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Publication numberUS3870611 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 11, 1975
Filing dateOct 19, 1973
Priority dateOct 19, 1973
Publication numberUS 3870611 A, US 3870611A, US-A-3870611, US3870611 A, US3870611A
InventorsVestal George W
Original AssigneeVestal George W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Processing of coal to produce liquid and vaporous hydrocarbons
US 3870611 A
Abstract
Liquid and vaporous hydrocarbons are formed from coal by initially forming an aqueous slurry of comminuted coal and thereafter passing the aqueous slurry through a high energy zone - such as formed between electrodes to cause decomposition of the coal into lower molecular weight hydrocarbons. Next, the slurry containing the reaction products from the high energy zone are passed instantaneously into a cooled aqueous medium and the liquid and vaporous hydrocarbons are removed therefrom. In one embodiment, electrolysis of the water between the electrodes forms hydrogen which is reacted with unsaturated decomposition products of coal to form hydrocarbon components. In another aspect, a pyrophoric metal, such as a mixture of Fe3O4 and aluminum is admixed with the coal in the high energy zone to further increase the energy input thereto.
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United States Patent [191 Vestal [451 Mar. 11, 1975 PROCESSING OF COAL TO PRODUCE LIQUID AND VAPOROUS HYDROCARBONS [76] Inventor: George W. Vestal, Rt. 4, Box 238,

Denton, Tex. 76201 [22] Filed: Oct. 19, 1973 [2]] App]. No.: 407,969

[52] US. Cl 204/168, 48/65, 48/202, 204/73 R, 208/8 [SI] Int. Cl ..B01kl/00 [58] Field of Search 48/65, 197 R, 202, 210, 48/DIG. 7; 204/168, 172, 173, 190, 170, 73 R; 208/8 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,|27.542 9/1938 Stitzer 48/65 3.384.467 5/1968 Ammann et a1. 48/210 3,715,301 2/1973 Tassoney et a]. 48/197 R VAPOR PRODUCT SEPARATION AND RECOVERY UNITS Primary Examiner-S. Leon Bashore Assistant Examiner-Peter F. Kratz Attorney, Agent, or F irm-Richards, Harris & Medlock, Inc.

[57] ABSTRACT Liquid and vaporous hydrocarbons are formed from coal by initially forming an aqueous slurry of comminuted coal and thereafter passing the aqueous slurry through a high energy-zone -such as formed between electrodes to cause decomposition of the coal into lower molecular weight hydrocarbons. Next, the slurry containing the reaction products from the high energy zone are passed instantaneously into a cooled aqueous medium and the liquid and vaporous hydro carbons are removed therefrom. In one embodiment, electrolysis of the water between the electrodes forms hydrogen which is reacted with unsaturated decomposition products of coal to form hydrocarbon components. In another aspect, a pyrophoric metal, such as a mixture of Fe O and aluminum is admixed with the coal in the high energy zone to further increase the energy input thereto.

17 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure LIQUID PRODUCT 1 SEPARATION AND 24 RECOVERY umrs 4 54 340 y 3 i fee I 6 mgmggml 1 ms 3.870.611

9O VAPOR PRODUCT SEPARATION AND RECOVERY UNITS LIQUID PRODUCT SEPARATION AND RECOVERY UNITS PROCESSING OF COAL TO PRODUCE LIQUID AND VAPOROUS HYDROCARBONS This invention relates to processes for converting coal into other valuable chemical components. In another aspect, this invention relates to a method and apparatus for processing coal to obtain liquid and/or vaporous hydrocarbons therefrom.

Most of the hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives utilized by industry are obtained from petroleum. While various processes areknown for converting coal into lower molecular weight hydrocarbons, such processes have not heretofore found widespread use because of the general availability of crude oil and the more CffiClBHt and economical processes which have been developed for processing crude oil to obtain hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives therefrom. Furthermore, due to the growing worldwide energy shortage which is particularly acute in the United States, there is a great demand for efficient and economical processes for deriving hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives from coal.

It is known that anthracite coals are made of a complex structure and have a rather large fraction of polynuclear aromatics and a small fraction of aliphatic groups. On the other hand, typical bituminous coal, while again being an exceedingly complex structure does contain a large proportion of aliphatic hydrocarbon chains in which the hydrogen to carbon ratio is 2 to l and a relatively small fraction of polynuclear aromatics in which the hydrogen to carbon ratio is less than 1.

In general, commercially utilized processes for converting coal into lower molecular weight components include pyrolysis of the coat. It is known that many complex chemical reactions take place during coal pyrolysis or coking operations, but in general, decomposition and polymerization reactions take place. The typical coking operation for coal includes heating the coal to a temperature above about 700F over a relatively long time period. This results in the weaker bonds rupturing first and with increasing temperature successively stronger bonds begin to rupture. Furthermore, in general, the hot atmosphere maintained around the coal results many times in the decomposition products further decomposing in the vaporous or gaseous state.

It has been recognized in US. Pat. No. 3,384,467 that if coal absorbs heat energy at a rate greatly exceeding the heat transfer rate typically used in coking, a substantial severance of the high energy basic bond structure, and particularly the carbon bonds with consequent production of lower molecular weight products is affected. However, even with such process, there is a problem of removal of decomposition products before they become further decomposed in the presence of the high energy source.

According to one object of this invention, a novel method and means are provided for converting coal to lower molecular weight components.

Another object of this invention is to provide an improved coal conversion process wherein the coal is converted to liquid and/or vaporous hydrocarbons.

Another object of this invention is to provide an improved process for converting coal to liquid and/or vaporous hydrocarbon material which includes subjecting coal to high energy conditions and thereafter repidly quenching the reaction and thereby recovering the reaction products.

According to the invention, a method is provided for converting coal into liquid and/or vaporous components which includes initially forming an aqueous suspension of comminuted coal and thereafter passing the suspension through a high energy conversion zone while submerged under an aqueous medium to effect decomposition of the coal into volatilized components which are immediately cooled as they pass from the high energy zone through the aqueous medium.

According to one embodiment of the subject invention, the conversion energy for decomposing the coal comprises an electric are formed between at least two spaced electrodes.

According to another embodiment of the subject invention, at least a pair of electrodes (an anode and cathode) are disposed adjacent the high energy conversion zone and are operating in the electrolysis mode to thereby furnish hydrogen for reaction with said volatilized components.

According to still another embodiment of this invention, the high energy conversion zone comprises at least 2 spaced electrodes (an anode and cathode) operating in an electrolysis mode within an aqueous medium, thereby forming hydrogen at the cathode and the aqueous slurry containing the comminuted coal which is passed therebetween also contains pyrophoric material which is ignited in the presence of the electrodes and thereby imparts high intensity energy to the comminuted coal to cause decomposition thereof, the unsaturated decomposition products thereby reacting with the hydrogen to form liquid and/or vaporous hydrocarbon products.

Thus, the subject invention provides a process of imparting a high rate of energy to comminuted coal disposed within an aqueous medium without vaporizing the entire aqueous medium, to thereby allow the decomposition products to be instantaneously cooled within the aqueous medium as they are formed.

This invention can be more easily understood from a study of the drawing which comprises a schematic representation of an apparatus suitable for converting coal and which embodies the principles of the subject invention.

Now referring specifically to the drawing, this invention will be described in relation to the conversion of coal into liquid and/or vaporous components. It is noted that while the invention will be described in terms of the conversion of coal which normally encompasses both anthracite and bituminous coal, the word coal is used herein to include similar materials such as tar, lignite, charcoal-and coke, for example. The preferred material which is converted in the scope of this invention is bituminous coal and/or anthracite coal.

Now referring to the drawing, an apparatus is schematically illustrated which can be utilized to convert coal in accordance with several embodiments of the subject invention. In each embodiment, a means is provided whereby particulate coal while submerged within an aqueous medium is subjected to an instantaneous energy input which will heat at least the surface of the coal particles to a temperature above about 700F and generally from about 700F to about 2,000F. The decomposition products are emitted immediately into a body of the liquid aqueous medium and pass upwardly therethrough and are then separated therefrom.

As shown, coal converter 10 comprises an upright, elongated enclosed vessel having a liquid inlet 12 at the lower end thereof; vapor product outlet 14 at the upper end thereof; a liquid product outlet 16 adjacent the midportion thereof; a liquid recycle outlet 18 adjacent the midportion of vessel but below the liquid product outlet 16 and a liquid inlet 19 disposed between liquid recycle outlet 18 and liquid inlet 12. Electrodes 20 and 22 are positioned adjacent liquid inlet 12, and are connected to lead means 24 and 26, respectively, for applying electric power thereto. As shown, electrode 20 serves as a cathode and electrode 22 as the anode.

As shown in the drawing, feed inlet conduit 28 operatively communicates with liquid inlet 12, and vapor outlet conduit 30 operatively communicates with vapor outlet 14. Similarly, liquid outlet conduit 32 operatively communicates with liquid product outlet 16, and recycle conduit outlet 34 operatively communicates with liquid recycle outlet 18. More specifically, recycle conduit 34 communicates from liquid recycle outlet 18 to feed inlet conduit 28 via leg 34a and liquid inlet 19 via leg 34b, as schematically illustrated in the drawing.

To further'describe the structure of the apparatus shown in the drawing, the feed inlet conduit 28 is designed to receive a flow of water therethrough and operatively communicate with a series of solids feeder units 38 and 40, and has mixing chamber 42 operatively disposed therein. Solids feeder unit 44 operatively communicates with mixing chamber 42. Furthermore, pump 46 and valve 36 are disposed within feed inlet conduit 28, as illustrated in the drawing. Recycle conduit 34 has cooler 48, valve 50, and pump 52, valves 54 and 55 operatively disposed therein. Valves 54 and 55 are operatively positioned within legs 34a and 34b, respectively. Valve 50 is disposed within recycle conduit 34 between the junction of conduits 56 and 58 therewith. Conduit 56 has valve 60 operatively disposed therein and communicates to the upper region of liquid solids separator 62. Conduit 58 has valve 64 operatively disposed therein and communicates with the upper mid-portion of liquid solids separator 62. The bottom of liquid solids separator 62 communicates with outlet conduit 66 which has valve means 68 operatively disposed therein.

Liquid product outlet conduit 32 has valve 70 and pump 71 operatively disposed therein and communicates with liquid product, separation, and recovery units 72. Liquid product separation and recovery units 72 can comprise any conventional apparatus known in the art for separating liquid hydrocarbon components and recovering the separated components. Such apparatus is old and well known in the art and can include fractionation, absorption and the like and is not novel and part of the subject invention.

Gaseous product outlet conduit 30 communicates from gaseous outlet 14 to conduit 74 and has valve 76 operatively disposed therein. Conduit 78 communicates with gaseous product outlet conduit 30 at a point between gaseous outlet 14 and valve 76. Conduit 78 has valve 80 and cooler 82 operatively disposed in series therein and communicates with the upper midportion of vapor liquid separator 84. Conduit 86 has valve 88 operatively disposed therein and communicates from the bottom of vapor liquid separator 84 to the top of liquid-solids separator 62. Conduit 74 communicates between the upper portion of liquid-vapor separator 84 to gaseous product separation and recovery units 90 and has pump 92 and valve 94 operatively positioned therein. Vapor product separation and recovery units 90 can comprise any conventional apparatus including separation, fractionation and adsorption and scrubbing towers known in the art for separating gaseous components and particularly, hydrocarbon components. The vapor product separation and recovery units 90 can be varied as desired, but any old, well known combination of units can be used to separate the product gases and such conventional units in and of themselves, do not form a part of the subject invention.

Generally, in the operation of the apparatus is formed shown in the drawing, a high energy conversion zone isformed between electrodes 20 and 22. Furthermore, an aqueous stream containing between about 2 and about 60% solids is continuously delivered through inlet 12 and thereby through the high energy zone. Simultaneously, the aqueous stream is continuously de' livered from conduit 34bto inlet 19 and serves to cool the hot reactants which pass from the high energy zone. This is accomplished by constantly withdrawing aqueous medium via liquid recycle outlet 18 into conduit 34, through valve 50 (with valves 60 and 64 closed), pump 52, and then through conduit legs 34a and 34b. Valves 54 and 55 are positioned so that the desired proportions of the liquid flowing through conduit 34 are split and a first portion passes through leg 34a and the second portion through leg 34b. Generally, valves 54 and 55 are open to allow about half of the recycle fluid flow through leg 34a and about half to flow through leg 34b. Coal converter 10 can be operated under any desired pressure range and generally, under normal atmospheric pressure. Thus, cooler 48 maintains the aqueous slurry at a temperature below about 212F, even though substantial portions of the water which pass through leg 34a, through conduit 28 and inlet 12 will vaporize. As stated, generally, from about 2 to 60 volume percent of the fluid maintained within coal converter 10 is solids and generally, mostly comminuted coal. Conduit 28 delivers makeup portions of solid material to inlet 12 when valve 36 is open. Thus, the solids content of the fluid flowing through valve 36 can be substantially greater then 60 percent by volume, but once it is diluted by the fluid flowing through leg 34a should generally contain from about 2 to about 60 volume percent solids. Generally, it is preferred that comminuted coal be delivered via solids feeder unit 44 and other reactants be delivered via solids feeder units 38 and 40. For example, catalysts or pyrophoric particulate metals.

According to one embodiment of this invention, an aqueous slurry of comminuted coal together with a pyrophoric material is passed through liquid inlet 12 and between electrodes 20 and 22, which are operating in an electrolysis mode. More specifically, coal converter 10 is supplied with reactants by opening valve 36 and passing water into conduit 28. Solids feeder unit 38 is actuated and supplies conduit 28 with powdered Pe o to form an initial aqueous slurry. This slurry is then passed to the point adjacent solids feeder unit 40 wherein powdered aluminum is added thereto to form a second slurry. The second slurry is then passed into mixing chamber 42 which receives comminuted coal via solids feeder unit 44. The resulting slurry is passed via pump 46 and valve 36 to inlet 12 of coal converter 10. The resulting slurry can contain from about 2 to about 60 and preferably from about 5 to about 35% by volume total solids. Generally, the relative amount of pyrophoric metal in the slurry can be varied, depending upon the products one desires from the reaction. Generally, the amount of pyrophoric materials, (Fe O and Al) will be from about 0.01% by weight to about by weight and preferably from about 0.02% by weight to about 2% by weight of the total weight of the coal in the slurry. Generally, it is preferred that stoichiometric amounts of aluminum and Fe O be present in the slurry. Thus, while less than stoichiometric proportions of Fe O and Al can be present, it is generally desired that the approximate stoichiometric proportion be present to satisfy the following equation:

Next, with valves 60 and 64 closed and valves 50 and 54 and 55 open, pump 52 is actuated to cause the liquid slurry within coal converter 10 to be constantly recycled. Cooler 48 and the flow through legs 34a and 34b are controlled to assure that the aqueous fluid within coal converter 10 is maintained in the liquid state except adjacent the high energy zone. Water is maintained at a constant level 10a as shown by broken line in the drawing.

The resulting slurry which is passed from leg 34b to conduit 28 passes through liquid inlet 12 and between the electrodes and 22 which are operating in the electrolysis mode wherein substantial amounts of hydrogen are present adjacent cathode 20. The contact of the slurry with the electrodes causes ignition of the pyrophoric material and an instantaneous heat input to at least the surface of the coal particles. The instantaneous heat input thereby causes degradation of the coal and the formulation of vaporized constituents. The contact of the free hydrogen at this pointcauses hydrogenation of vaporous unsaturated hydrocarbon specie. The vaporous reaction products are then passed upwardly from the high energy zone and through liquid water within coal converter 10 to cause cooling thereof. The water is maintained at less than its boiling point. For example, when coal converter 10 is operated under atmospheric conditions, the water is maintained at a temperature of less than 212F, and the vaporous reactants are rapidly cooled as they are passed upwardly therewithin. Thus, the normally liquid hydrocarbon components are condensed and flow to the surface 10a of the water (the interface between hydrocarbon layer 10b and the water) within coal converter 10 and the Vaporous constituents are cooled but pass upwardly thereto to vapor outlet 14.

With the apparatus as shown in the drawing, and with coal converter 10 operating under continuous process conditions, valve 36 is generally operated in response to a liquid level (or interface level) within coal converter 10 by control mechanisms not shown in the drawing. Thus, when level 10a is reached within coal converter 10, valve 36 is closed and pump 46 together with solids feeder units 38, 40 and 44 are deactuated. However, during the continuous operation of the subject invention, recycle conduit 34 is maintained full of slurry at all times and pump 52 is continuously operatmg.

During the normal continuous recycle mode, valves 50, 54 and 55 are open and the aqueous slurry is passed through liquid recycle outlet 18 into recycle conduit 34 and through cooler 48 wherein the slurry is cooled. Thereafter the slurry is passed through pump 52 into conduit legs 34a and 34b. The slurry from conduit leg 34a passes back into feed inlet conduit 28 and through liquid inlet 12 and between electrodes 20 and 22. The slurry from conduit leg 34b is passed back into coal converter 10 above electrodes 20 and 22. When this is accomplished, residual amounts of the pyrophoric material in the slurry passed through leg 34a will ignite adjacent electrodes 20 and 22 to cause further conversion of the coal particles.

Liquid hydrocarbonaceous materials floating on top of the water 10a are removed via liquid product outlet 16 and pass to conventional liquid product separation and recovery units 72 via pump 71 and valve 70. The liquid products can comprise aliphatic and aromatic fractions depending upon the type of feed and the processing condition. Typical products can include straight and branched chain paraffinic hydrocarbons and aromatics such as benzene. The vaporous products which pass through vapor outlet 14 generally comprise the lower molecular weight hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, ethylene, butylene, propylene, acetylene, as well as carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and water vapor, for example. The relative quantity of vaporous to liquid products will vary with the feed and process conditions. Preferably, with valve 76 closed and valve 80 open, the vaporous materials will pass from conduit 30 into conduit 78 through cooler 82 wherein the water vapor is condensed and into liquid vapor separator 84. Water is removed from the lower region of liquid vapor separator 84 via valve 83 and conduit 86 and passed to separator 62. The gaseous products from liquid vapor separator 84 are passed through conduit 74 via pump 92, valve 94 into gaseous product separation and recovery units 90.

intermittently, during the operation, valve 36 can be opened to pass further amounts of the feed slurry into coal converter 10. Furthermore, when desired, valve is closed while valves and 64 are opened to allow liquid slurry to pass from conduit 34 into conduit 56 to liquid solids separator 62 wherein solids are removed via conduit 66 and water is passed back to recycle conduit 34 via conduit 58.

In accordance with a further embodiment of the subject invention, the pyrophoric mixture need not be utilized in the coal conversion process. In this instance, electrical power from leads 24 and 26 is utilized to strike and maintain an are between cathode 20 and anode 22. Next, particulate coal is supplied to water flowing through conduit 28 via solids feeder unit 44 and passed to liquid inlet 12 via pump 46 and valve 36. The coal particles can comprise any desired concentration of the aqueous slurry such that when admixed with the recycled aqueous fluid flowing from leg 34a into conduit 28, the resulting mixture comprises from about 2 to about 60 volume percent solids. The resulting slurry of coal particles is passed through the electric are which is formed between the electrodes and at least surface portions of the particles are instantaneously heated to a temperature of from about 700F to about 2,000F and converted to lower molecular weight products. The recovery of the products, both liquid and vaporous, is effected in the same manner such as described above.

When operating in accordance with another embodiment of this invention, the pyrophoric material can be supplied or admixed with the coal slurry, which is passed through an are maintained between anode 22 and cathode 20. This embodiment can be utilized when maximum heat input is desired to form a large quantity of low molecular weight aliphatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen, for example.

It is noted that while only one liquid inlet 12 and one cathode 20 and anode 22 are illustrated in the drawing, it is to be understood that liquid inlet 12 can comprise any configuration designed to deliver the aqueous-coal slurry between any desired number of electrode pairs, whether operating in the electrolysis mode, described in connection with the above-described one embodiment or whether operating to produce an arc therebetween in accordance with the other above-described embodiment.

The exact temperature and flow rate conditions of the subject invention can be varied as desired to produce desired quantities of liquid'and/or vaporous constituents from a particular coal feed product. It is generally only necessary to heat the surface of the coal particles passing through liquid inlet 12 to a temperature in the range of from about 700F to about 2,000F. Once the surface of the coal particles have been so heated, they will decompose to form lower molecular weight constituents. Since the decomposition products immediately pass within a cooled aqueous medium, the decomposition products will be quickly cooled or quenched and not undergo further degradation and- /or conversion. In addition, when hydrogen is present in the conversion zone, such as in the said first embodiment when coal converter is operating in the electrolysis mode, the unsaturated hydrocarbon material will become hydrogenated. Thus, depending upon the kind of feed material utilized, the size of the electrode and the amount of voltage and amperage supplied thereto, as well as the presence of pyrophoric material in the mixture, the relative quantity of gaseous and vaporous products can be thereby controlled.

Furthermore, it is within the scope of this invention to pass the feed slurry from liquid inlet 12 through a series of electrodes. For example, a first electrode pair can be operated with an arc therebetween, and can be disposed in line with a second electrode pair operating in the electrolysis mode wherein large amounts of hydrogen are produced at the cathode. The passage through the initial electrodes will heat at least, the surface of the coal particles, to a temperature of between 700 and 2,000F, while instantaneous passage through the second pair will contact the hot vaporous products with hydrogen, and hydrogenate the unsaturated portions thereof.

It is noted that the particle size of the coal which passes into mixing chamber 42 can vary from a powder, e.g., less than 325 mesh (U.S. Standard) to any convenient larger size such as about 5 mesh, (U.S. Standard). The Fe O and aluminum are preferably pyrophoric powder size. It is also noted that as an alternate to aluminum, powdered bauxite can be utilized in the scope of the subject invention as the source for aluminum. The bauxite generally contains from about 30-75% of A1 0 The action of the electrodes on the A1 0 will convert it to Al which in turn will react with the Fe O, to form the pyrophoric mixture.

While this invention has been described in relation to its preferred embodiments, it is to be understood that various modifications thereof will be apparent to one skilled in the art upon reading this specification, and it is intended to cover such modifications as fall within the scope of the appended claims.

I claim:

passed through said spaced electrodes to form reaction products comprising hydrocarbon reaction products and passing said reaction products upwardly through said liquid aqueous medium, to said liquid and vapor recovery zones; and

c. recovering said hydrocarbon reaction products from said aqueous medium.

2. The process of claim 1 wherein a portion of said hydrocarbon reaction products'liquefy as said portion is cooled and passed upwardly through said aqueous medium, and thereafter recovering the resulting liquefied product hydrocarbon from the top of said aqueous medium.

3. The process of claim 1 wherein normally gaseous reaction products are passed through said aqueous medium and recovered above the same.

4. The process of claim 1 wherein portions of said comminuted coal which are not decomposed when passed between said spaced electrodes are passed through said aqueous medium, and thereafter recirculated again through said spaced electrodes.

5. The process of claim 4 wherein a portion of said aqueous medium containing non decomposed comminuted coal is continuously passed from said reaction zone and through a cooling zone wherein it is cooled to a temperature well below the vaporization point of said aqueous medium and then a first portion thereof containing non decomposed comminuted coal is passed again between said spaced electrodes and a second portion thereof containing non decomposed comminuted coal is passed to said aqueous medium in said reaction zone at a point above said spaced electrodes.

6. The process of claim 5 wherein said first and second portions are about equal portions.

7. The process of claim 1 further comprising admixing reactive amounts of a pyrophoric mixture with said aqueous suspension of comminuted coal such that said pyrophoric mixture ignites and supplied energy for said decomposition when passed through said spaced electrodes.

8. The process of claim 7 wherein said phyrophoric mixture comprises Fe o and aluminum.

9. A process of converting coal to lower molecular weight hydrocarbons comprising:

a. suspending coal particles within an aqueous stream;

b. passing said aqueous stream containing said suspended coal particles into a liquid aqueous medium contained within a reaction zone and heating said coal particles between spaced electrodes as they are passed into said liquid aqueous medium to cause decomposition of at least a portion of said coal particles and form said lower molecular weight hydrocarbons;

c. passing said lower molecular weight hydrocarbons through said liquid aqueous medium; and

d. recovering said lower molecular weight hydrocarbons from said liquid aqueous medium.

10. The process of claim 9 wherein at least the surfaces of said coal particles are heated to a temperature above about 700F. within said aqueous medium to cause said decomposition, and vaporization of water at points adjacent said heating, and wherein the aqueous medium surrounding said heating is maintained in the liquid state.

13. The process of claim 9 wherein said spaced electrodes within said aqueous medium are operating in an electrolysis mode.

14. The process of claim 13 further comprising admixing reactive amounts of a pyrophoric mixture with said coal particles in said aqueous stream such that said pyrophoric mixture supplies energy for said decomposition when passed through said spaced electrodes.

15. The process of claim 14 wherein said pryophoric mixture comprises Fe O and powdered aluminum metal.

16. The process of claim 14 wherein said pryophoric mixture comprises FeO and bauxite, the bauxite being reduced between said spaced electrodes.

17. The process of claim 10 wherein said heating occurs by passing said coal particles through an are between said spaced electrodes within said aqueous medium.

UNlTED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION P t n 3 ,87O, 611 p d March 1 1, 197 5 lnventoflsy George" W.' Vestal I It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as. shown below:

Column 1 line 34, "Coat should be ''-coal--; I 6

'line 66, "repidly" should be '--rapi d1y-.

Column 4, lines 10-11., "apparatug ls formed shown" should be -apparatus as shown:-; line 21, "isformed" Should be "is formed-.

Column 5, line 32,- "formul ation" Should be -f ,'ormati'on---;

line 47, ".Va 1porou s" shouldbe --v ap'o.rous

Coluiim 6, 1ine14, "conditiofi'ushould be -condit'ion s-. Column 8 1'ine'4 9 (claim 7 "supplied" should be sup plies--; line 52 (Claim 8) "phyrophoric" should be -pyrophor1c.--

{fol-mm 15?, lin 3, (Claim 1 M3604 should be 53 4 Jignec! arid sealed this 17th day of June 1. 75.

(33:11-) attest q a I 'C LZARQEALL- DAR?- RUTE: C. MASON Commissioner-of Patents Rttestiny: Officer 'and Trademarks

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4010089 *Jun 7, 1974Mar 1, 1977Battelle Memorial InstituteWith hydrogen
US4158637 *Apr 30, 1976Jun 19, 1979Westinghouse Electric Corp.Conversion of coal into hydrocarbons
US4181504 *Aug 26, 1977Jan 1, 1980Technology Application Services Corp.Method for the gasification of carbonaceous matter by plasma arc pyrolysis
US4268363 *Aug 20, 1979May 19, 1981Coughlin Robert WMethod for electrowinning metals
US4566961 *Mar 1, 1984Jan 28, 1986The British Petroleum Company P.L.C.Electric arc conversion process
US5069765 *Apr 11, 1990Dec 3, 1991Lewis Arlin CMethod of manufacturing combustible gaseous products
US8002872Nov 22, 2006Aug 23, 2011Carbontech, LlcMethods of recovering and purifying secondary aluminum
US8002969Dec 5, 2007Aug 23, 2011Saudi Arabian Oil CompanyUpgrading crude oil using electrochemically-generated hydrogen
US8409419May 18, 2009Apr 2, 2013Paul R. KruesiConversion of carbon to hydrocarbons
US20140065684 *Nov 7, 2013Mar 6, 2014Xyleco, Inc.Processing materials
Classifications
U.S. Classification204/168, 48/65, 48/202, 208/402
International ClassificationC25B3/04, C10G1/06, C10G1/00, C25B3/00, C10J3/02, C10J3/18
Cooperative ClassificationC10G1/06, C25B3/04, C10G1/00, C10J3/18
European ClassificationC10G1/06, C10J3/18, C10G1/00, C25B3/04