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Publication numberUS3867799 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 25, 1975
Filing dateFeb 11, 1974
Priority dateMay 18, 1972
Publication numberUS 3867799 A, US 3867799A, US-A-3867799, US3867799 A, US3867799A
InventorsPopplewell James M, Pryor Michael J
Original AssigneeOlin Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Architectural products formed of glass or ceramic-to-metal composites
US 3867799 A
Abstract
Architectural products comprising a glass or ceramic-to-metal composite sheet which comprises at least one glass or ceramic component bonded to a copper base alloy component containing from about 2 to about 12% aluminum. The composite sheet may be employed as a panel supported or unsupported by a backing member. The composite sheet may also be employed in building curtain wall.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [191 Pryor et al.

[111 3,867,799 ]v Feb. 25, 1975 ARCHITECTURAL PRODUCTS FORMED OF GLASS OR CERAMIC-TO-METAL COMPOSITES Inventors: Michael J. Pryor, Woodbridge;

James M. Popplewell, Guilford, both of Conn.

Assignee: Olin Corporation, New Haven,

Conn.

Filed: Feb. 11, 1974 Appl. N0.: 440,982

Related U.S. Application Data Division of Ser. No. 254,666, May 18, 1972, which is a continuation-in-part of Ser. Nos. 78,899, Oct. 7, 1970, .Pat. No. 3,676,292, and Ser. No. 231,834, March 6, 1972, Pat. No. 3,826,627.

U.S. Cl. 52/235 Int. Cl E04b 2/88 Field of Search 52/235, 573; 72/162;

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,220,815 11/1965 McMillan 161/196 3,381,364 5/1968 Winter 29/4723 ary E2qmin lohnrlicMurta Attorney, Agent, or Firm-David A. Jackson; Robert H. Bachman [57] ABSTRACT Architectural products comprising a'glass or ceramicto-metal composite sheet which comprises at least one glass or ceramic component bonded to a copper base alloy component containing from about 2 to about 12% aluminum. The composite sheet may be employed as a panel supported or unsupported by a backing member. The composite sheet may also be employed in building curtain wall.

16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures PATENTED FEBZ 5 i975 sum 2 or 3 PR/OR ART FATENIED FEB 2 5 I975 sum 30F 5 a 0 U B fi m 6 x U 6 4X. I I I 1/ F 5 I 5 K I) A m 6 m 2 f a w ARCHITECTURAL PRODUCTS FORMED OF GLASS OR CERAMIC-TO-METAL COMPOSITES CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION In the architectural field, it is known'to employ copper alloys in applications such as building curtain wall. In accordance with this invention, it has been found that a novel glass or ceramic-to-metal composite wherein the metal is a copper base alloy having at least about 2 to 12% aluminum is uniquely adaptable to architectural usessuch as building curtain wall, internal wall constructions, partitions and other types of panels and architectural facings where a decorative and pleasing appearance is desired.

It is well known that copper base alloys rapidly tarnish in most atmospheres to produce oxides and compounds of copper which detract from the aesthetical appearance thereof and therefore requiremechanical or chemical cleaning to restore their pleasing appear ance. Various coatings of paints or lacquers have been appliedto the surfaces of these alloys in order to provide tarnish and oxidation resistance; however, these paints and lacquers generally are not very durable. This lack of durability often results in exposing various areas of the underlying metal surface which in turn leads to selective corrosion attack of the metal at the exposed areas.

In US. application Ser. No. 78,899, there is disclosed a glass or ceramic-to-metal composite comprising a glass or ceramic component bonded to a copper base alloy component comprising 2 to 12% aluminum and the balance essentially copper, In accordance with this invention the glass or ceramic component provides a very durable and corrosion resistant surface and, therefore, this composite is uniquely suited for use in architectural applications, such as those enumerated above.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with this invention, the glass or ceramic-to-metal composite disclosed in US. application Ser.

' No. 78,899 is employed as a facing for architectural applications, such as building curtain wall, internal wall constructions, partitions, and other types of panels and architectural facings. For some applications, the composite may be used without any backing;.however, for other applications, the composite may be affixed to a suitable backing member to provide additional support.

The backing member may comprise-any conven-v tional type of backing material such as, for example, metal, plastic, wood, polymeric foam, such as a rigid polyurethane foam, gypsum wall board, plywood, particle board, hard, board or other suitable materials useful for this purpose. The composite can be affixed to the backing member by any conventional means such as the use of glue or other types of adhesives.

This invention is particularly applicable to building curtain wall such as disclosed in US. Pat. Nos. 3,466,826, granted Sept. 6, 1969; 3,488,906, granted Jan. 13, 1971; and.3,553,918, granted Jan. 12, 1971. All of these curtain walls have in common the use of a plurality of horizontal and vertical structural members forming a framework for receipt of glazing or decorative panels and a plurality of retaining members for securing the glazing or panels to the framework and a plurality of channel shaped snap on cover or facing members supported by the retaining members for providing an aesthetically pleasing appearance.

In addition the curtain walls of the aforenoted patents include a thermal break feature which insulates the inside framework from the retaining members and cover members on the outside of the building. While this is a highly desirable feature of a building curtain wall, it does not comprise an essential aspect of the instant invention.

This invention is particularly directed with respect to building curtain wall to the use of the aforenoted glass or ceramic-to-metal composite as cover or facing members and as decorative panels either unsupported or supported by a backing member.

The glass or ceramic-to-metal composite in accordance with this invention is unique in that it has been found that the copper base alloy component within certainranges of composition forms on its surface an oxide layer, one compound of which is A1 0 in the form of a compact continuous film. The A1 0 film forms immediately adjacent to the metal surface and is strongly adherent to it. The A1 0 film comprises at least 10% of the total oxide film thickness. When the glass or ceramic component is bonded to the copper base alloy component having the A1 0 film, a strong bond results.

This high bond strength between the copper base alloy component and the glass or ceramic component allows composites to be fabricated which can tolerate a high degree of mismatch of coefficient of expansion between the glass or ceramic component and the copper base alloy component. Further, where this degree of mismatch can be minimized, a glass or ceramic-tometal composite is formed having unusually good adherence of the glass or ceramic to the metal due to the high bond strength between the components of the composite.

Therefore, in accordance with this invention, a coated copper base alloy architectural facing is provided having improved durability and corrosion resistance.

It is a further object of this invention to provide a building curtain wall having cover members and/or decorative panels employing a glass or ceramic-tometal composite wherein the metal is a copper base alloy which forms an A1 0 film on its surface.

It is a further object of this invention to provide panels which can be used in building curtain wall as well as internal wall constructions, partitions, and the like, wherein the panels comprise a glass or ceramic-tometal composite wherein the metal is a copper base alloy which forms a thin film of A1 0 on its surface, the composite being either unsupported or supported by a backing member.

Other objects and advantages will become apparent to those skilled in the art as a detailed description proceeds with reference to the drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a partial front view of a typical prior art building curtain wall.

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of an octagonal'section of the curtain wall of FIG. 1. I

FIG. 3 is a perspective view showing a cover member in accordance with this invention affixed to a typical prior art retaining member.

FIG. 4 is a cross section along the line AA of FIG. 3 of a corner portion of the cover member of FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 shows in perspective cross sections of portions of typical panels in accordance with this invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS This invention is directed to an' architectural facing formed from a glass or ceramic-to-metal composite wherein the metal is a copper base alloy having from about 2 to 12% aluminum and the balance essentially copper. The composite facing of this invention 'provides an aesthetically pleasing appearance and improved durability and resistance to corrosion and is, therefore, uniquely adapted for use in such applications as building curtain wall, internal wall constructions, partitions and other types of panels.

Suitable copper base alloys for use in the glass or ceramicto-metal composite facing of this invention composite facing of this invasion. In partlc uTan the" I impurities may include less than 1% nickel, less than preferably contain from about 2% to about 10% alumiaffecting the properties of the glass or ceramic-to-metal 1% manganese, less than 1% tin, less than 0.5% lead, less than 0.1% phosphorus and less than 0.1% arsenic.

The aforenoted limitations of impurity elements apply to those elements only when they are present as impurities and not if they are used as alloying elements.

The aforenoted copper base alloys form on their exposed surfaces an oxide, one component of which is A1 0 in the form of a thin compact continuous film. The A1 0 film forms immediately adjacent to the metal, is strongly adherent to it and comprises at least about 10% and up to about 100% of the total thickness of the oxide.

Alumina seals efficiently to most glasses and ceramics. Therefore, since the alumina film formed on the alloys used with this invention is tightly adherent to the alloys, an excellent glass or ceramic-to-metal bond is produced.

The alumina film on the alloys in accordance with this invention may be formed by any conventional techniques as are known in the art. It may be formed during the coating of the alloy component with the glass or ceramic component or the alloy component may be the glass component should be less than 1 10 X 10' in.--

/in./C, and preferably, less than 75 X 10 in./in./C

and, more preferably, less than X 10' in,/in./C.

It is one of the unique aspects of the glass or ceramicto-metal composite facing of this invention that it is (Barium Silicate Glass) FERRO CORPORATION No. EN-l-A approximately 160 X 10 (Clear Porcelain) PREFERRED OWENS Illinois No. 00583 (Sealing Glass) BOROSILICATE CLEAR PORCELAIN 50% SiO 20% B 0 12.5%

approximately 72 X 10' Cryolite, 10% 8210, 2.5% ZnO, 2.5% K 0, 2.5% Na O LEAST PRERERRED G.E. ReX

(Sealing Glass) SODA LIME SILICA GLASS 70% SiO ll% CaO, 14% N3 0,

+ A1203 MgO PORCELAIN 40% Leucite (K 0, Ai,o,. 4510 30% Mullite (3.41 0 2SiO 30% SiO SEALING GLASS TYPE 101 ASTM No. F-79-67T 56% SiO 1.5% M 0 4.0% K 0,

29.0% PbO Proprietary Composition Values in Weight Percent invention.

able to tolerate a substantial mismatch in coefficient of expansion between the glass or ceramic and the metal component. If stronger and/or more elastic glasses are developed even greater degrees of mismatch than above noted could be tolerated.

TABLE I lists various exemplary glasses and ceramics which are adapted for use in accordance with this The proprietary glass Code No. 7047 manufactured by the Corning Glass company, Corning, N.Y. has a coefficient of thermal expansion which is close to that of Alloy 638 'and,;therefore, in accordance with the most preferred embodiment of this invention, it is desirable to employ this particular type of glass.

Preferably, the glass or ceramic component should be clear andltransparent so that the full aesthetic appearance'of the underlying copper base alloy component shows through; however, the invention is not limited thereto. For example, additions of various compoundsto glasses or ceramics-are known to cause them to be tin-ted or coloredand, therefore, it is possible to change the color exhibited by the facing of this invention by the addition of such compounds tothe glass or ceramic component.

These compounds may include but are not limited to MnO Fe O Cu O, C0 0 NiO, K Cr O Na UO and combinations of these compounds in amounts from 0.1% toabout by weight. The use of such additions provides colored facings which vary in color depending on the glass or ceramic which is employed and the particular compounds added thereto. It is possible to obtain bronzes, greens, lavenders, blues, etc., and in particular, the addition of MnO to the Borosilicate Clear Porcelain of Table I yielded a purple tint.

Further, translucent or opague coatings having various colors could alsobe employed as the glass or ceramic component in accordance with the invention.

Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, there is shown an exemplary curtain wall 1 structure as typical of the prior art. Only a portion of the curtain wall lis shown. Thecurtain wall 1 shown in FIG. 1 is typical of designs commonly found in many of todays modern high rise buildings. It comprises a plurality of vertical 2 and horizontal 3 facing members 4 which are part of a framework for holding in place a plurality of decorative panels 5 and windows 6.

An octagonal section 7 of the curtain wall l of FIG. 1 is shown in perspective in FIG. 2. The curtain wall 1 design shown in FIG. 2 corresponds substantially to the Lupton Series 2500 wall manufactured by the Lupton- Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

This particular curtain wall is described merely by way of example and is not meant to be limitive of the invention. As aforenoted, the curtain wall systems of US. Pat. Nos. 3,466,826, 3,488,906 and 3,553,918 are also adaptable for use in accordance with the instant invention as well as a wide variety of otherknown curtain wall systems which employ facing members 4 and- /or decorative panels 5. v

FIG. 2 shows the vertical 8 and horizontal 9 structural members 10 which are secured to the building. Secured to each of the structural members 10 by means of screws 11 are a plurality of corresponding horizon- The gaps betweenthe retaining members 14 and the structural members 10 are adapted to receive in sealing engagement the decorative panels 5 or windows 6. The

sealing engagement is. provided by resilient gaskets'l5 vthe retaining members 14 to the structural members Sincethe retaining members 14 do not present a pleasing appearance from the architectural point of view, snap on facing members 4 are employed. These facing members 4 provide a pleasing architectural appearance by eliminating from sight the joining screws 11. The facing members 4 are generally of channel configuration comprising a web section 17 and side walls 18 projecting outwardly in the same direction from the longitudinal edges 19 of the web section 17.

The retaining members 14 are also of a channel configuration as best shown in FIG. 3 comprising a web section 20 and side walls 21 projecting outwardly in the same direction and extending from the longitudinal edges 22 of the web section 20. Each side wall 21 includes an outside groove 23 adapted to receive a corresponding rib 24 from the snap on facing member 4 and an inclined outer portion 25 for making it easier to snap the facing member 4 onto the retaining member 14 by providing a wedge type action to spread apart the side walls 21 of the facing member 4 until it is snapped in place with the ribs 24 of the facing member seated in the grooves 23 of the retaining member 14.

FIG. 3 shows a typical facing member 4 in accordance with this invention in place after it has been snapped onto a conventional retaining member 14. The facing member 4 has a similar channel configuration to that of the facing member 4 of the prior art except that the ribs 24 which are adapted to seat in the grooves 23 of the retaining member 14 comprise grooves 24 in the side walls 18' of the facing member 4'.

The grooves 24' formed in the side walls 18' of the facing member 4' of this invention may have any desired shape which is adapted to seat in the grooves 23 of the retaining member 14. The grooves shown in FIG. 3 have a semi-circular shape; however, any desired shape could be employed.

The cross section taken along the line A-A of FIG. 3 and shown in FIG. 4 clearly shows the composite of this invention having the copper base alloy component 26 and the glass or ceramic component 27 bonded thereto. While copper base alloys are by their nature tally l2 and vertically 13 disposed retaining members more expensive than aluminum, there is a considerable 7 savings in materials involved in accordance with this invention because thin sheet may be used for the facing member 4 thereby using less metal. For example, it has been found. that the facing members 4' formed from composite sheet wherein the metal is from 0.01 inch to 0.06 inch thick have sufficient strength to replace the conventional extruded aluminum facing members 4 which are considerably thicker.

In accordance with this invention, the aforenoted glass or ceramic-to-metal composite facing is also useful as panels for architectural and decorative purposes. The panels 50 comprise a sheet like structure, portions of which are shown in FIG. 5. The peripheral edge 51 of the panel 50 may have any desired shape as, for example, it may be rectangular, square, circular, etc., or any other conventional shape employed for architectural or decorative purposes. FIG. shows sections in perspective or rectangular type panels 50.

The-composite facing may be used as a panel 50 either supported or unsupported by a backing member 52. An unsupported panel 50 as shown in FIG. 5A would comprise merely a sheet of the glass or ceramicto-metal composite having the desired peripheral edge 51 shape. An unsupported panel 50 would generally require the use of a thicker metal component 53 in the composite to provide sufficient resistance to flexure which might cause damage to the glass or ceramic component 54 such as cracking.

The panel 51 may have a glass or ceramic component 54 on one major face 55 asin FIG. 5A or on both major faces 55 as in FIG. 5B the latter configuration being most useful in wall constructions, partitions and the like where both sides of the panel are visible.

It is economically advantageous, however, to employ a metal component 53 which is as thin as possible since this is the most expensive part of the composite facing of this invention. However, a thin metal component 53 generally should be backed by a suitable backing member 52 as in FIGS. 5C and 5D to provide sufficient support to prevent flexure which might damage the composite facing.

The backing member 52 may be formed of any conventional material known to be used for such purposes. For'example, itmay be metal, plastic, wood, gypsum type wall board, plywood, hardboard, particle board and like kinds of building materials. Preferably, the backing member 52 is a polymeric foam particularly a polyurethane foam and, most preferably, a rigid polyurethane foam. The use of a polymeric foam provides substantial advantages because of its thermally insulating and sound deadening nature.

The composite facing may be affixed to the backing member 52 by any conventional means. For example, it may be affixed by means of laminating, by means of adhesives, by cladding where the backing member is a metal or by any other desirable method.

The panel 50 shown in FIG. 5C has the composite facing of this invention on only one side 56 of the backing member 52. This configuration is particularly adapted for use in building curtain wall wherein only one face of the panel 50 is visible. Therefore, a panel 50 constructed as in FIG. 5C could be employed in the curtain wall of FIGS. 1 and 2 in place of the panels 5 shown therein. For applications where both sides of the panel 50 are visible a panel constructed as shown in FIG. 5D could be employed. The only difference between the panel of FIG. 5D and the panel of FIG. 5C is that the composite facing of this invention is employed on both sides 56 of the backing member 52.

The thickness of the backing member 52 may be set as desired in accordance with the intended application. The thickness of the metal component 53 of the composite facing should be maintained as thin as possible to conserve metal usage and reduce costs. it has been found in practice that the metal component 53 of the composite facing for a supported panel 50 may practially range in thickness from about 0.001 to 0.060.

The glass or ceramic-to-metal composite facing of this invention is generally formed by applying the glass or ceramic, for example, in the form of a fine powder or frit to the surface of the metal component 26 or 53 in any conventional manner and then firing the composite to melt and fuse the glass or ceramic and bond it to the metal component 26 or 53 by means of the alumina film on the metal surface. Normally, all deformationorforming ofthe metal component 26 or 53 is performed prior to the application of the glass or ceramic component 27 or 54.

In practice, the most preferred means for applying the glass or ceramic component 27 or 54 is to spray a slurry of the glass or ceramic powder or frit in a suitable carrier, such as water, onto the surface of the metal component 26 or 53 and then fire the glass or ceramic. The particular firingtemperature employed is dependent on the glass or ceramic which is used and does not form a part of the instant invention.

This invention may be embodied in other forms or carried out in other ways without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The present embodiment is therefore to be considered as in all respects illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims, and all changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency are intended to be embraced therein.

What is claimed is:

1. In a building curtain wall comprising a plurality of substantilly vertically and horizontally disposed structural members affixed to the outside of a building, a plurality of decorative panels and windows supported by said structural members, a plurality of retaining members secured to said structural members for retaining said panels and said windows in place and a plurality of facing members covering said retaining members and being supported by said retaining members, the improvement wherein said facing members are formed of a glass or ceramic-to-metal composite comprising a glass or ceramic component bonded to a copper base alloy component comprising from about 2 to about 12% aluminum and the balance essentially copper, said copper b'ase alloy component adapted to contact said retaining members.

2. In a building curtain wall as in claim 1, the further improvement wherein said copper base alloy component comprises from about 2 to 10% aluminum, 0.001 to 3% silicon, up to 35% zinc and a grain refining element selected from the group consisting of iron up to 4.5%, chromium up to 1%, zirconium up to 0.5%, cobalt up to 1% and mixtures thereof, the balance essentially copper.

3. In a building curtain wall as in claim 2, the further improvement wherein said copper base alloy component consists essentialy of 2.5 to 3.1% aluminum, 1.5

to 2.1% silicon, 0.25 to 0.55% cobalt, the balance essentially copper.

4. In a building curtain wall as in claim 3, the further improvement wherein said retaining members are of channel configuration having a web sectionand side walls extending outwardly in the same direction from longitudinal edges of said web section and a longitudinally extending outside groove in each of said side walls and wherein said facing member is of channel configuration having a web section and side walls extending outwardly in the same direction from longitudinal edges of said web section and a longitudinal groove formed in each of said sidewalls extending inwardly toward each other thereby forming ribs which are adapted to seat in said grooves in said side walls of said retaining member.

5. In a building curtain wall as in claim 3 the further improvement wherein said panels are formed of a glass or ceramic-to-metal composite sheet wherein said composite sheet comprises at least one glass or ceramic component bonded to a copper base alloy component, said copper base alloy component having a major face and an opposing major face, said copper base alloy component comprising from about 2 to about 12% aluminum and the balance essentially copper said glass or ceramic component being bonded to at least one of said major face and said opposing major face of said copper base alloy component.

6. In a building curtain wall as in claim 5, the further improvement wherein said copperbase alloy component comprises from about 2 to aluminum, 0.001 to 3% silicon, up to zinc and a grain refining element selected from the group consisting of iron up to 4.5%, chromium up to 1%, zirconium up to 0.5%, cobalt up to 1% and mixtures thereof, the balance essentially copper.

7. In a building curtain wall as in claim 6, the further improvement wherein said copper base alloy component consists essentially of 2.5 to 3.1% aluminum, 1.5 to 2.1% silicon, 0.25 to 0.55% cobalt, the balance essentially copper.

8. In a building curtain wall as in claim 5, the further improvement wherein a backing member is affixed to the copper base alloy component of said composite sheet.

' comprises at least one glass or ceramic component 9. In a building curtain wall as in claim 6, the further improvement wherein a backing member is affixed to bonded to a copper base alloy component, said copper base alloy component having a major face and an opposing major face, said copper base alloy component comprising from about 2 to about 12% aluminum and the balance essentially copper, said glass or ceramic component being bonded to at least one of said major face and said opposing major face of said copper base alloy component.

12. In a building curtain wall as in claim 11, the further improvement wherein said copper base alloy com ponent comprises from about 2 to 10% aluminum,

0.001 'to 3% silicon, up to 35% zinc and a grain refining element selected from the group consisting of iron up to 4.5%, chromium up to 1%, zirconium up to 0.5%, cobalt up to 1% and mixtures thereof, the balance essentially copper.

13. In a building curtain wall as in claim 12, the further improvement wherein said copper base alloy component consists essentially of 2.5 to 3.1% aluminum, 1.5 to 2.1% silicon, 0.25 to 0.55% cobalt, the balance essentially copper.

14. In a building curtain wall as in claim 11, the further improvement wherein a backing member is affixed to the copper base alloy component of said composite sheet.

15. In a building curtain wall as in claim 12, the further improvement wherein a backing member is affixed to the copper base alloy component of said composite sheet.

16. In a building curtain wall as in claim 13, the further improvement wherein a backing member is affixed to the copper base alloy component of said composite

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3220815 *Apr 24, 1961Nov 30, 1965English Electric Co LtdProcess of bonding glass or ceramic to metal
US3381364 *May 7, 1965May 7, 1968Olin MathiesonProcess for obtaining a clad article with a copper base alloy core
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4021987 *Jul 16, 1975May 10, 1977Schnebel FritzTie beams and girders for facades
US4817351 *Oct 29, 1987Apr 4, 1989The Standard Products CompanyGlazing system
US5094051 *Aug 14, 1990Mar 10, 1992The Lamparter Organization, Inc.Wall panel mounting system
US5154029 *Jan 18, 1991Oct 13, 1992Canadian Rain Screen Technologies, Ltd.Self-draining building panel system
US5181352 *Feb 21, 1991Jan 26, 1993Michael FriedmanRain cap system for fast modular structures
US6933054 *Dec 5, 2002Aug 23, 2005Weiland-Werke AgBearing material for the manufacture of wear-resistant slide bearings made of a copper-aluminum-alloy with defined cover layers
US20030129427 *Dec 5, 2002Jul 10, 2003Klaus OhlaBearing material for the manufacture of wear-resistant slide bearings made of a copper-aluminum-alloy with defined cover layers
DE29608443U1 *May 9, 1996Aug 1, 1996Hdw Isoliertechnik GmbhBauprofilelement und Fassadenkonstruktion
Classifications
U.S. Classification52/235
International ClassificationC23D3/00, A47J36/02, C23D5/00, B05D5/08
Cooperative ClassificationC23D3/00, C23D5/00, A47J36/02, B05D5/086, B05D5/08
European ClassificationA47J36/02, B05D5/08C3, C23D5/00, C23D3/00, B05D5/08