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Publication numberUS3867065 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 18, 1975
Filing dateJul 16, 1973
Priority dateJul 16, 1973
Also published asCA986418A, CA986418A1
Publication numberUS 3867065 A, US 3867065A, US-A-3867065, US3867065 A, US3867065A
InventorsRichard J Schaller, Thomas J Rahaim, Jr Claude R Booher
Original AssigneeWestinghouse Electric Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Ceramic insulator for a gas turbine blade structure
US 3867065 A
Abstract
A stationary ceramic three-piece blade structure for gas turbines has an annularly shaped ceramic insulator disposed on its outer periphery. An annularly shaped ceramic insulator is disposed on the inner side of the inner periphery of the blade structure. The ceramic insulators maintain required heat patterns within the three-piece ceramic blade members. The ceramic insulators also prevent heat and thermal gradients from damaging the three piece stationary blade structure and the metal members which surround and support the stationary blade structure in the turbine.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

tlnite States Patent Schaller et al.

[ 1 Feb. 18,1975

[54]. CERAMIC INSULATOR FOR A GAS 3,635,577 1/1972 Dee 415/214 TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURE FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS [75] Inventors: gl lchar lsz a m a; 1 723,505 2/1955 Great Britain 415/214 omas a aim, aymont, De Claude R. Booher, Jr., West OTHER PUBLICATIONS Chester, Pa. Publication; Ceramics"-Key to the Hot Turbine Gas [73] Assigneez Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Turbme lnternat1onal, Jan-Feb. 1973, pages 30-36 Plttsburgh Primary ExaminerHenry F. Raduazo [22] Filed: July 16, 1973 Attorney, Agent, or Firm-F. J. Baehr, Jr. [21] Appl. No.: 379,677

[57] ABSTRACT [52] U S Cl HS/214 415017 HS/219 R A stationary ceramic three-piece blade structure for [5]] Fold 9/02 gas turbines has an annularly shaped ceramic insulator [58] Fic'ld 216 217 disposed on its outer periphery. An annularly shaped k 4]5/219 ceramic insulator is disposed on the inner side of the inner periphery of the blade structure. The ceramic insulators maintain required heat patterns within the [56] References Cited three-piece ceramic blade members. The ceramic in- UNITED STATES PATENTS sulators also prevent heat and thermal gradients from 2,341,664 2/1944 Schutte 415/214 damaging the three piece stationary blade structure Bodger 1 and the meta] members urround and upport w the stationary blade structure in the turbine. arn en 3,118,593 1/1964 Robinson et al 415/214 2 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures --L s, A v- Z q l l8 l9 28 \l A s CERAMIC INSULATOR FOR A GAS TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURE The invention herein described was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder, with the Department of the Army.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates generally to gas turbines, and more particularly to ceramic insulators disposed about a plurality of radially directed stationary ceramic threepiece blade structures in a gas turbine for reducing any damaging properties of heat that may effect the blade structures, and their metal support members.

2. Description of the Prior Art The efficiency of gas turbines can be increased markedly over present turbomachines, by increasing the hot motive fluid working temperature. To operate at high temperatures; however, components within and surrounding the hot motive fluid flow path, must be able to withstand very high temperatures. These temperatures are in the vicinity of 2,500F. Turbine designers have created turbine blades using ceramic materials which can withstand this high temperature. Supporting end caps of ceramic material are also necessary to withstand the high temperatures and to maintain the ceramic blades in place. However, these ceramic end caps do not provide enough insulation to prevent the high temperatures of the motive fluid from effecting the surrounding metal components, and some means is also needed to prevent large thermal gradients from damaging the end caps themselves. Cooling air, at temperatures of 650F, for cooling the supporting metal structure, is used to reduce the damaging effects of the heat emanating from the hot motive fluid flow path. This means a temperature drop of l,85()F between the inside hot face ofthe supporting ceramic end caps and the adjacent metal structure in which the end caps are supported. Severe thermal distortions will take place in the end caps, due to the high linear and nonlinear thermal gradients within the end caps. The supporting elements will also be affected by the high temperatures and non-linear thermal gradients. The high temperatures and thermal distortions will cause the metal components near the hot motive fluid path to have a short life.

Accordingly, it is one object of the present invention to provide a novel and improved insulating structure around the ceramic blades in a gas turbine.

It is another object of the invention to provide a novel and improved structure for maintaining metal components near the hot motive fluid path at lower temperatures and in a non-distorted state.

Accordingly, it is one object of the present invention to provide a novel and improved insulating structure around the ceramic blades in a gas turbine.

It is another object of the invention to provide a novel and improved structure for maintaining metal components of gas turbine at lower temperatures and in a non-distorted state.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with this invention, the turbine is provided with an annular row of ceramic blades, each blade having ceramic inner and ceramic outer supporting end caps, and a metal shroud structure supporting the end cap members. The shroud structure consists of an annular series of arcuate segments which are on the outermost portion of the radially outward end caps and an annular series of arcuate segments which are on the innermost portion of the radially inward end caps. The shroud members are arranged in end-to-end abutment with each other. An insulating member is disposed on the blade side of each inner and outer shroud and adjacent the shrouds. The insulating member which is made from a ceramic insulating material may be comprised of a generally uniform ceramic material, or it may have a directionally oriented fibrous ceramic material i-nter- I woven within the ceramic body insulator member. The ceramic insulator is actually a portion of the shroud. The ceramic material insulator portion of the shroud member has low thermal conductivity compared to the thermal conductivity of the ceramic blades and the supporting ceramic end caps.

The temperature drop across the ceramic insulator is large, and therefore it will extend the life of the ceramic end caps and blades by minimizing non-linear thermal gradients within the blades and caps and it will extend the life of the supporting metal shrouds and turbine components disposed about the ceramic insulator in the gas turbine by reducing the heat flow to those components;

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Reference may be had to the following drawings for a better understanding of the nature and the objects of the invention, in which:

FIG. 1 is a' radial sectional view of a portion of an inner and an outer shroud comprising fibrous ceramic insulators, with a plurality of ceramic blades and supporting end caps therebetween, constructed according to the principles of this invention; and,

FIG. 2 is a view in perspective, of a portion of a bladed structure showing the fibrous ceramic insulators.

FIG. 3 is a radial sectional view similar to FIG. 1 showing the invention using solid ceramic insulators.

FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. .2 showing the invention using solid ceramic insulators.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to the drawings in detail, and particularly to FIG. 1, there is shown a portion of a turbine diaphragm structure 10, comprising an annularly disposed inner shroud member 12, an annularly disposed outer shroud member 14, and a plurality of radially extending stationary ceramic blades 16, each blade having a radially inner end 17 and a radially outer end 19, supported and disposed therebetween. Although the entire diaphragm structure 10 is not shown, it will be understood that the shroud members, 12 and 14, are of circular cross section, and the blades 16 are arranged in an annular circumferential array between the inner and outer shroud members.

The ceramic blades 16 each have a ceramic supporting end cap 18 at both their radially inner end 17 and their radially outer end 19. A ceramic insulator 20 is annularly disposed radially inwardly of the inner ceramic end caps 18, between the inner end cap 18 and a metal portion 22 of the inner shroud member 12. The overall inner ceramic insulator 20 may comprise a plurality of arcuate segments 21 in end to end abutment with each other, while still maintaining their circumferential disposition. The arrangement of the outer shroud member 14 may be the same as that for the inner shroud member 12. A ceramic insulator 24 is annularly disposed radially outwardly of the outer ceramic end caps 18. The overall outer ceramic insulator 24 may also comprise a plurality of arcuate segments 23 in end to end abutment with each other, while still maintaining their circumferential disposition. The outer ceramic insulator 24 is disposed between the outer end caps 18 and a metal portion 26 of the outer shroud 14.

One embodiment of the ceramic insulators, 20 and 24, comprises a ceramic fiber 28, interwoven within the ceramic insulator members, 20 and 24, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. The ceramic fiber 28 may be comprised of zirconium oxide, fused quartz or fused silica. The ceramic fiber 28 reinforces the ceramic insulators 20 and 24, and/or the ceramic fiber 28 may give a directional preference to certain properties of the ceramic material. For example, the ceramic fiber 28 may have a specific weave to give the insulator members, 20 and 24, a low thermal conductivity in the radial direction thereby causing a reduction in the heat loss from the hot motive fluid flow path, and also causing a reduction in the thermal gradients across the end caps 18 that support the ceramic blades 16. Additionally, a ceramic fiber 28 interwoven within the ceramic insulators, 20 and 24, would allow the insulators, 20 and 24, to be more compatible to thermal distortions than would a solid insulator, and therefore, would be less susceptible to thermal bending stresses.

As also shown more clearly in FIG. 2, a hole 29 is disposed within the insulators, 20 and 24, radially inwardly of and radially outwardly of each of the end caps 18, as part of an arrangement for providing a compressive force upon the ceramic blade 16 and the ceramic end caps 18. Holes 29 that are disposed in the ceramic insulator members, 20 and 24, that have a fibrous ceramic material 28 interwoven therein, are not as critical from a point of view of stress concentrations as are solid ceramic insulator members, 20 and 24, without any ceramic fiber 28 woven therein, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4.

The diaphragm structure 10, shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, is similar to the diaphragm structure 10 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, except that the FIGS. 3 and 4 show insulators, 20 and 24, that do not include any fibrous ceramic 28 therein; that is, they are generally a solid uniform ceramic. The embodiment shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 also do not have holes in the insulators, 20 and 24. The solid non-fibrous ceramic insulators 20 and 24 may be comprised of lithium aluminum silicate. The non-fibrous insulators, 20 and 24, are characterized by low thermal stresses, high wear resistance and load bearing capabilities.

The purpose of the fibrous or solid non-fibrous ceramic insulator members, 20 and 24, is however, to provide a large temperature drop between each ceramic end cap 18 and the metal portions, 22 and 26, of the inner and outer shroud members, 12 and 14. A large temperature drop is required because the stationary ceramic blades 16 and the ceramic end caps 18 may be constructed from silicon carbide, SiC, or silicon nitride, Si N both of which have a thermal conductivity (K) of about 10 to 65 BTU/hr.-ft.-F, for a temperature range from 2,500F down to ambient temperature. Temperatures of about 2,5 F will be necessary in the stationary inlet vanes of gas turbines if they are to achieve a high efficiency and power output. Without an insulator on the radially inner and radially outer side of each radially inner and radially outer end cap, 18 respectively, the ceramic end caps 18 would be subject to a gas temperature of about 2,500F on their side nearest the hot motive fluid flow path, and to a temperature of about 650F caused by cooling air impinging upon their side radially furthermost from the hot motive fluid flow path. A temperature drop of l,850F across the ceramic end caps 18 would result in severe thermal distortions and large steady state and transient thermal stresses within the ceramic end caps 18. Also large bending stresses would occur in the ceramic end caps 18 if the temperature gradient across them were non-linear, which is the situation for both the transient and the steady state turbine operation. The metal shroud members, 22 and 26, adjacent the ceramic end caps 18 would be subject to high temperatures, thermal distortions and bending stresses were it not for the disposition of ceramic insulators, 20 and 24, therebetween, having low thermal conductivity. The ceramic insulators, 20 and 24, prevent high thermal gradients from extending across the end caps 18, and the ceramic insulators, 20 and 24, prevent damaging temperatures within the metal portions, 22 and 26, of the surrounding shroud members 12 and 14.

Since numerous changes may be made in the abovedescribed construction, and different embodiments may be made without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the foregoing description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

We claim:

1. A hot elastic fluid stator blade construction for a gas turbine, comprising a plurality of radially directed stationary ceramic blades disposed across an annularly shaped hot fluid flow path, each of said stationary ceramic blades being supported on their radially inner ends by a ceramic inner end cap, each of said stationary ceramic blades being supported on their radially outer ends by a ceramic outer end cap, said ceramic outer end caps defining a portion of the radially outer surface of said annularly shaped hot fluid flow path, said inner ceramic end caps defining a portion of the radially inner surface of said annularly shaped hot fluid flow path, and an arcuately shaped ceramic insulator disposed on the radially outer side of said outer ceramic end caps, and an arcuately shaped ceramic insulator disposed on the radially inner side of the inner ceramic end caps, said ceramic insulators preventing damage to said end caps from thermal distortion caused by uneven temperature distribution therein, said ceramic insulators having a woven fibrous ceramic material disposed therein.

2. A hot elastic fluid stator blade construction as recited in claim 1, wherein said woven fibrous ceramic material has a directed orientation within said ceramic insulators to reduce thermal conductivity through the ceramic insulators in the radial direction, and to add structural strength to the ceramic insulators.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2341664 *Aug 21, 1940Feb 15, 1944Alfred SchutteCasing for gas turbines
US2497041 *Mar 27, 1945Feb 7, 1950United Aircraft CorpNozzle ring for gas turbines
US2855179 *Jan 5, 1955Oct 7, 1958Brown John KHigh temperature ceramic turbine
US2937805 *Dec 15, 1952May 24, 1960Studebaker Packard CorpStator blade assembly and method and machine for making same
US3118593 *Apr 17, 1962Jan 21, 1964Rolls RoyceFluid flow machine
US3635577 *Apr 7, 1969Jan 18, 1972Aerostatic LtdCoaxial unit
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3966353 *Feb 21, 1975Jun 29, 1976Westinghouse Electric CorporationCeramic-to-metal (or ceramic) cushion/seal for use with three piece ceramic stationary vane assembly
US3992127 *Mar 28, 1975Nov 16, 1976Westinghouse Electric CorporationStator vane assembly for gas turbines
US4076451 *Mar 5, 1976Feb 28, 1978United Technologies CorporationCeramic turbine stator
US4365933 *Nov 13, 1979Dec 28, 1982Volkswagenwerk AktienbesellschaftAxial vane ring consisting of ceramic materials for gas turbines
US4411594 *Jun 22, 1982Oct 25, 1983Rolls-Royce LimitedSupport member and a component supported thereby
US4643636 *Jul 22, 1985Feb 17, 1987Avco CorporationCeramic nozzle assembly for gas turbine engine
US5131808 *Jul 3, 1991Jul 21, 1992Societe Europeenne De PropulsionBladed stator having fixed blades made of thermostructural composite material, e.g. for a turbine, and manufacturing process therefor
US5197852 *May 31, 1990Mar 30, 1993General Electric CompanyNozzle band overhang cooling
US5290143 *Nov 2, 1992Mar 1, 1994Allied SignalBicast vane and shroud rings
US5380154 *Mar 18, 1994Jan 10, 1995Solar Turbines IncorporatedTurbine nozzle positioning system
US5411368 *Nov 8, 1993May 2, 1995Allied-Signal Inc.Ceramic-to-metal stator vane assembly with braze
US5449272 *Dec 22, 1993Sep 12, 1995Solar Turbines IncorporatedMounting apparatus for a nozzle guide vane assembly
US5487642 *Aug 12, 1994Jan 30, 1996Solar Turbines IncorporatedTurbine nozzle positioning system
US5584654 *Dec 22, 1995Dec 17, 1996General Electric CompanyGas turbine engine fan stator
US5704762 *Nov 8, 1993Jan 6, 1998Alliedsignal Inc.Ceramic-to-metal stator vane assembly
US6000906 *Sep 12, 1997Dec 14, 1999Alliedsignal Inc.Ceramic airfoil
US6652228 *Dec 27, 2001Nov 25, 2003Siemens AktiengesellschaftGas turbine blade and gas turbine
US7316539Apr 7, 2005Jan 8, 2008Siemens Power Generation, Inc.Vane assembly with metal trailing edge segment
US7452182Apr 7, 2005Nov 18, 2008Siemens Energy, Inc.Multi-piece turbine vane assembly
US7837438Sep 18, 2007Nov 23, 2010Siemens Energy, Inc.Vane assembly with metal trailing edge segment
US20060226290 *Apr 7, 2005Oct 12, 2006Siemens Westinghouse Power CorporationVane assembly with metal trailing edge segment
US20060228211 *Apr 7, 2005Oct 12, 2006Siemens Westinghouse Power CorporationMulti-piece turbine vane assembly
US20090003988 *Sep 18, 2007Jan 1, 2009Siemens Power Generation, Inc.Vane assembly with metal trailing edge segment
USB552006 *Feb 24, 1975Feb 3, 1976 Title not available
USB563412 *Mar 28, 1975Feb 24, 1976 Title not available
EP0253994A2 *May 27, 1987Jan 27, 1988PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA INC.Cermamic stator vane assembly
EP1219787A1 *Dec 27, 2000Jul 3, 2002Siemens AktiengesellschaftGas turbine blade and gas turbine
Classifications
U.S. Classification415/209.4, 415/200
International ClassificationF01D9/04, F01D5/28, F01D5/08, F01D9/02
Cooperative ClassificationF01D5/284, F05D2240/10, F01D9/042, F05D2300/21
European ClassificationF01D5/28C, F01D9/04C