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Publication numberUS3871126 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 18, 1975
Filing dateJun 22, 1973
Priority dateJun 22, 1973
Publication numberUS 3871126 A, US 3871126A, US-A-3871126, US3871126 A, US3871126A
InventorsMiller Edward A
Original AssigneeMiller Edward A
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Model airplanes and method of making same
US 3871126 A
Abstract
Model airplanes are built with structural surfaces of a double layer of corrugated material wherein the corrugations in each layer extend at an angle to each other. The wings are tilted backward at an angle of about 0 to 2 degrees with respect to the engine, and the elevator is hinged by use of a single layer of corrugated material having the corrugations extending laterally and one face sheet of the layer slit adjacent the concave side of a corrugation.
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United States Patent 1191 Miller [451 Mar. 18, 1975 MODEL AIRPLANES AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME [76] Inventor: Edward A. Miller, 17807 SE. 7th

PL, Kent, Wash. 98031 [22] Filed: June 22, 1973 [21] Appl. N0.: 372,862

[52] US. Cl 46/78, 46/79 [51] Int. Cl A63h 27/00 [58] Field of Search 46/76 R, 77, 78, 79, 80, 46/81 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,486,463 3/1924 Short 46/79 1,776,222 9/1930 Harris 46/77 2,031,419 2/1936 Kramer..... 46/76 R 2,303,632 12/1942 Grant 46/76 R 2,644,271 7/1953 Shapiro 46/81 2,826,862 3/1958 Shapiro 46/77 X 2,870,569 1/1959 Bergstrand 46/76 R 2,932,124 4/1960 Robinette 46/79 3,388,651 6/1968 Axelrod 46/76 R 3,733,737 5/1973 Goodman 46/76 R 3,735,524 5/1973 Staats et al 46/76 R Primary ExaminerLouis G. Mancene Assistant Examiner-J. Q. Lever [57] ABSTRACT Model airplanes are built with structural surfaces of a double layer of corrugated material wherein the corrugations in each layer extend at an angle to each other. The wings are tilted backward at an angle of about 0 to 2 degrees with respect to the engine, and the elevator is hinged by use of a single layer of corrugated material having the corrugations extending laterally and one face sheet of the layer slit adjacent the concave side of a corrugation.

25 Claims, 17 Drawing Figures PATENTED 1 W5 3,871 12B sum 1 or 3 p gmgguAmams 3.871 126 1 l kmhw m MODEL AIRPLANES AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Flying model airplanes are traditionally prepared with wings having a dihedral. Light weight structural material is required; so the airplanes are made of balsa wood or plastics though the balsa is preferred due to its lighter weight. Forming the model is very time consuming as it requires extensive cutting, filing, trimming and sanding to get just the right shape. Many small pieces must be prepared and glued together. Often considerable time is spent preparing a model only to smash it up and become useless after just a few flights due to the fragileness of the materials.

It was discovered a model airplane may be quickly and easily prepared that may use a flat wing, a curved wing, or a wing with a dihedral which flies well and either comes out of a crash unscathed or is easily put back into flying condition.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Parts for the structural surfaces of the model are cut from a layer of corrugated material having a corrugated core and a tightly adherent face sheet on either side. This layer may be prepared from various materials, with paper preferred due to its price, weight and handleability. In parts where additional strength is desired a double layer of corrugated material is used with the corrugations in each layer extending at an angle to each other; with an angle of about 90 preferred. Contoured shapes for fuselage or for a wing dihedral where desired may be formed by cutting parts to shape from a corrugated layer, placing a coating of an adhesive on the edges and bending another layer of corrugated material over the contoured shapes and holding until the adhesive sets up. Any good adhesive will do the job, but a model airplane glue such as an allylisothiocyanate base in hexane or toluol is preferred. At places where adjoining surfaces are normal to each other such as fuselage to wing one surface is pierced, the other passed through and the two parts adhered to each other; or the parts may be adhered in abutting alignment to each other and an angle shaped reinforcement adhered to them with one leg of the angle against one of the parts and the other leg of the angle against the second part. The angle would be prepared from a strip of a layer of corrugated material having a lengthwise slit through one of the face sheets then bent into the shape of an angle; or the layer of corrugated material may be crushed along a lengthwise line and the layer formed into an angle. An elevator having an integral hinge would be formed from a single layer of corrugated material with the corrugations extending laterally. One of the face sheets of the layer is slit along a line parallel to and adjacent the concave side of a corrugation, and the cut ends of the face sheet are pushed up into the corrugation. The line between the convex part of the corrugation and the face sheet acts as a pivot or hinge. A hinge line may also be formed by crushing the corrugated material from one side along a lengthwise line.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 shows a fragmented perspective view of a double corrugated layer wherein the corrugations in each layer extend at about right angles to each other.

FIG. 2 shows a side elevation of a single corrugated layer looking into the ends of the corrugations.

FIG. 3 shows the view of FIG. 2 wherein one face sheet is cut adjacent the concave side of a corrugation to form a hinge.

FIG. 4 shows a fragmented side elevation of a pair of corrugated layers prior to joining to hold a landing gear FIG. 7 shows a fragmented section ofajoint between intersecting double layers of corrugated material.

FIG. 8 shows a fragmented section of an alternate joint between intersecting double layers of corrugated materials.

FIG. 9 is a fragmented sectional view taken along line 9-9 of FIG. 6.

FIG. 10 shows a perspective view of a model airplane having a silhouette style fuselage.

FIG. 11 show a perspective view of a round wing fly ing wing model airplane.

FIG. 12 shows a front end view of the model of FIG. 11 without the engine.

FIG. 13 show a perspective view ofa delta wing flying wing model airplane.

FIG. 14 shows a fragmented sectional front end view of a model airplane having a three dimensional fuselage.

FIG. 15 shows a fragmented sectional front end view ofa model airplane having a variationofa three dimensional fuselage.

FIG. 16 shows a side elevation of a cross section of a wing having an upwardly curved surface.

FIG. 17 shows a side elevation of a cross section of a wing having dihedral.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION A powered model airplane 10 as shown in FIG. 6 has a contoured silhouette type fuselage or body 12, having an integral rudder 14. This fuselage with integral rudder is of a double layer of corrugated material as best shown in FIG. 1. Layer 16 and layer 18 are bonded together with an adhesive 20. This adhesive or glue may be any of the commonly used adhesives with the model airplane glues preferred. The corrugations in each layer are at an angle of about to each other. Each layer, see FIG. 2 is made up of a corrugated core 22 with tightly adhering face sheets 24 and 26. In this preferred embodiment each layer is made of paper. Engine mount 28 has face plate 30 and angle reinforcements 32 and 34 prepared from a corrugated layer and adhered together and to the nose of the fuselage layers 12a and 12b. Wing 38 is made up of a double layer of corrugated material 38a and 38b. Prior to bonding these two layers together a landing gear strut 40 of a wire pierces the lower layer and is bent to lie parallel with the wing surfaces at 42. When the two layers are bonded together the strut is held firm. The wing is tilted backward about 0 to 2 with respect to the line of the engine 44. The wing is mounted to the fuselage by making a slot in the fuselage, inserting the wing and laying a bead of adhesive 46 around the joint, as best shown in FIG. 8. Control quadrant 48 is mounted to the wing at 50, and control wire 52 is pivotally connected to fastener 54. The fastener in turn connects to the movable part 56 of elevator 58. The elevator has an integral hinge 60, best shown in FIG. 3. The elevator is prepared from a single layer of corrugated material with the corrugations extending laterally with respect to the fuselage. One face of the layer is slit along a line 62 which is parallel and adjacent to the concave side of a corrugation. The ends 64 and 66 are pressed up against the corrugation, and a hinge is formed where the other face sheet and the convex side of the corrugation meet. The rudder is cut away at 68 to allow for movement of the elevator. Wire strut 70 for the rear wheel 72 extends up between fuselage layers 12a and 12b and is bonded in place when those two structural members are joined. All raw edges of the corrugated material are covered as shown at 74 in FIG. 5. This covering may be a tape or an adhesive with the adhesive preferred. The entire airplane may be painted.

In FIG. the wing 76 of a double corrugated layer is joined to the underside of the fuselage 78 of a double corrugated layer. A reinforcing angle 80 is made from a section of a corrugated layer and is bonded to the wing and to the fuselage. A part 82 from a corrugated layer is bonded to the underside of the wing and to landing gear strut 84.

In yet another embodiment as shown in FIGS. 11 and 12 all the structural surfaces are of a double layer of corrugated material with the corrugations in each layer extending at about right angles to each other. Circular wing 86 has a pair of spaced apart rudders 88a and 88b each of which extends above and below the wing, and from the aft end of the wing to the front end where they are joined to a motor mount 90. Engine 92 is tipped forward and mounted to effect an angle of about 0 to 2 with respect to the wing with about 2 preferred. Landing gear struts 94a and 94b are mounted between wing layers in the same manner as previously shown in FIG. 4. Control lines 96a and 96b extend through rudder 88b and hold down 98 which is bonded to the top of the wing and thence to control quadrant 100 which is pivotally mounted to the wing at 102. Wire 104 is pivotally mounted at one end to the control quadrant and at the other end to a connector 106 which is fastened to the movable elevator 108. This elevator is prepared by a pair of parallel slits in the wing which extend from the aft end to a hinge line 110. The bottom layer of corrugated material is cut through along the hinge line as well as the bottom face sheet of the top layer; which has laterally extending corrugations. The material is pressed in from the bottom up on both sides of the hinge line. Alternatively the bottom layer in the area of the movable elevator may be cut completely out prior to bonding the two layers of the wing together. Each of the rudders have a horizontal cut at 112a and 112!) respectively and each upper portion bent outward from a vertical line 114a and 1141). After bending outward a bead of adhesive is laid along the outward side of tthe vertical line to effect a permanent set to this part of the rudder.

In yet another preferred embodiment as set out in FIG. 13 twin rudders 116a and 116b are located in the aft part of wing 118. A single corrugated layer of material extends between the pair of rudders with transverse corrugations to make up elevator 120. One of the face sheets in the layer is cut along a line parallel to the corrugations and the edges pressed inward to form an integral hinge along line 122 to form movable surface 124.

Rib 126 extends between the wing and motor mount.

128. Wire strut 130 for nose wheel 132 extends up between the two layers of the motor mount, and is bonded therebetween. The wing is tilted backward about 0 to 2 with respect to the engine 134. Aft landing gear struts 136a and l36b are bonded between the double wing layers.

In yet another embodiment as shown in FIGS. 14 and 15 the fuselage or body is built up from a single layer ofcorrugated material. In FIG. 14 the sides 138a and l38b are cut to the desired contour, and the top section 140 is shaped to match the contour of the sides and is bonded to the sides. The sides are bonded to the top of the wing 142 and a bead of adhesive placed at 144a and 144b. Wire struts 146a and 146b are bonded between the two layers of corrugated material on the wing and a cover 148a and 148b formed to contact and to adhere to the wing and to the struts. The top cover for a fuselage may be contoured laterally as well as being contoured to match the shaped sides, see FIG. 15 where body cover 150 is contoured over shaped sides 152a and 1521) and rib 154, and then bonded in position. The corrugated layer material may be easily shaped into compound curves.

In yet other embodiments the wing may be curved with the convex surface upward as shown in FIG. 16 to give a somewhat better glide slope when the model runs out of fuel. The corrugated layers 154a and 15417 may be easily formed to shape prior to bonding and will readily hold said shape once the bonding material is cured.

A wing with a dihedral, see FIG. 17 is readily formed by bending upper corrugated layer 156a over a rod 158 and bonding said layer to the rod and to lower corrugated layer l56b at the edges 160a and 160b.

Having specifically described the invention, I do not desire to confine myself to the specific details of the constructional examples herein shown and described as it is apparent that various modifications may be resorted to without departing from the broadprinciples of the invention.

I claim:

1. A powered model airplane having an engine, fuselage, wings, landing gear, rudder, elevator and elevator controls wherein the improvement comprises:

a. a wing made up of at least one layer of a corrugated material, having a corrugated core and a tightly adherent face sheet on either side,

b. an angular relationship between the engine and the wings wherein the wings are tilted backward about 0 to 2, and

c. an essentially flat silhouette type fuselage and integral rudder made up of a double layer of corru gated material wherein the corrugations in each layer extend at an angle to each other.

2. A powered model airplane as in claim 1 wherein the improvement further comprises an elevator of a layer of corrugated material with the corrugations extending laterally in relation to the fuselage and hinged by slitting one face ofthe material along a concave corrugation.

3. A powered model airplane as in claim 2 wherein at least part of the aft portion of the rudder is permanently set at an outward angle.

4. A powered model airplane as in claim 2 wherein the edges of the fuselage with integrated rudder and the elevator are coated with an adhesive.

5. A powered model airplane having an engine, fuselage, layer of landing gear, rudder, elevator and elevator controls wherein the improvement comprises: 2,

a. a wing made up of at least one layer of a corrugated material, having a corrugated core and a tightly adherent face sheet on either side,

b. an angular relationship between the engine and the wings wherein the wings are tilted backward about 0 to 2 c. a three dimensional fuselage of a pair of shaped sides and formed top and bottom to match the contour of the shaped sides all of a corrugated material,

d. a rudder of a double layer of corrugated material wherein the corrugations in each layer extend at an angle to each other,

e. an elevator of a layer of laterally extending corrugated material having one surface cut adjacent the concave side of a corrugation to form a hinge, and

f. a covering over all the edges of each structural member.

6. A powered model airplane comprising:

a. an essentially flat silhouette type fuselage and integral rudder of a double layer of corrugated material, each layer having a corrugated core and a tightly adherent face sheet on either side, wherein the corrugations in each layer extend at an angle to each other,

b. means for mounting an engine to the nose of the fuselage,

c. a wing attached to the fuselage of a double layer corrugated material wherein the corrugations in each layer extend at an angle to each other and the wing tilts backward to effect an angular relationship to the engine of about 0 to 2 degrees,

d. a mounted elevator of a single layer of corrugated material wherein the corrugations extend laterally, having one of the face sheets in the corrugated material out along the line of and adjacent to the concave side of a corrugation to form a hinge,

e. means attached to one side of the wing to control the elevator, and

f. a landing gear.

7. A powered model airplane as in claim 6 further comprising:

a. an outwardly extending set to at least part of the aft end of the rudder, and

b. the landing gear structure on each side of the fuselage comprises a wire bonded between the two wing layers, thence extends downward to support a wheel.

8. A powered model airplane as in claim 6 wherein a cover extends over all edges of each structural member.

9. A powered model airplane comprising:

a. a three dimensional fuselage of two matching shaped sides, and a bottom and top cover each contoured to fit the matching sides of a single layer of corrugated material having a corrugated core and a tightly adherent face sheet on either side,

b. means for mounting an engine to the nose of the fuselage,

c. a wing attached to the fuselage of a double layer of corrugated material wherein the corrugations in each layer extend at an angle to each other and the wing tilts backward to effect an angular relationship to the engine of about 0 to 2,

d. a rudder mounted to the fuselage of a double layer of corrugated material wherein the corrugations in each layer extend at an angle from each other,

e. an elevator mounted to the rudder of a single layer of corrugated material wherein the corrugations extend laterally and having one of the face sheets in the corrugated material cut along the line of and adjacent to the concave side of a corrugation to form a hinge,

f. means attached to one side of the wing to control the elevator, and

g. a landing gear.

10. A powered model airplane as in claim 9 further comprising:

a. an outwardly extending set to at least part of the aft end of the rudder.

11. A powered model airplane as in claim 9 wherein a cover extends over all edges of each structural member.

12. A powered model airplane of a flying wing comprising:

a. a wing of a double layer of corrugated material each layer having a corrugated core and a tightly adherent face sheet on either side wherein the corrugations in each layer extend at an angle to each other,

b. means for attaching an engine to the front of the wing wherein the engine tips forward at about 0 to 2 with respect to the wing,

0. means for mounting landing gear,

d. at least one rudder of double layered corrugated material wherein the corrugations in the layers extend at an angle to each other,

e. an elevator, and

f. means for controlling the elevator.

13. A powered model airplane as in claim 12 wherein the elevator ofa single layer of corrugated material has the corrugations extending laterally, and having one of the face sheets in the corrugated material out along the line of and adjacent to the concave side of a corrugation to form an integral hinge.

14. A powered model airplane as in claim 13 wherein the raw edges of the wing, rudder and elevator are covered.

15. A powered model airplane as in claim 14 wherein the covering is an adhesive.

16. A powered model airplane as in claim 14 wherein at least a portion of the aft end'of the rudder is set outward at an angle.

17. A powered model airplane as in claim 12 wherein the wing is circular shaped.

18. A powered model airplane as in claim 17 wherein the elevator comprises an integral part of the wing formed by a pair of longitudinal cuts completely through the corrugated layer material at the aft part of the wing and having therebetween a lateral incision extending part way through the corrugated layers to form a hinge line.

19. A powered model airplane as in claim 12 wherein the wing is delta shaped.

20. A method of building a powered model airplane with the steps comprising:

a. selecting structural materials for a fuselage, wing, rudder, elevator and engine mount of a layer of corrugated material made up of a corrugated core having a tightly adherent face sheet on either side;

b. cutting parts to shape, from the layer of corrugated material, of a fuselage, a rudder, a pair of wings, an elevator and an engine mount;

c. cutting a matching part, from the layer of corrugated material, of a second fuselage, a second rudder, and a second pair of wings wherein in each pair of matching parts the corrugations within the two layers extend at an angle to each other;

d. adhering the matching parts together;

e. joining the parts together to form an integrated airplane with the wing rotated backward to effect an angle of about to 2 with respect to the engine and the single layer of corrugated material for the elevator having the corrugations extending laterally;

slitting one of the face sheets of the corrugated layer making up the elevator along a line adjacent the concave side of a corrugation and pressing the cut edges along the slit up inside the corrugation to form a hinge;

g. installing means to the airplane to control the hinged elevator; and

h. placing a wire between the two matched layers of each of the pair of wings prior to adhering the layers together with the wire bent to extend through and normal to the lower layer thence bent laterally at 90 to accept a landing wheel.

21. A method as in claim 20 with the further steps of:

a. covering all the raw edges of the structural parts,

and

b. turning at least part of the aft end of the rudder outward.

22. A method of building a powered model airplane with the steps comprising:

a. selecting a structural material for all surfaces of a corrugated layer made up ofa corrugated core having a tightly adherent face sheet on either side;

b. cutting a wing part from the corrugated layer;

0. cutting a second matching shaped wing part from the corrugated layer with the corrugations in the second wing part extending at an angle from'the corrugations in the first wing part;

(1. placing an adhesive between the two wing parts and bonding the parts together;

e. adhering an engine mount to the front of the wing;

f. bonding at least one rudder, made up of double corrugated layers wherein the corrugations in the layers extend at an angle to each other, to the wing and having a laterally extending corrugated layer for an elevator;

g. slitting one of the face sheets on the elevator adjacent a concave side of a corrugation and pressing the open ends of the slit against the inside of the corrugation to form a hinge;

h. fastening a means for controlling the elevator to one side of the wing; and

i. fastening a pair of landing gears to the wings.

23. A powered model airplane having an engine, fuselage, wings, landing gear, rudder, elevator and elevator controls wherein the improvement comprises: a wing made up of at least one layer of a corrugated material, having a corrugated core and a tightly adherent face sheet on either side; an angular relationship between the engine and the wings wherein the wings are tilted backward about 0 to 2; an elevator of laterally extending corrugated material, having a corrugated core and a tightly adherent face sheet on either side, said elevator having an integral hinge formed along a lengthwise line of corrugation; and means for controlling the elevator.

24. A powered model airplane as in claim 23 wherein a slit extends along one of the face sheets of the elevator to form the hinge line.

25. A powered model airplane as in claim 23 wherein the hinge comprises: a lengthwise crushed side of one of the face sheets of the elevator.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5573204 *Nov 14, 1994Nov 12, 1996Hobbico, Inc.Landing gear for aircraft constructed with extruded fluted plastic sheet
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US7811150Apr 26, 2007Oct 12, 2010Mattel, Inc.Modular toy aircraft
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Classifications
U.S. Classification446/32
International ClassificationA63H27/18, A63H27/00
Cooperative ClassificationA63H27/02
European ClassificationA63H27/02