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Publication numberUS3869778 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 11, 1975
Filing dateJun 29, 1973
Priority dateDec 27, 1971
Publication numberUS 3869778 A, US 3869778A, US-A-3869778, US3869778 A, US3869778A
InventorsRaymond W Yancey
Original AssigneeRaymond W Yancey
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Article of manufacture with twisted web
US 3869778 A
Abstract
An article of manufacture wherein one or more pairs of spaced, parallel ribbons are connected by at least one integral web, with the webs connecting ribbon portions that are disposed in oppositely inclined planes. One end portion of each web is disposed in the plane of a first ribbon, and the opposite end portion of the web is disposed in the plane of a second ribbon, with the intermediate web portion being twisted throughout its length. The article is preferably fabricated from a sheet of metal or other suitable material with each of the ribbons being deformed to include alternating, longitudinally spaced crests and troughs, the crests on each ribbon being aligned with a trough on an adjacent ribbon. The article is fabricated by a process including the step of simultaneously imparting a multi-planar torsional deformation to each of the webs of the sheet while deforming the ribbons to form the crests and troughs.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [1 1 Yancey [14 1 Mar. 11, 1975 ARTICLE OF MANUFACTURE WITH TWISTED WEB [76] Inventor: Raymond W. Yancey, 880 Oak Spring Ln., Libertyville, 111. 60048 [22] Filed: June 29, 1973 [21] Appl. No.: 375,037

Related US. Application Data [63] Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 211,858, Dec. 27, 1971, abandoned, which is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 767,303, Oct. 14, 1968, abandoned.

Primary ExaminerAllen B. Curtis ABSTRACT An article of manufacture wherein one or more pairs of spaced, parallel ribbons are connected by at least one integral web, with the webs connecting ribbon portions that are disposed in oppositely inclined planes. One end portion of each web is disposed in the plane of a first ribbon, and the opposite end portion of the web is disposed in the plane of a second ribbon, with the intermediate web portion being twisted throughout its length. The article is preferably fabricated from a sheet of metal or other suitable material with each of the ribbons being deformed to include alternating, longitudinally spaced crests and troughs, the crests on each ribbon being aligned with a trough on an adjacent ribbon. The article is fabricated by a process including the step of simultaneously imparting a multi-planar torsional deformation to each of the webs of the sheet while deforming the ribbons to form the crests and troughs.

41 Claims, 80 Drawing Figures PATENTEU 1 1975 3,869,778

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' sum 1n ur 15 ARTICLE OF MANUFACTURE WITH TWISTED WEB CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION This application is a continuation-in-part of my application Ser. No. 211,858, filed December 27, 1971, now abandoned which was a continuation-in-part of my application Ser. No. 767,303 filed Oct. 14, 1968, now abandoned.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The desirability of providing a structural material that has a high strength-to-weight ratio has been well recognized in the past. One well known expedient that has-been used to fulfill this need is a honeycomb structure, which essentially consists of hexagonally shaped open cells interconnected by columnar webs. While such members have functioned satisfactorily in aircraft structures and the like, because of their inherent inflexibility, difficulty has been encountered in causing honeycomb structures, to conform to curved surfaces, while at the same time retaining their column strength.

Many attempts have been made to provide a satisfactory structural material having multi-planar flexibility, but heretofore, the structures that have been proposed are either impractical to fabricate, or deficient in the strength required for the intended function. An example of a structural material that is difficult, if not impossible, to fabricate is that disclosed in Robb U.S. Pat. No. 3,227,598. As disclosed therein, a plurality of projections are struck outwardly in opposite directions from a sheet of material, so as to stretch the material between the projections to define saddle-shaped connecting portions. The Robb structure is extremely difficult to fabricate without piercing the material, and even if the material does not rupture, the connecting portions between the projections neck down sufficiently such that the material loses a significant portion of its structural integrity.

Corrugated metal structures that are formed by a simultaneous slitting and deforming step are also well known. An exemplary prior art arrangement is disclosed in Jones U.S. Pat. No. 1,067,521, and as described therein, a plurality of longitudinally spaced slits are cut into a sheet of metallic stock, while alternating portions of the sheet are simultaneously deformed to provide longitudinally spaced crests and troughs.

It is also well known to weld opposed sheets of metal together in preselected areas, and to force fluid under pressure between the welded areas to expand the metal to provide internal passages. Prior art methods and resulting articles are typified by those disclosed in Grenell U.S. Pat. No. 2,690,002, Fromson U.S. Pat. No. 2,828,533, Adams U.S. Pat. No. 2,859,509, Williams et al. U.S. Pat. No. 2,920,380, Meissner U.S. Pat. No. 2,922,344, Miller U.S. Pat. No. 2,932,491, Mack et al. U.S. Pat. No. 3,058,203 and Heuer U.S. Pat. No. 3,180,011. While the above mentioned patents illustrate the highly developed state of the art, heretofore no one has provided a completely satisfactory structure wherein undulating passages communicate with enlarged chambers, with the passages being provided in spaced ribbons that are interconnected by twisted webs.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The article of manufacture of the present invention consists essentially of a plurality of spaced, parallel longitudinally extending ribbons that are corrugated to include longitudinally spaced alternating crests and troughs. Adjacent ribbons are interconnected by webs that are twisted throughout their length. The article is formed from an initial sheet, strip or plate having a plurality of transversely spaced rows of elongate, uniformly spaced openings, so that when the ribbons are deformed to form the crests and troughs, the webs are given a multi-planar torsional deformation. The article of the present invention has multi-planar flexibility, although the flexibility is not equal in all directions. Because of its flexibility,'the article of the present invention has particular utility in environments where the material must conform to a curved surface. Furthermore, the article of the present invention is idealy suited for use in sandwich structures, where the inner and outer skins are curved, since the apexes of the crests and troughs of the ribbons can be readily given a curvature corresponding to the curvature of the ad jacent outer skin.

Because relatively wide openings are provided in the initial sheet of material, the crests and troughs .in the spaced ribbons can be struck downwardly from the plane of the sheet a substantial distance, so that the resulting article has a length that is substantially less than the initial sheet. This enables the sheet to have impact absorbing characteristics in that, when struck, the sheet will initially expand to its original length before the material itself undergoes deformation. Because of this characteristic, the sheet may be used in diverse environments as a spring, a safety fence, a vehicle bumper,

etc.

The twisted web interconnecting the spaced ribbons makes the material of the present invention extremely useful in environments where radical changes in temperature are encountered. Because the webs are twisted from end to end during the fabrication of the material, the overall length of the webs is decreased, so that in a variable temperature environment, the twisted webs act as expansion joints interconnecting the ribbons. While the material of the present invention is hereinafter described as having specific utility in a muffler for attenuating engine exhaust noises, it will be appreciated that the material also has utility in variable temperature environments, such as heating elements, and the like.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a sheet of material from which an article of manufacture of the present invention is fabricated;

FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken generally along line 2-2 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the basic unit of an article of manufacture of the present invention;

FIG. 4 is a top plan view of the sheet of FIG. 1, after it has been fabricated in accordance with the process of the present invention;

FIG. 5 is a fragmentary side elevational view of the fabricated sheet of FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is a sectional view taken generally along line 6-6 of FIG. 5;

FIG. 7 is a fragmentary top perspective view of the fabricated sheet of FIG. 4;

FIG. 8 is a side elevational view, similar to FIG. 5, and illustrating a modified article of manufacture;

FIG. 9 is a fragmentary top perspective view of the article of manufacture of FIG. 8;

FIG. 10 is a fragmentary sectional view of an arcuate sandwich structure formed in accordance with the teachings of the present invention;

FIG. 11 is a fragmentary perspective view of the arcuate sheet used in the sandwich structure of FIG. 10;

FIG. 12 is a fragmentary sectional view through a modified form of arcuate sandwich structure;

FIG. 13 is a fragmentary perspective view of the arcuate sheet used in the sandwich structure of FIG. 12;

FIG. 14 is a fragmentary perspective view of a still further sheet usable in a spherical sandwich structure;

FIGS. 15 and 16 are fragmentary perspective views of articles of manufacture formed in accordance with the teachings of the present invention, and illustrating different embodiments of weight reducing and strengthening means;

FIGS. 17-22 are enlarged fragmentary top plan views showing different configurations for the openings in the basic starting sheet of FIG. 1;

FIG. 23 is a fragmentary top perspective view of a modified sandwich structure;

FIG. 24 is a top perspective view ofa composite sheet structure usable in the manufacture of a heat exchanger, or the like;

FIG. 25 is a sectional view taken generally along line 2525 of FIG. 24;

FIG. 26 is a sectional view, similar to FIG. 25, but after fabrication of the article has been completed;

FIG. 27 is a sectional view taken generally along line 2727 of FIG. 24 after the article has been fabricated;

FIG. 28 is a fragmentary side elevational view of a first form of apparatus for producing an article of manufacture in accordance with the process of the present invention;

FIG. 29 is a sectional view taken generally along line 29--29 of FIG. 28;

FIG. 30 is a fragmentary side elevational view of a second form of apparatus that is used to fabricate an article of manufacture in accordance with the process of the present invention;

FIG. 31 is a sectional view taken generally along line 31-31 of FIG. 30;

FIG. 32 is a broken schematic representation of an exhaust system for an internal combustion engine utilizing a typical prior art muffler structure;

FIG. 33 is a sectional view taken generally along line 3333 of FIG. 32;

FIG. 34 is a view similar to FIG. 32, but illustrating a muffler formed in accordance with the teachings of the present invention;

FIG. 35 is an enlarged fragmentary top plan view of the muffler illustrated in FIG. 34, with the top portion of the outer muffler shell being removed;

FIG. 35a is an enlarged top perspective view of the muffler of FIG. 34, with a portion of the side and top of the outer muffler shell broken away;

FIG. 36 is a fragmentary top plan view of a modified muffler structure, with a portion of the top of the outer shell broken away;

FIG. 37 is a fragmentary perspective view of another muffler structure with a portion of the outer shell removed;

FIG. 38 is a schematic central sectional view through the muffler of FIG. 37, and illustrating the path of gas flow thcrcthrough;

FIG. 39 is a fragmentary perspective view of still another muffler structure, with the outer and intermediate shells broken away;

FIG. 40 is a schematic central sectional view through the muffler of FIG. 39, and illustrating the path of gas flow therethrough;

FIG. 41 is a top plan view of an impact absorbing safety fence formed in accordance with the teachings of the present invention;

FIG. 42 is an enlarged perspective view of the fence of the present invention and illustrating the mounting post structure for supporting the fence;

FIG. 43 is an enlarged perspective view illustrating the cooperative action between a trim piece at the end of the fence and the sheet of fencing material;

FIG. 44 is a front elevational view of the fencing structure of the present invention during the erection of the fence;

FIG. 45 is a front elevational view of the fence post of the present invention and structure for supporting the same;

FIG. 46 is a view similar to FIG. 45, and illustrating fracturing of the fence post upon impact;

FIG. 47 is a top plan view of a bumper formed in accordance with the teachings of the present invention;

FIG. 48 is an exploded perspective view of the bumper structure of FIG. 47;

FIG. 49 is a top plan view of a modified bumper structure;

FIG. 50 is a fragmentary top plan view of a concrete reinforcing structure formed in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 51 is a side elevational view of the structure illustrated in FIG. 50, with one end portion of the structure being shown embedded in concrete;

FIG. 52 is a side elevational view similar to FIG. 51, and showing a modified form of concrete reinforcing structure;

FIG. 53 is a fragmentary top plan view of the embodiment of FIG. 52;

FIG. 54 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view similar to FIGS. 29 and 30, and illustrating slightly modified apparatus that may be used to fabricate the embodiment of FIGS. 50 and 51;

FIGS. 55 and 56 are fragmentary side elevational views of apparatus that may be used to fabricate a formed shape as shown in FIG. 51;

FIG. 57 is a side elevational view of an air foil, or the like, wherein the core is formed by the apparatus shown in FIGS. 55 and 56;

FIG. 58 is a fragmentary plan view of a blank that is utilized to make the core of the structure of FIGS. 59 and 60;

FIG. 59 is a side elevational view of a sandwich structure incorporating a core made from the blank of FIG. 58;

FIG. 60 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken generally along line 60-60 of FIG. 59;

FIG. 61 is a fragmentary plan view of a blank that is utilized to form a product that includes a web which is twisted approximately 180;

FIG. 62 is a side elevational view of the blank of FIG. 61 following a first deformation step wherein the webs are twisted approximately FIG. 63 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken generally along line 6363 of FIG. 62;

FIG. 64 is a side elevational view of the blank of FIG. 61 following a second deformation step wherein the webs are twisted approximately 180;

FIG. 65 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken generally along line 6565 of FIG. 64;

FIG. 66 is a fragmentary perspective view showing a fencing section formed in accordance with the teachings of the present invention;

FIG. 67 is a fragmentary perspective view of two inline fencing structures, and the mechanism for interconnecting the same;

FIG. 68 is a sectional view taken generally along line 68-68 of FIG. 67;

FIG. 69 is a sectional view taken generally along line 6969 of FIG. 67;

FIG. 70 is a perspective view illustrating the mechanism for connecting right angled fencing sections;

FIG. 71 is a perspective view similar to FIG. 66 but illustrating the method of joining two vertically adjacent fencing sections;

FIG. 72 is a plan view of a blank that is utilized to manufacture a nestable, four-way pallet formed in accordance with the teachings of the present invention;

FIG. 73 is an edge view of the blank shown in FIG. 72;

FIG. 74 is an edge view of the blank following fabrication;

FIG. 75 is a plan view of the fabricated structure shown in FIG. 74;

FIG. 76 is an end view illustrating a plurality of pallets nested with one another;

FIG. 77 is a plan view of a blank for forming a modified pallet structure; and

FIGS. 78 and 79 are side and end elevational views of the blank of FIG. 77 following fabrication and with the addition of spaced parallel support plates.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS While this invention is susceptible of embodiment in many different forms, there is shown in the drawings and will herein be described in detail a preferred embodiment of the invention and modifications thereof, with the understanding that the present disclosure is to be considered as an exemplification of the principles of the invention and is not intended to limit the invention to the embodiments illustrated. The scope of the invention will be pointed out in the appended claims.

The basic unit of the present invention is illustrated at 60 in FIG. 3, and the unit includes a pair of spaced, parallel, generally planar ribbons 61 and 62 that are separated from one another by elongate openings 63 and 64. An integral web 65 connects ribbons 61 and 62, and the ribbons are disposed at an angle with respect to one another, so that one end 66 of the web 65 is disposed in the plane of ribbon 61, while the opposed end 67 of the web 65 is disposed in the plane of ribbon 62, with the intermediate portion 68 of the web being generally uniformly twisted between end portions 66 and 67.

A plurality of basic units 60 are formed during the fabrication of a unitary sheet 70, illustrated in FIG. 1 as including a plurality of transversely spaced rows 71 of longitudinally aligned. elongate openings 72. The rows of openings 72 divide the sheet 70 into a plurality of longitudinally extending, parallel ribbons 73, with the openings 72 being separated by a web 74, which interconnects adjacent ribbons 73. The basic unit 60 would be formed from two adjacent ribbons 73, as is illustrated in broken lines in the lower right-hand corner of FIG. 1.

To form the article of the present invention, the sheet is deformed by apparatus to be hereafter described in connection with FIGS. 28-31 to provide a series of alternating longitudinally spaced crests 75.and troughs 76 in each of the ribbons 73. As can be best seen in FIG. 5, the crests are defined by upwardly converging ribbon portions 77, while the troughs 76 are defined by downwardly converging ribbon portions 78. The crests 75 on each ribbon 73 are aligned with troughs 76 on an adjacent ribbon, so that the crests and troughs define aligned, transversely extending openings 79, as is evident from FIG. 4. After the sheet 70 has been fabricated, the length thereof has been significantly reduced, and for purposes of example and not of limitation, the present invention contemplates that the reduction in length will be on the order of 25 percent.

As is also evident from FIG. 5, the transitional portions of the crests 75 and troughs 76, Le, the merger between ribbon portions 77 and 78 adjacent the webs 74, are disposed on an angle with respect to the initial plane of the sheet indicated generally at P in FIG. 5, with the transitional portions of adjacent ribbons being disposed at oppositely inclined angles with respect to plane P. Webs 74 include a first end portion 80 disposed in the plane of the transitional portion of one ribbon, with the opposite end portion 81 of the web being disposed in the plane of a transitional portion on an adjacent ribbon, so that the midportion 82 of the web 74 is substantially uniformly twisted between the oppositely inclined web end portions 80 and 81.

The above described article has multi-planar flexibility, with the deformed sheet 70 being readily bendable about a longitudinal line through webs 74, and with the deformed sheet 70 also being readily bendable about a transverse line through webs 74. The deformed sheet 70 is also bendable about inclined lines through the webs 74, although it will be appreciated that the sheet 70 is not equally bendable in the above described directions. The sheet 70 must be relatively ductile to allow the webs 74 to undergo multi-planar torsional deform ation during fabrication of the article, and while the sheet 70 may be formed of metal, the present invention is not limited to any specific material.

In the embodiment of FIGS. 1-7, the apexes of the crests 75 and troughs 76 are flattened, so as to define crest portions 83 and trough portions 84 that are spaced from, and parallel with, the initial plane P of the sheet 70. As is evident from FIG. 23, the embodiment of FIGS. 1-7 has particular utility as a truss-like structural element sandwiched between spaced, parallel outer skins or sheets 85 and 86. The cover sheets may have different thicknesses, if desired, and in some instances, only one cover sheet may be provided. While the deformed sheet 70 is illustrated in FIG. 23 between cover sheets 85 and 86, it is also contemplated that the deformed material may be bonded to solid articles, and the like. The crest surfaces 83 and trough surfaces 84 are joined to sheets 85 and 86 by any suitable process that is compatible with the material from which the sheets are formed. With metallic materials, the present invention contemplates that at least a plurality of the crest surfaces 83 and trough surfaces 84 will be bonded to the sheets 85 and 86, respectively, by welding, and

supporting members, such as those illustrated at 87 in FIG. 23, may be inserted in the openings 79 during the welding operation. The illustrated supporting members 87 are slidably inserted in the openings 79, and may be removed after the bonding operation has been completed, although the present invention also contemplates that the supporting members may be joined to the deformed sheet 70 to provide a reinforcement therefor, if desired.

The embodiment of FIGS. 8 and 9 is similar to the embodiment of FIGS. 1-7 in that the structural member 88 is formed from a thin, flat sheet having a plurality of transverse rows of elongate openings that divide the sheet into parallel ribbons 89 connected by twisted webs 90. As with the previously described embodiment, the ribbons 89 are deformed to provide crests 91 and troughs 92, with the crests 91 including upwardly converging surfaces 93, and with the troughs 92 including downwardly converging surfaces 94. The embodiment of FIGS. 8 and 9 differs essentially from the previously described embodiment in that the apexes 95 and 96 of the crests 93 and troughs 94, respectively, have an arcuate configuration, with the apexes being curved about centers that are spaced from and parallel with the plane of the initial sheet, with the centers being positioned along lines that are perpendicular to the length of the ribbons.

The embodiment of FIGS. 10 and 11 is similar to the embodiment of FIGS. 1-7, in that the apexes of the crests 75 and the troughs 76 are defined by relatively broad areas. However, in the embodiment of FIGS. 10 and 11, the apexes 83a of the crests 75, and the apexes 84a of the troughs 76, have an arcuate configuration, with the apexes 83a and 84a being curved about an axis that is parallel to the length of the ribbons 71. The deformed sheet of FIGS. 10 and 11 has particular utility as a structural element in an arcuate sandwich structure between an outer skin or sheet 87'and an inner skin or sheet 98. While the sheets 97 and 98 are illustrated in FIG. 10 as having only limited arcuate extent, the present invention contemplates that the members 97 and 98 will be concentric tubes that define an annular chamber therebetween, with crest apex 83a being rounded about a radius equal to that of tube 97 and with trough apex 84a being rounded about a radius equal to that of tube 98, so that the apexes will be positioned in face abutting engagement with the tubes to facilitate joining of the tubes to the deformed sheet.

The embodiment of FIGS. 12 and 13 is similar to the embodiment of FIGS. 10 and 11, in that the deformed sheet is bent to have an arcuate configuration, so as to be useful in an arcuate sandwich structure, as between concentric tubes 99 and 100. The embodiment of FIGS. 12 and 13 differs from the embodiment of FIGS. 10 and 11, in that the deformed sheet in FIGS. 12 and 13 is positioned at right angles with respect to the position of the deformed sheet in FIGS. 10 and 11. In the embodiment of FIGS. 12 and 13, the crest apexes 83b and the trough apexes 8412 are curved about axes that are perpendicular with respect to the length of the ribbons 71, with the crest apexes 83b being disposed on a radius that is equal to the radius of tube 97, and with the trough apexes 84b being disposed on a radius that is equal to the radius of tube 100, so as to position the apexes in face abutting engagement with the adjacent tube surfaces.

The embodiment of FIG. 14 is similar to the embodiment of FIGS. 10 and 11 and FIGS. 12 and 13, except that the crest apexes 83c and trough apexes 84c have a generally spherical configuration, so that the embodiment of FIG. 14 can be used in a spherical sandwich structure. Flexible supporting members may be inserted in the arcuately deformed members to facilitate the bonding of the members to their outer sheets.

The deformed sheet embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 15 and 16 is similar to the previously described embodiments, except that the converging crest protions 77 and converging trough portions 78 merge with one another, so that the crest apexes 83d and the trough apexes 84d define a relatively sharp corner. The embodiment of FIG. 16 is illustrated as having weight reducing means in the form of a pair of circular openings 104 in the inclined portions of the ribbons, and in addition to lessening the weight of the structural material, such openings provide a means for attaching the material to cooperating structural element. As is illustrated in FIG. 15, the ribbons may include strengthening means in the form of an elongate rib 103 that is struck outwardly from the inclined portion of the ribbon. While the weight reducing openings and strengthening ribs have been illustrated in connection with the embodiment of FIGS. 15 and 16, it will be appreciated that such means could also be provided in the previously described embodiments.

FIGS. 17-22 illustrate various forms of openings that may be provided in sheet in lieu of openings 72. Like openings 72, the openings 72a-72f, each has rounded end portions so as to minimize the stress concentration effects adjacent the webs 74 during the sheet deformation operation. The opening 72a in FIG. 17 includes a narrow midportion 105 with gradually outwardly flaring side portions 106 that merge with the rounded end portions 107. The opening 72b in FIG. 18 includes an elongate narrow midportion 108, with enlarged, generally circular end portions 109 being pro- -vided at opposite ends of portion 108. The opening 720 in FIG. 19 includes an enlarged midportion 110 terminating in rounded end portions 111 of reduced size. The opening 72d of FIG. 20 includes an enlarged midportion 112 with inclined sides 113 converging toward rounded end portions 114. The opening 72e of FIG. 21 includes a plurality of generally circular portions 115 connected by slots 116 of reduced width. The opening 72fof FIG. 22 includes rounded end portions 117 that are connected by a plurality of oppositely facing U- shaped slots 118.

A composite article 120 is illustrated in FIG. 24 and comprises a first sheet 121 folded upon a second sheet 122. Sheets 121 and 122 are bonded to one another, as by welding, at their longitudinal edges 123 and 124 and at the end 125 opposite from the fold line 126. The weld 125 is discontinuous, preferably at the center of the article 120, as shown at 127, to provide an opening, as will hereinafter appear. While the article 120 is illustrated as being formed from a single sheet, the present invention also contemplates that two identically shaped sheets may be placed upon one another and welded around the entire periphery thereof. Sheets 121 and 122 are similar to sheet 70, in that they incline a plurality of transverse rows 128 of elongate openings 129 that divide the sheets I21 and 122 into a plurality of longitudinally extending, parallel ribbons 130. The openings 129 are separated from one another by webs

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Classifications
U.S. Classification428/573, 428/594, 428/596, 428/603, 428/116, 29/6.1, 428/138, 52/98, 428/186, 52/670, 428/582, 428/593, 428/183, D25/153, 52/783.18, 52/300
International ClassificationB21D47/00, F01N13/18
Cooperative ClassificationB21D47/00, F01N2470/06, F01N13/18
European ClassificationB21D47/00, F01N13/18