|Publication number||US3866832 A|
|Publication date||Feb 18, 1975|
|Filing date||Dec 27, 1973|
|Priority date||Dec 27, 1973|
|Publication number||US 3866832 A, US 3866832A, US-A-3866832, US3866832 A, US3866832A|
|Original Assignee||Noguchi Fountain And Plaza Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (12), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent [191 Noguchi 1 Feb. 18, 1975 l l NOZZLE ASSEMBLY FOR PRODUCING AN INTERNALLY ILLUMINATED WATER COLUMN  Inventor: Isamu Noguchi, Long Island City,
 Assignee: Noguchi Fountain and Plaza, Inc.,
221 Filed: Dec. 27, 1973 21 Appl. No.: 428,749
Primary Examiner-Lloyd L. King Assistant Examiner-Randolph A. Reese  ABSTRACT A nozzle assembly for producing an internally illuminated, coherent column of water for a fountain. The assembly is constituted by a flow tube having a water inlet and a core piece concentrically mounted within the tube by means of a laterally extending pedestal to define an annular flow passage interrupted by the pedestal. The resultant hollow column of water discharged from the mouth of the nozzle has a longitudinal slot therein whose width is determined by the geometry of the pedestal, the slot exposing the interior of the column to the atmosphere, thereby preventing the collapse of the column that otherwise would occur because of vacuum forces. The core piece has a cuplike formation and houses a light source which projects a light beam through the hollow of the water column.
10 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures PATENTEB FEB l 8&975
NOZZLE ASSEMBLY FOR PRODUCING AN INTERNALLY ILLUMINATED WATER COLUMN BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates generally to water fountains, and more particularly to a nozzle assembly adapted to project a coherent column of internally illuminated water.
The use of water fountains for display purposes in conjunction with architectural forms and sculpture has a long history, extending back in time to the ancient Greeks and Romans. In modern fountains, the play of water has often been combined with lighting to produce decorative displays, some of which are highly complex. In other instances, the height of the various water jets in an array thereof as well as the lighting effects are modulated in accordance with a predetermined program to produce display fountain patterns which are almost symphonic in character.
In designing a water fountain one often seeks to create upwardly or downwardly projecting linear columns of water of extended length. Such columns are highly dramatic, particularly if they are brilliantly illuminated. There are, however, a number of practical problems which make it difficult to generate coherent columns of water free of turbulence, these problems arising when the columns are designed to have an impressive diameter.
Because a column of water having a large diameter requires a large flow volume, this imposes a heavy load on the pumps associated with the column-producing nozzle. The resultant need for high capacity pumps substantially increases the cost and the energy requirements of the system. One obvious way of creating a seemingly thick column of water while minimizing the volume requirements therefore, is to generate a hollow water column, but then other difficulties are encountered.
Though it is possible to project a thin stream of water at high velocity to create a coherent jet, should one desire to produce a relatively large hollow column of water, it becomes virtually impossible to maintain the coherence of the column. When the water column formation is made hollow to reduce the necessary volume of water, the hollow core which is isolated from the atmosphere tends to create a vacuum, causing the column to converge and collapse.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In view of the foregoing, it is the main object of this invention to provide a nozzle assembly adapted to project a coherent column of water which is free of turbulence. A significant feature of the invention is that it makes it possible to produce highly dramatic water columns of large diameter that require a relatively small volume of water to sustain.
More particularly, it is an object of the invention to provide an integrated and compact nozzle assembly of the abovetype, incorporating a light source adapted to project a beam of light which is directed through the hollow interior of a water stream ejected by the nozzle, whereby the column is internally illuminated.
Also it is an object of the invention to provide a nozzle assembly which ejects a hollow column of water having a longitudinal slot therealong that exposes the interior of the column to the atmosphere to prevent the collapse of the column, the slot also functioning as a light outlet to create a stripe of intense light along the water column.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a nozzle core piece which functions to introduce a slot in the hollow water column projected therefrom without causing turbulence in the water flow.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide an integrated nozzle assembly which operates efficiently and reliably, and which may be manufactured and operated at low cost.
Briefly stated, these objects are accomplished in an assembly constituted by a cylindrical flow tube having a water inlet and a core piece concentrically mounted within the tube to define an annular flow passage interrupted by the lateral mounting pedestal of the core piece, whereby the hollow column of water discharged from the mouth of the nozzle has a longitudinal slot therein whose width is determined by the geometry of the pedestal.
This slot exposes the hollow exterior of the column to the atmosphere to prevent the collapse of the column that otherwise would occur because of vacuum forces. The core piece has a cup-like formation and houses a light source which projects a light beam through the hollow of the water column. The head of the core piece has a concave depression therein which serves to establish a mound of relatively static water, serving to cushion the impact of incoming water, thereby minimizing turbulence that otherwisewould result upon such impact.
OUTLINE OF THE DRAWING For a better understanding of the invention as well as other objects and further features thereof, reference is made to the following detailed description to be read in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a transverse view of a nozzle assembly according to the invention, taken in the plane indicated by line l1 in FIG. 2,
FIG. 2 is a longitudinal view of the assembly taken in the plane indicated by line 22 in FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is an end view of the nozzle.
FIG. 4 is a longitudinal view taken in the plane indicated by line 4-4 in FIG. 3,
FIG. 5 is a perspective view of the core piece of the nozzle assembly,
FIG. 6 is a sketch showing how incoming water impinges on the head of the core piece, and
FIG. 7 schematically shows the illuminated water column ejected from the nozzle assembly.
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Referring now to the drawing and more particularly to FIGS. 1 to 4, there is shown a nozzle assembly in accordance with the invention, the assembly including a flow tube generally designated by numeral 10, and a core piece generally designated by numeral 11.
Flow tube 10 is provided with a mounting flange 12 which is attachable to the output of a water line or water pump (not shown), a constricted inlet section 13, and a cylindrical main section 14. The core piece 11, which has a generally cylindrical'form, is concentrically mounted within the main section 14 of the flow tube by means of a segment-shaped pedestal l5. Screws l6 and 17 which enter the pedestal serve to secure the core piece to the flow tube.
Thus the annular passage P which is defined in the space between the core piece 11 and the main section 14 of the flow tube is interrupted by pedestal 15 to an extent depending on the geometry of the pedestal. Thus the passage occupies about 315 degrees of the 360 inner wall of the flow tube. Because of the taper of the pedestal, the passage takes up about 340 of the 360 outer wall of the core piece. These degree values are not critical and are given only by way of example.
The rounded head 11A of the core piece faces the inlet. Because of the constricted inlet section 13, a Venturi effect is produced, causing incoming fluid to expand toward the annular passage and minimizing the impact of the incoming fluid against the rounded head 11A of the core piece.
The direct impact of a high velocity fluid against the head of the core piece would give rise to turbulence that would, unless corrected, disturb the coherence of the water column. Ideally, the fluid flow through the annular nozzle passage P should be laminar, not turbulent, and one must therefore minimize the flow discontinuity introduced by the core piece. In order to reduce the impact force of the incoming water against the head 1 1A of the core piece, the head is provided with a concave indentation or depression 118. The leading edge 15A of the associated pedestal 15 is sloped (about 30) toward depression 11B to avoid an abrupt flow discontinuity and to direct incoming water toward the depression.
Because depression 118 acts effectively as a water trap that resists flow, a mound of relatively static water is developed over the depression, as shown schematically in FIG. 6. This mount acts as a cushion to soften the impact of incoming water on the head of the core piece and to deflect the flow toward the annular passage in the nozzle, thereby obviating the turbulence that would otherwise result.
The core piece 11 has a cup-like formation defining a light bulb housing, a reflector-type electric bulb 18 being received within a fixture 19 mounted within the core piece. The bulb is powered by means ofa cable 20 passing through a bore in the pedestal of the core piece. Since the core piece shields the bulb andthe pedestal protects the supply cable, the lighting system, despite the fact that it is disposed within the nozzle, is maintained in a dry state.
Thus as shown in FIG. 7, emitted from the interrupted annular passage formed in the nozzle assembly is a hollow column 21 of water having a longitudinally extending slot 22 therein which exposes the hollow interior of the column to the atmosphere. This slot acts to prevent the creation of a vacuum and the resultant covergence of the water and the collapse of the column that otherwise would occur in the absence of the slot. Had a vacuum been created, the water forming the column would be forced inwardly by atmospheric pressure to fill the hollow core, and the column would therefore not be sustained. But with the longitudinal slot, no pressure differential is established between the interior and exterior of the column and its coherence is maintained.
Inasmuch as the beam 23 of light rays projected from lamp 18 is directed through the hollow column of water, the beam does not fan out but remains concentrated, in that internal reflection within the water column prevents dispersion of the light rays. As a consequence,'the column of water is internally illuminated to afford unique display effects not heretofore possible with externally illuminated water jets. In practice, a condenser lens may be mounted within the core piece to concentrate the light beam. Because the water column has a C-shaped cross-section, theh interior surface thereof has a concave configuration and acts as a reflector to direct light toward the open slot, thereby creating an intense light stripe extending the full length of the column. By proper orientation of the nozzle, the light stripe may be so placed as to enhance the dramatic effect of the column.
With an array of nozzle assemblies of the type dis closed herein, each having its own light source and each controlled by a separate valve, it becomes possible to create highly variegated display effects formed by distinct coherent columns of water of extended height, each column being individually illuminated.
It is also possible by the use of light dimmers acting in conjunction with quartz-halogen or other types of lamps which, depending on the applied voltage, change from a pure white output to shades of yellow, to vary the color of the water column. Because the light source and the nozzle are integrated into a compact structure, the assemblies may be combined in tight clusters to produce multi-colored clustered water columns.
While there has been shown and described preferred embodiments of the invention, it will be appreciated that many changes and modifications may be made without, however, departing from the essential spirit of the invention.
1. A nozzle assembly for producing a coherent column of water comprising:
A. a flow tube having a water inlet,
B. a core piece coaxially mounted within the tube by a laterally-extending pedestal to create a longitudinal slot in the hollow water column emitted from the mouth of the flow tube to expose the interior of the column to the atmosphere, the head of the core piece which faces said inlet being rounded to minimize the impact of water thereon.
2. A nozzle assembly asset forth in claim 1, further including a light source disposed within the core piece to produce a beam of light which is directed through said hollow to illuminate the water column.
3. A nozzle assembly as set forth in claim 2, wherein said beam of light is produced by a reflector-type bulb.
4. A nozzle assembly as set forth in claim 2, wherein said light source is a bulb associated with an external dimmer to change the color of light emitted by the bulb.
5. An assembly as set forth in claim 4, wherein said bulb is of the quartz-halogen type.
6. An assembly as set forth in claim 1, wherein said head is provided with a concave depression to create a mound of water cushioning said impact.
7. A nozzle assembly as set forth in claim 1, wherein said inlet is provided with a mounting flange and a constricted pipe section leading to an enlarged cylindrical main section within which the core piece is mounted.
8. A nozzle assembly as set forth in claim 7, wherein said core piece has a generally cylindrical form and is concentrically mounted within the main section of the flow tube, the leading edge of said pedestal being sloped to minimize the impact of water thereon.
9. A nozzle assembly as set forth in claim 1, wherein the geometry of said pedestal produces a 45 interrupsaid pedestal is segment-shaped and converges toward tion in said annular passage at the inner wall of said said core piece. flow tube.
10. A nozzle assembly as set forth in claim 9, wherein
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|WO1985005167A1 *||May 6, 1985||Nov 21, 1985||Herman Paulus Maria Kessener||Liquid outlet adapted to provide lighting effects and/or for illumination|
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|International Classification||F21S8/00, F21V9/10|
|Cooperative Classification||F21W2121/02, F21S8/00, F21V9/10|