultant printing plate was placed on an offset printing machine and found capable of producing high quality copies of the original drawing. There was no evidence of corrosion on storage.

EXAMPLE 6 A light sensitive plate as produced in Example 5 was similarly exposed beneath a dot structured negative reproduction of a pictorial scene. The plate was developed, washed and dried in a darkened workroom. The plate was then etched with a strong chromium etch containing hydrochloric acid as supplied by l-lowson- Algraphy Limited. Several applications accompanied by steady agitation for approximately 4 minutes were sufficient to remove the chromium from the areas which had been previously struck by light beneath the negative.

The printing plate was completed by washing with water and drying, exposing the resist to actinic light, removing the exposed resist with alkaline developer, and desensitisingthe remaining chromium as in Example 5. Initially, the printing image was reluctant to accept ink but after treatment with copper sensitiser in the normal manner the plate yielded 178,000 excellent copies on a web-offset machine. The plate was then examined by the printer who pronounced it suitable for re-use at a future date. There was no evidence of corrosion on storage.

EXAMPLE 7 A bimetallic layer as described in Example was laminated so that its copper surface was adjacent to a 0.0005 inch thick film of polyethylene-terephthalate which had previously been laminated to a 0.018 inch thick sheet of smooth zinc. The chromium surface was protected from dirt prior to lamination by coating it with a dilute solution of gum arabic and allowing this to dry. There was no evidence of corrosion on storage.

After a few weeks a sample of the above sheet material was taken from stock and used in the following traditional manner to make a lithographic printing plate. The sheet material was cleaned with dilute acetic acid, washed and whirler coated with a proprietory light sensitive material comprising poly(vinyl alcohol), ammonium dichromate and water to form a light sensitive plat. When dry, an assembly oflith film positives was reproduced on the plate by exposing the plate to actinic light whilst in contact with the assembly. The exposed plate was developed with water, dried and staged and then the exposed chromium layer was etched away. To complete the plate the etch was washed off, the resist was removed using a solution containing sodium periodate, the revealed chromium surface was desensitised, and the copper alloy image made hydrophobic in the customary manner.

The resultant plate was positioned on the cylinder of an offset printing press and 220,000 satisfactory copies obtained.

EXAMPLE 8 An electrolytic copper alloy foil of thickness 0.0005 inch was laminated to an 0.008 inch thick sheet of polyethylene terephthalate and thenelectroplated with a thin layer of matt chromium. The free surface of the polyethylene terephthalate was laminated to the anodised surface of a sulphuric acid anodised aluminium sheet.

The clean chromium surface of the resultant sheet material was coated with a light sensitive layer comprising gum arabic and ammonium dichromate, as in the conventional deep-etch process" frequently described in the publications of the Graphic Arts Technical Foundation of America. The deep-etch process was carried out using a suitable positive and an etchant containing hydrochloric acid was used to remove the chromium revealed on development. The copper alloy image was made ink receptive with copper sensitiser in known mannner. After the chromium areas had been desensitised and wetted with water, ink was applied to the copper alloy image. An accurate ink receptive reproduction of the positive was observed.

When mounted on a small offset printing machine no difficulty was experienced in obtaining satisfactory prints.

EXAMPLE 9 A bimetallic layer as described in Example 5 was laminated to the anodised surface of a manganesecontaining aluminium alloy (known as 3S) which had been anodised in sulphuric acid. The lamination was effected so that the copper alloy face was uppermost and the chromium face was adjacent the anodic layer.

The photomechanical procedure used in the previous Example was repeated using a line negative instead of a positive. At the appropriate stage the revealed areas of copper alloy were removed by an etch containing hydrochloric acid and ferric chloride to create an image.

on the chromium surfaced anodised aluminium support.

When the respective areas were desensitised and made ink receptive in the manner previously indicated. the resultant image was examined and found suitable for use. The plate was placed in an offset printing machine and 20,000 copies taken from it. It was then reexamined and found to be in excellent condition.

I claim:

1. A sheet material suitable for the production of a bimetallic lithographic printing plate, which sheet material comprises a. a base metal layer formed of alunimum or aluminum alloy.

b. a bimetallic layer, one metal of the bimetallic layer being an ink-receptive metal and the other metal of the bimetallic .layer being a waterreceptive metal, and

c. an anodic layer on the base metal layer to form an electrically insulating barrier layer between the base metal layer and the bimetallic layer 2. A sheet material as claimed in claim 1, wherein the bimetallic layer is laminated to the anodic layer of the base metal layer by means of an epoxy resin or polyurethane adhesive.

3. A sheet material as claimed in claim I, wherein the ink-receptive metal is copper, copper alloy, zinc or zinc alloy and the water-receptive metal is chromium or nickel.

4. A sheet material as claimed in claim 1, wherein the ink-receptive metal is in the form of an electrolytically produced layer and the water-receptive metal is in the form of an electrolytically produced layer.

5. A sheet material as claimed in claim 1 and further comprising a layer of radiation-sensitive material on the free surface of the bimetallic layer.

6. A sheet material as claimed in claim 5, wherein the radiation-sensitive material is a quinone-diazide based material.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1811734 *Apr 8, 1927Jun 23, 1931William Y DearPlanographic printing plate having mercurialized ink refusing areas for photomechanical printing
US3201239 *Sep 1, 1960Aug 17, 1965Azoplate CorpEtchable reproduction coatings on metal supports
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3958994 *Aug 26, 1974May 25, 1976American Hoechst CorporationAluminum-zinc alloy, polyvinylphosphonic acid coating
US3979212 *Oct 4, 1974Sep 7, 1976Printing Developments, Inc.Laminated lithographic printing plate
US4008084 *Apr 25, 1975Feb 15, 1977Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Metallic image forming material
US4022619 *Apr 14, 1975May 10, 1977Printing Developments, Inc.Aluminum chloride, phosphoric acid, reducing agent, specific gravity
US4049453 *Jun 14, 1976Sep 20, 1977Printing Developments, Inc.Composite developer-etch composition for chromium-plated lithographic printing plates
US4136615 *Sep 23, 1977Jan 30, 1979The Dow Chemical CompanyPattern plate of composite structure
US4287288 *Feb 8, 1979Sep 1, 1981Rhone-Poulenc-GraphicComprising passivation, electroplating a chromium layer, and coating with a photosensitive material
US5366784 *Feb 3, 1993Nov 22, 1994Herbison Paul RPrinting blanket containing particles of sacrificial metal in electrochemical contact with cylinder surface, for corrosion of sacrificial metal instead of cylinder metal
US6238839Aug 22, 2000May 29, 2001Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Dimensionally stable metal support coated with a heat-insulating layer, a hydrophilic layer and a thermosensitive lipophilic layer; image quality, multicolor prints
US7118848 *Apr 2, 2002Oct 10, 2006Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Support for lithographic printing plate and original forme for lithographic printing plate
EP0609941A2 *Jan 26, 1994Aug 10, 1994AGFA-GEVAERT naamloze vennootschapA heat mode recording material and method for making a lithographic plate
EP1078736A1 *Aug 24, 2000Feb 28, 2001Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Lithographic printing plate precursor
Classifications
U.S. Classification430/166, 430/155, 430/276.1, 101/458, 101/459, 430/158, 430/278.1, 430/302
International ClassificationB41N1/10, B41N1/00
Cooperative ClassificationB41N1/10
European ClassificationB41N1/10
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Nov 20, 1990ASAssignment
Owner name: E. I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS AND COMPANY, WILMINGTON,
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:HOWSON-ALGRAPHY LIMITED, AN ENGLISH COMPANY;REEL/FRAME:005513/0393
Effective date: 19890711
Nov 20, 1990AS02Assignment of assignor's interest
Owner name: E. I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS AND COMPANY, WILMINGTON,
Effective date: 19890711
Owner name: HOWSON-ALGRAPHY LIMITED, AN ENGLISH COMPANY