|Publication number||US3868232 A|
|Publication date||Feb 25, 1975|
|Filing date||Apr 25, 1973|
|Priority date||Jul 19, 1971|
|Publication number||US 3868232 A, US 3868232A, US-A-3868232, US3868232 A, US3868232A|
|Inventors||Cohen Harvey M, Sioui Richard H|
|Original Assignee||Norton Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (16), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent [1 1 Sioui et al.
[4 1 Feb. 25, 1975 RESIN-BONDED ABRASIVE TOOLS WITH MOLYBDENUM METAL FILLER AND MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE LUBRICANT  Inventors: Richard H. Sioui, Holden; Harvey M. Cohen, Randolph, both of Mass.
 Assignee: Norton Company, Worcester, Mass.
 Filed: Apr. 25, 1973  Appl. No.: 354,460
Related U.S. Application Data  Division of Ser. No. 163,976, July 19, 1971, Pat. No. 3,779,727, which is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 61,905, Aug. 7, 1970, abandoned.
 U.S. Cl. 51/298, 51/295 Primary E.\'aminerDonald J. Arnold Attorney, Agent, or Firm -Rufus M. Franklin  ABSTRACT High ratios of metal removed to abrasive tool wear are achieved when resin-bonded diamond or cubic boron nitride abrasive tools include in the bond from 10 to 60 percent by volume of silver, silver coated copper, or copper powder in the presence of from 5 to 30 percent by volume of a solid lubricant. Other fillers such as finely divided metal oxides or carbide such as silicon carbide may be present in an amount of from 0 to 40 percent by volume, depending upon the total content of metal and lubricant. The diamond wheels or tools of this invention are particularly suitable for the dry grinding of carbide tools. The cubic boron nitride wheels employ metal clad boron nitride abrasive particles and are particularly suitable for the dry grinding of hard steel tools, that is, high speed steels such as T15, M2, M3, and M4. Solid lubricants useful in this invention icnlude organic polymers such as polytetrafluoroethylene, fluorinated ethylene polymers, chlorinated hydrocarbon, fluorinated ethylene propylene, polyethylene styrene-butadiene, acrylonitrilebutadiene-styrene, polyurethane, polyformaldehyde, polycarbonate, and nylon and inorganic crystalline solids such as boron nitride, tungsten disulfide, graphite, metal coated graphite, molybdenum disulfide, niobium diselenide tungsten diselenide, and fluorinated graphite.
1 Claim, 3 Drawing Figures RESIN-BONDED ABRASIVE TOOLS WITH MOLYBDENUM METAL FILLER AND MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE LUBRICANT This is a division, of application Ser. No. 163,976, filed July 19, 1971, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,779,727, which was a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 61.905. filed Aug. 7, 1970, now abandoned.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to abrasive tools, in particular grinding wheels and coated abrasive belts, containing the hardest known abrasives, diamond and cubic boron nitride which, when metal coated diamond grit is the primary abrasive are particularly suitable for the dry grinding of cemented carbide tool material (e.g. cemented tungsten carbide), and when metal coated boron nitride grit is the primary abrasive are particularly suitable for grinding hard tool steels such as T15, M2, M3. and M4.
THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 shows a perspective view of a grinding element such as produced according to the present invention.
FIG. 2 shows a perspective view of the grinding element of FIG. I mounted for use.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Improvement of resinoid bonded diamond (or cubic boron nitride) abrasive tools has been recently achieved by the use of metal clad diamond grit or by the use of metalclad cubic boron nitride grit. The present inventors have disclosed the use of finely divided graphite in such tools in US. application Ser. No. 876,655. filed Nov. 14, 1969, now US. Pat. No. 3,664,819, to improve, significantly the performance in dry grinding. In particular this application relates to the use of molybdenum metal filler with molybdenum disulfide solid lubricant.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention involves modifying the bond of resinoid bonded abrasive tools, containing metal clad diamond or cubic boron nitride, by inclusion of from 10 to 60 percent by volume, preferably 30 to 50 percent by volume of the total of bond and fillers (exclusive of the metal clad abrasive) of molybdenum, and from 5 to 30 percent. preferably to percent of molybdenum disulfide.
The components of the grinding elements or tools of the present invention will now be discussed in detail. The Bond Any of the known synthetic resins useful in making coated or bonded abrasives may be employed in the present invention. Obviously, strength and heat resistance are necessary properties. The wellknown cross linked resins such as phenol-aldehyde resins, melamine-aldehyde resins, urea-aldehyde resins, polyester resins, and epoxy resins, including the epoxy novolacs, may all be used and conventional modifiers and plasti cizers may be used. Part of the filler content may consist of conventional particulate tillers such as silicon carbide. Fairly recently, new essentially linear polymers as well as thermoset polymers (such as thermoset polymers disclosed in French Pat. No. 1,455,514) have been introduced which have utility in bonding abrasive grains. These resins, like the crosslinked resins discussed above, are infusible, as opposed to the more common thermoplastic linear polymers having definite softening ranges and which are reversibly softenable. Examples of such resins, having utility in making abrasive tools, are given in U.S. Pat. No. 3,329,489 (polybenzimidazole), and US. Pat. Nos. 3,295,940 and 3,385,684 (polymides). Polysulfide resins such as disclosed in 1.1.5. Pat. No. 3,303,170 and polypyrrones may also be employed. For use in making coated abrasive discs or belts liquid resin systems may be preferred, while for bonded abrasives solid powdered resins can be used.
The Abrasive One of the preferred features of the present invention is that the abrasive, diamond grit, or cubic boron nitride, have a metal coating encapsulating the abrasive grit such that the metal is present in the coated particle in an amount between 10 and percent, by volume. Uncoated diamonds can be used, however, and tools employing them are considered part of the present invention. Metal coated diamonds are disclosed in Soulard French Pat. No. 1,142,688, Belgian Pat. Nos. 683,508 and 698,428, and French Pat. No. 1,522,735. Suitable metal coatings are copper, silver, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and, in general, any metal melting above about 500 F which is chemically stable in the grinding tool. Although, for wet grinding the volume percent of metal coating can be higher, for dry grinding, to which the tool of the present invention is partic ularly directed, the volume percent of metal coating should be between 10 to 60 percent. by volume.
Coated diamonds are commercially available which have nickel coatings within the above range of 10 to 50 percent. by volume, and copper coatings. within the same range. These coatings can be produced by electrodeposition on a thin, silver coating produced by chemical deposition on the grits. Thus the coatings need not be a single metal, only, and a wide variety of metal coatings are possible and useful in the present invention. Alloys of the metals are also useful.
The grit size of the abrasive is not relevant to the present invention, but grit sizes of 60 through 320 (based on the uncoated grit) are commonly used in diamond wheels.
The Grinding Tool Grinding elements according to the present invention may be formed by pressing the mixture in a mold of the desired shape. The mold may be heated and the resin may be completely or partially cured in the mold.
FIG. 1 shows a typical grinding element 10. FIG. 2 shows the grinding element mounted on a core 20 to produce a straight grinding wheel. FIG. 3 shows the element 10 mounted on a cup shaped support to form a grinding wheel commonly referred to as a cup wheel." A suitable material for making the support member is an aluminum-filled resin as disclosed in US. Pat. No. 2,150,886. The tool may be molded directly onto the support, the support may be molded onto the tool, or the tool may be cemented onto the support after fabrication.
For the production of coated abrasive discs or belts, a liquid phenol-formaldehyde resin can be used. A size coat of liquid resin should be employed after the maker coat, and at least the size coat should contain the fillers of this invention. The size should be high, that is, it should extend from the maker coat to close to the tips ofthc abrasive so that the fillers in the coat contact the work during grinding. The Fillers The required fillers of the present invention are: 1 molybdenum present in the bond in the amount of from 10 to 60 percent by volume, preferably 30 to 50 percent, and 2. molybdenum disulfide present in the bond in the amount of from to 30 percent, by volume, and preferably from to 20 percent.
In addition to the metal and dry-film lubricant powder fillers, inert fillers such as silicon carbide may be added to improve the strength of the bond or otherwise control its physical properties. Where lower diamond concentrations are employed it may be desirable to add such fillers to reduce the overall bond content of the tool or grinding element.
SPEClFlC EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION Although this invention is specific to the use of molybdenum (instead of silver or copper) and molybdenum disulfide as the lubricant, the following illustrate the broader aspects of the invention as claimed in US. Pat. No. 3,779,727.
Normal process steps, conventional in the art, are
used to fabricate the wheels, discs, or belts according to the present invention.
A preferred example of a bond mix for making a bonded abrasive ring for mounting on a backing element, such as shown in the drawing is as follow:
PHENOLIC BOND EXAMPLE cure can be carried out in an air atmosphere oven for 24 hours at 175 C. Control of the temperature of the final cure is effective, as is well known in the art, in
'controlling the hardness or grade of the bond which 5 may differ depending upon the specific application.
The cured abrasive element is attached to a core or holder, as in conventional in the art, to produce a grinding tool such as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 of the drawing. In the tabulated examples below, cup type 10 wheels were employed of the dimensions and standard indicated. All the tests were run dry (no liquid coolant).
Where other resin systems are employed than the phenolic bond given above, it is known in the art that different curing or processing temperatures may be required. For example, in the case of the polymide resins, typical fabrication conditions would be a pressure of 10 tons per square inch, and a hold at 270 C for minutes. No post cure is required. A commercial polymide available from Rhone-Poulenc, identified as P.I.- M33A, cured under these conditions, and containing 50 percent silver filler and 10 percent polytetrafluorethylene as fillers, gave a grinding efficiency of 202 7 percent or 102 percent above the control wheel, in a test similar to that of Table l. A second test with a different polymide identified as P.l.-M33B. gave a grinding efficiency of 293 percent under identical conditions where 40 percent silver and 10 percent TFE fillers were s -H...
The following test was made on wheels made according to the Phenolic Bond Example given above, the amounts of fillers and resin, however, being varied as indicated. The wheels were cup wheels, 6A9 type, 4 35 inches X 1% inches X 1% inches. The diamond was Pawdvrsd phenul-flldehyde coated with 56 weight percent nickel and was 150 grit pre-polymcr (BRP 5980 available from Union Carbide Corporation) 173 45.2 (Pncodtedl and the Wheels Contamed perfem which includes 9% hcxamcthylene diamond by volume. The work ground on a mod1f1ed W' e R il by surface grinder was a cemented tungsten carbide, the WClg O 1mc1s 21 e Silver powder (Mm Refining 58.6 4O unlt mfeed was 2.5 m1ls. G r1nd1ng cond1t1ons and the ('6. N0. (-18) work p1ece were the same for all the wheels. The first bWfl F I wheel listed was a standard commercial wheel contain- (Liquul Nitrogen Processing (0. 6.1) 10 NO. 'r1.-| 15) mg percent by volume of SlllCOl'l carbide 1n the bond. $111 6 Carbide (8 g l 2' 177 Table 1 gives the results. The wheel no." is for identification purposes. G is the grinding ratio or grinding effi- TABLE l Filler Level (74 of bond) Wheel No. G P 7cG /rP SiC Ag TFE in making a bonded abrasive tool employing the above mix, the abrasive is wet with the furfural .and the mixture of bond and fillers is added and mixing continued to form a homogeneous batch. Sufficient of the mix is then placed in, a mold of the desired shape and the mix is hot-pressed to shape. Normally, using the above bond, the tool is then removed from the mold and further cured in an oven. Typical molding conditions are a pressure of 5 tons per square inch, a temperature of C, and a molding time of 20 minutes. The final cent level produces no significant improvement. But combined, at these levels, the efficiency is significantly improved and the power is significantly reduced. Best results, in this test, were shown with 20 percent silver and 10 percent polytetrafluoroethylene.The results thus show a synergistic effect when the two fillers are employed together in the bond, which would not be expected from the results obtained when only silver or only polytetrafluoroethylene are employed.
The test results given in Table 11 compare the results for wheels of various levels of fillers with a standard wheel like that of Table l, but containing a slightly higher level of silicon carbide filler. The diamond was 150 grit, nickel coated, except for the diamond in the last two wheels which was copper coated in the amount of 50 weight percent. The infeed was 2.5 mils on cebut a different cemented tungsten carbide, sample was employed in the workpieces. This test evaluated silver contents of 10 to 20 percent with no lubricants and silver contents of 10 to 20 percent combined with 15 to 25 percent graphite.
Table IV gives the results of a test wherein silver contents of 30 to 50 percent, with a solid film lubricant filler, were compared to a standard wheel and to a wheel containing graphite only. As in the previous tests, the wheels were all run on the same sample of carbide and under the same test conditions. The infeed was 2.0 mil. The diamond was present in the amount of 1 1 percent by volume in the wheels, instead of 17 percent as in the previous tests, and was nickel clad, except for the diamond in wheel 84 which was copper clad.
TABLE IV Filler Levels Wheel No. C P %G %P Ag TFE Graphite SiC 47 (Control) 17.4 199., 100 0 0 Q 7 51 22.6 765 130 75 O 2O 82 63.6 1135 365 111 4O 10 0 O 83 79.8 1190 459 116 50 10 0 0 84 67.8 925 390 90 50 10 O 0 85 44.0 840 253 82 30 0 0 86 43.1 840 82 4O 0 7 2O 0 mented tungsten carbide workpieces. The carbide ma- At 2.5 mil. infeed the relative results were similar exterial and the grinding conditions were the same for all cept that wheels 84 and 86 were unsatisfactory under wheels. the higher infeed in that they loaded, chipped, and
TABLE 11 Filler Level Whccl No. G P 700 %P SiC Ag TFE 18664 47.6 1425 100 100 0 0 18665 78.5 1120 165 79 10 20 10 18666 89.6 975 188 68 5 2O 15 18667 87.7 1180 184 83 5 25 10 18668 95.2 1020 200 72 0 25 15 18669 147.5 1280 312 90 O 30 15 18670 108.5 1090 228 76 0 3O 15 18671 91 1120 191 79 1O 20 10 18673 75.3 960 158 67 5 20 15 The conclusions drawn from this test are that the optimum silver content is over 30 percent, 15 percent TFE is better than 10 percent from the standpoint of power drawn, and nickel and copper coated diamond are similar in performance when 20 percent silver filler is employed.
The following results were performed on a different, somewhat more rigid machine than the previous tests. Otherwise the test conditions were essentially the same,
In the following test silver filler was compared with silver coated copper. The wheels all contained 1 1 percent by volume of diamond, and the diamond was nickel clad. The unit infeed was 2.0 mils. The results e eas o ows TABLE V Wheel No. G P %G %P Ag TFE Ag on CU SiC Control 17.8 875 100 100 0 0 0 35 950 28.9 825 162 94 50 15 0 0 951 29.6 800 166 91 45 15 O 0 956 29.2 750 164 86 0 15 45 0 TABLE 111 Filler Level Wheel No. 0 P G '70P %SiC 7m %Graphite 18713 (Control) 26 1075 11 100 40 0 0 Although this test showed that Ag and Ag coated Cu are equivalent, more sensitive testing has indicated the superiority of Ag over Ag coated Cu.
In the grinding of high-speed steels, wheels employcopper with various fillers, as listed below in Table VIII and grinding efficiencies lower than the standad control wheel were achieved with nickel, molybdenum, iron, tin, and aluminum fillers.
ing metal clad 150 grit cubic boron nitride were com- 5 Throughout the specification the volume percent of pared with various filler contents. The unit infeed was fillers in the bond means the parts of filler per hundred 2.0 mils. and the wheels were the same shape and diparts of total bond solids, including fillers, but not inmenslons as m the tests reported above. eluding abrasive particles and not including the metal The filler content of the wheels was as follows: cladding on the abrasive.
l TABLE W What is claimed is:
Wheel No. SiC Al Q- Ag TFE Graphite g 8 1. An abrasive tool comprising particles selected 838 0 0 U '5 from the group consisting of metal clad diamond or 8313 28 0 0 0 20 metal clad cubic boron nitride bonded at at least one 853 O 0 40 0 surface thereof, the bonding material being a synthetic TABLE VIII Wheel No. G 720 P 7r! Metal Lubricant 19083 42 410 1200 120 A EN 19076 39.5 383 1150 115 A TFE 19086 35.9 348 1250 125 A ws 19229 30.8 299 1350 135 Ag BN Nickel Coated 19089 30.5 296 1400 140 Ag Graphite 19085 27.9 271 1150 115 Ag Mus 19088 27.8 270 H H5 Ag Polyethylene 19084 26.3 255 1350 135 Ag Nbse 19087 20.2 196 1100 110 Ag wse 19090 15.1 147 1050 105 Mo M s 19077 14.4 140 1150 115 Cu TFE 19231 11.9 116 1000 100 M0 M05. 19257 10.7 104 850 Graphite 19252 10.3 104 1000 100 Control Wheel 35% siC 19078 9.3 950 i TFE 19082 7.5 73 800 80 Mo TFE 19228 6.4 62 850 85 Mo TFE l908l 5.8 56 850 85 Fe TFE I9079 5.4 52 900 90 Al TFE 19080 4.4 43 800 80 Sn TFE 19230 3.2 31 750 75 Al TFE The test results on M3, M43, and T15 high-speed 40 resin binder but characterized in that it contains from steel workpieces were as follows: 10 to 60 percent by volume, of molybdenum metal TABLE Vll Wltccl M3 M43 Tl5 N0. (1 1 7m '54 P (i P n (1 .40 G P Z-(i 711 Based on the most reproduceable testing methods, filler and from 10 to 30 percent, by volume, of molybgained from the above tests, a variety of metal and solid denum disulfide. lubricant combinations were employed. Grinding effi- 55 2 ciencies of at least 40 percent above the standard were achieved with the metal silver, copper, or silver coated UNITED STATES PATENT Q EIEE @ERTEHQATE 0F CURRECTIQN PATENT NO. i 3,868, 232 DATED February 25, 1975 INVENTOMS) Richard Hc Sioui and Harvey M, Cohen It is certified that error appears in the ab0ve-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below.
TABLE IV, line 1; under P "100" should read 1025 under %P O should read 100 ggncd and gealed this fif h Day of August1975 [SEAIL] A ttest:
RUTH C. MASON C. MARSHALL DANN Arresting Officer ('rmlmissimzcr of Parents and Trademarks
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|U.S. Classification||51/298, 51/295|
|International Classification||B24D3/00, C08K3/00|
|Cooperative Classification||C08K3/0033, B24D3/004|
|European Classification||C08K3/00P5, B24D3/00B2C|