|Publication number||US3873217 A|
|Publication date||Mar 25, 1975|
|Filing date||Jul 24, 1973|
|Priority date||Jul 24, 1973|
|Also published as||CA1006378A1, DE2435616A1|
|Publication number||US 3873217 A, US 3873217A, US-A-3873217, US3873217 A, US3873217A|
|Inventors||Norman G Anderson, Damous D Willis|
|Original Assignee||Atomic Energy Commission|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (86), Classifications (20)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent [191 Anderson et al.
[ 51 Mar. 25, 1975 SIMPLIFIED ROTOR FOR FAST ANALYZER OF ROTARY CUVETTE TYPE  Inventors: Norman G. Anderson, Oak Ridge;
Damous D. Willis, Clinton, both of Tenn.
 Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC.
 Filed: July 24, 1973 [.21], Appl. N0.: 382,240
3,798,459 3/1974 Anderson et al7 250/576 Primary Examiner-Ronald L. Wibert Assistant Examiner-F. L. Evans Attorney, Agent, or Firm-John A. Horan; David S. Zachry; Stephen D. Hamel  ABSTRACT A simplified rotor design utilizing two or less cavities per sample analysis station is described. Sample or reagent liquids are statically loaded directly into respective sample analysis cuvettes by means of respective apertures and centripetal ramps communicating with each cuvette. According to one embodiment, a single static loading cavity communicates with each sample analysis cuvette in a conventional manner to facilitate dynamic transfer of liquid from that cavity to the cuvette where mixing of sample and reagent liquids and their photometric analysis take place. Dynamic load ing of sample or reagent liquids is provided in another  References Cited embodiment UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,795,451 3/1974 Mailen 23/259 x 8 Clalms, 3 Drawmg Flgures It! l lX/ l 4 I l i g 5 y i 1' m I I i PATEHTED MAR 2 5 I975 sum 2 or 2 SIMPLIFIED ROTOR FOR FAST ANALYZER OF ROTARY CUVETTE TYPE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein relates generally to photometers and more particularly to an improved rotor for fast analyzers of the rotary cuvette type characterized by two or less cavities per sample analysis station. It was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.
The general design and operation of fast analyzers of the rotary cuvette type are generally described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,555,284, issued Jan. 12, 1971, to common assignee in the name of Norman G. Anderson. In the analyzer described in that patent, a central loading disk is provided for statically receiving sample and reagent liquids prior to an analysis operation. An annular array of sample analysis cuvettes is disposed about the central loading disk for receiving the liquids from the loading disk and holding them for photometric analysis. A series of four serially interconnected cavities are required per sampling station: two static loading cavities for receiving sample and reagent liquids, one mixing chamber, and one sample analysis cuvette. Because of space limitations, more recently developed miniaturized fast analyzer designs do not incorporate separate mixing chambers and require only three cavities per sampling station. Typical three-cavity rotor designs are shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,798,459 issued Mar. I9, 1974, in the name of Anderson, et al., and U.S. Pat. No. 3,795,451, issued Mar. 5, 1974, in the name of Mailen.
The radially innermost static loading cavities which are part of each sampling station limit the total number of sampling stations because of the lack of available rotor space at the smaller radius. In the more recently developed miniaturized fast analyzers identified above, rotors with diameters of 3.5 inches or less are severely limited where three-cavity sampling stations are used.
It is, accordingly, a general object of the invention to provide an improved rotor for a fast photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type characterized by a minimum number of cavities per sampling station.
Another, more particular object of the invention is to provide an improved rotor for a fast photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type having two or less cavities per sampling station.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In a fast photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, a simplified rotor design is provided requiring two or less cavities per sampling station. Sample or reagent liquid is loaded directly, by means of a centripetal ramp, into each sample analysis cuvette under static conditions. A single additional static loading cavity is disposed centripetal to each sample analysis cuvette ac cording to one embodiment. Dynamic transfer ofliquid from the static loading cavities to respective cuvettes is effected dynamically by conventional means such as radially extending passageways adapted to discharge tangentially into the cuvettes. According to another embodiment, static loading of each cuvette is followed by dynamic loading ofa single sample or reagent liquid. Such arrangement permits the greatest number of sample analysis stations for any given size rotor and is espe cially suitable in miniaturized rotors where space restrictions are greatest.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a rotor made in accordance with the invention.
FIG. 2 is a vertical section view of the rotor of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a top plan view ofan alternative rotor design suitable for completely static or static and dynamic loading of sample and reagent liquids.
FIG. 4 is a vertical section view of the rotor of FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view of the rotor of FIGS. 3 and 4.
FIG. 6 is a top plan view of an alternative rotor design suitable for combined static and dynamic loading.
FIG. 7 is a vertical section view of the rotor of FIG. 6.
FIG. 8 is a bottom plan view of the rotor of FIGS. 6 and 7.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to the drawings, initially to FIGS. 1 and 2, each sampling station I (only two of thirty-two shown) is seen to comprise'a sample analysis cuvette 2 and a single static loading cavity 3. The rotor 4 is a laminar construction with an opaque mid-section 5 sandwiched between top and bottom transparent plates 6 and 7. As shown, sample analysis cuvettes 2 and static loading cavities 3 are conveniently formed by means of holes or slots in opaque mid-section 5 with plates 6 and 7 providing end closures. Static loading is accomplished by respectively injecting, using a syringe or other suit able means, sample and reagent liquids into the sample analysis cuvettes 2 and cavities 3 under static conditions. Apertures 8 and 9 are provided in top plate 6 to facilitate such loading. A ramp 1] is provided on the centripetal side of each cuvette 2 to permit direct static loading of liquid into the cuvette without incurring spillage during rotation of the rotor. Any liquid retained on the ramp following static loading of cuvette 2 is dynamically transferred to the cuvette upon rotation of the rotor.
Dynamic transfer of liquid from each static loading cavity to a corresponding cuvette 2 occurs through passageway 12 which opens at the top centrifugal side of cavity 3. As shown in FIG. 1, passageway 12 discharges tangentially into cuvette 2 to enhance mixing therein of sample and reagent liquids. A slight outward inclination of each cavity 3 aids in the rapid dynamic transfer of liquids from those cavities. Other conventional means for permitting dynamic transfer of liquid from cavities 3 to cuvettes 2 could be used without departing from the invention such as the capillary passageway and bubble trap described in copending application Ser. No. 354,041 now U.S. Pat. No. 3,795,45 l, of common assignee.
FIGS. 3, 4, and 5 show an alternative embodiment of the invention in top, vertical section, and bottom views, respectively. Like, though primed, reference numerals are used to designate like features of the alternative rotor embodiment. As in the embodiment of FIGS. I and 2, an annular array of sample analysis cuvettes 2' and static loading cavities 3' is provided with passageways 12' joining corresponding cuvettes and cavities. Loading apertures 8 and 9' discharge directly into cuvette 2 and static loading cavity 3'. A dynamic liquid systemfis also included which may be used where it is desired to perform a multiplicity of tests on a single sample or a single test on a multiplicity of samples, thereby providing a great degree of flexibility to the rotor and making it amenable to virtually any testing situation. Operation of the rotor using static loading only is possible in the manner described above in reference to the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2.
The dynamic distribution system includes a central distribution chamber 15 provided with a serrated periphery 16 which causes liquid fed therein while the rotor is spinning to be substantially equally distributed to the cuvettes 2'. Radial passageways 17, which have capillary sized portions 18 to prevent flow from the cuvettes under static conditions, extend between distribution chamber 15 and each cuvette. In operation, either sample or reagent liquids could be statically loaded in the cuvettes, the rotor spun, and respective reagent or sample liquids dynamically injected to mix with the statically loaded liquids. As shown, static loading chamber 3' does not extend completely through opaque mid-section 5 in order that space be available for radial passageways 17.
Another embodiment, limited in use to dynamic loading of sample or reagent liquids, is illustrated in FIGS. 6, 7, and 8. Asshown in those figures, an array of sample analysis cuvettes 2" is provided in a manner similar to that of the embodiment of FIGS. 3, 4, and 5. No separate static loading cavities are provided, however, since only one liquid is statically loaded into the cuvettes. A dynamic loading system as described with reference to the embodiment of FIGS. 3, 4, and 5 is provided with like, though double primed, reference numerals designating like features. In operation, sample or reagent is statically loaded in the cuvettes followed by dynamic loading of respective reagent or sample liquid through the dynamic loading system. Rotors made in this manner are limited in number of sample analysis stations only by the number of cuvettes which can be spaced about their peripheries.
The foregoing description of three embodiments of the invention is offered for illustrative purposes only and should not be interpreted in a strictly limiting sense. For example, connecting passageway 12 extending from the top of each static loading cavity 3, 3' may be replaced by a capillary passageway and bubble trap in the manner described in US. Pat. No. 3,795,451. It is intended, rather, that the invention be limited only be the scope of the claims attached hereto.
What is claimed is:
1. An improved rotor for use in a fast photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type comprising a diskshaped member of laminated construction with a central opaque disk sandwiched between top and bottom transparent walls, said disk-shaped member defining:
a, circular array of sample analysis cuvettes extending through said central opaque disk for receiving and holding samples and reagents for photometric analysis;
b. a circular array of outwardly and downwardly extending ramps defining cuvette loading passageways, each of said ramps being in communication with the top end of the centripetal side of a respective cuvette in said array of sample analysis cuvettes;
c. a circular array of first loading apertures extending through said top transparent wall in axial register and liquid communication with respective ramps in said circular array of ramps for facilitating the static loading of liquid in said cuvettes; and
d. means for dynamically injecting liquids into said sample analysis cuvettes.
2. The improved rotor of claim 1 wherein said means for dynamically injecting liquids into said sample analysis cuvettes comprises an array of static loading cavities equal in number and disposed centripetal to said sample analysis cuvettes, second loading apertures extending through said top transparent wall in register with each of said static loading cavities and connecting passageways extending between respective cavities in said array of static loading cavities and said sample analysis cuvettes.
3. The improved rotor of claim 2 wherein said diskshaped member further defines a central distribution chamber and a plurality of distribution passageways communicating between said distribution chamber and respective cuvettes in said circular array of sample analysis cuvettes.
4. The improvement of claim 3 wherein each of said distribution passageways intersects with adjacent distribution passageways to form a serrated periphery about said distribution chamber.
5. The improvement of claim 3 wherein each of said distribution passageways has a capillary-sized portion.
6. The improved rotor of claim 1 wherein said means for dynamically injecting liquids into said sample analysis cuvettes comprises a central distribution chamber and a plurality of distribution passageways communiabout said distribution chamber.
8. The improvement of claim 6 wherein each of said distribution passageways has a capillary-sized portion.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3795451 *||Apr 24, 1973||Mar 5, 1974||Atomic Energy Commission||Rotor for fast analyzer of rotary cuvette type|
|US3798459 *||Oct 6, 1972||Mar 19, 1974||Atomic Energy Commission||Compact dynamic multistation photometer utilizing disposable cuvette rotor|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3951608 *||Jan 22, 1975||Apr 20, 1976||Ernest Trod||Mixing cuvette and timing turntable for providing reaction mixtures|
|US4035156 *||Jan 21, 1977||Jul 12, 1977||The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Energy Research And Development Administration||Filter type rotor for multistation photometer|
|US4123173 *||Jun 9, 1976||Oct 31, 1978||Electro-Nucleonics, Inc.||Rotatable flexible cuvette arrays|
|US4225558 *||Sep 19, 1978||Sep 30, 1980||Honeywell Inc.||Fluid sample test apparatus and fluid sample cell for use therein|
|US4226531 *||Aug 29, 1977||Oct 7, 1980||Instrumentation Laboratory Inc.||Disposable multi-cuvette rotor|
|US4237234 *||Oct 30, 1978||Dec 2, 1980||Meunier Henry E||Device for use in the study of biochemical or enzymatic reactions produced by living organisms|
|US4239853 *||Jan 22, 1979||Dec 16, 1980||Bradley Rex L||Antibiotic testing method and apparatus having a channelized reservoir|
|US4314968 *||Oct 20, 1980||Feb 9, 1982||Jean Guigan||Simultaneous analysis apparatus|
|US4314970 *||Aug 27, 1980||Feb 9, 1982||Instrumentation Laboratory Inc.||Analysis system|
|US4373812 *||Mar 25, 1981||Feb 15, 1983||Instrumentation Laboratory Inc.||Cuvette assembly|
|US4431307 *||Nov 19, 1981||Feb 14, 1984||Labsystems Oy||Set of cuvettes|
|US4431606 *||May 1, 1981||Feb 14, 1984||Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.||Multicuvette rotor for analyzer|
|US4557600 *||Aug 30, 1982||Dec 10, 1985||Boehringer Mannheim Gmbh||Process and device for the control and mixing of a fluid current subjected to centrifugal force|
|US4580896 *||Nov 7, 1983||Apr 8, 1986||Allied Corporation||Multicuvette centrifugal analyzer rotor with annular recessed optical window channel|
|US4580897 *||May 31, 1984||Apr 8, 1986||Allied Corporation||Centrifugal analyzer rotors|
|US4580898 *||May 31, 1984||Apr 8, 1986||Allied Corporation||Analytical system|
|US4656009 *||Sep 27, 1984||Apr 7, 1987||Le Materiel Biomedical||Reaction support incorporating multiple recipients for testing liquid doses|
|US4663296 *||Oct 26, 1983||May 5, 1987||Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.||Multicuvette rotor for analyzer|
|US4756883 *||Sep 16, 1986||Jul 12, 1988||E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company||Analysis device|
|US4756884 *||Jul 1, 1986||Jul 12, 1988||Biotrack, Inc.||Capillary flow device|
|US4761268 *||Apr 12, 1984||Aug 2, 1988||Fisher Scientific Company||Liquid handling|
|US4847205 *||Apr 8, 1987||Jul 11, 1989||Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.||Device and method for automated separation of a sample of whole blood into aliquots|
|US4902479 *||Nov 7, 1983||Feb 20, 1990||Fisher Scientific Company||Centrifugal analyzer rotor|
|US4961906 *||Jun 27, 1988||Oct 9, 1990||Fisher Scientific Company||Liquid handling|
|US4963498 *||Jan 15, 1988||Oct 16, 1990||Biotrack||Capillary flow device|
|US5071625 *||Jan 20, 1988||Dec 10, 1991||Fisher Scientific Company||Cuvette handling|
|US5173262 *||May 30, 1989||Dec 22, 1992||Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.||Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids|
|US5186709 *||Oct 26, 1990||Feb 16, 1993||Behringwerke Aktiengesellschaft||Cuvette rotor|
|US5242606 *||Oct 29, 1991||Sep 7, 1993||Abaxis, Incorporated||Sample metering port for analytical rotor having overflow chamber|
|US5300779 *||Aug 18, 1992||Apr 5, 1994||Biotrack, Inc.||Capillary flow device|
|US5610074 *||Feb 24, 1993||Mar 11, 1997||Beritashvili; David R.||Centrifugal method and apparatus for isolating a substance from a mixture of substances in a sample liquid|
|US5631166 *||Mar 21, 1995||May 20, 1997||Jewell; Charles R.||Specimen disk for blood analyses|
|US5650334 *||Aug 31, 1995||Jul 22, 1997||First Medical, Inc.||Fluorescent labelling compositions and methods for their use|
|US5693233 *||Dec 4, 1995||Dec 2, 1997||Abaxis||Methods of transporting fluids within an analytical rotor|
|US6299839||Aug 31, 1995||Oct 9, 2001||First Medical, Inc.||System and methods for performing rotor assays|
|US6734401||Jun 28, 2001||May 11, 2004||3M Innovative Properties Company||Enhanced sample processing devices, systems and methods|
|US6987253||May 6, 2004||Jan 17, 2006||3M Innovative Properties Company||Enhanced sample processing devices, systems and methods|
|US7033747||Apr 11, 2002||Apr 25, 2006||Nagaoka & Co., Ltd||Multi-parameter assays including analysis discs and methods relating thereto|
|US7164107||Nov 23, 2005||Jan 16, 2007||3M Innovative Properties Company||Enhanced sample processing devices, systems and methods|
|US7323660||Jul 5, 2005||Jan 29, 2008||3M Innovative Properties Company||Modular sample processing apparatus kits and modules|
|US7332129||Jan 9, 2003||Feb 19, 2008||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sample processing device having process chambers with bypass slots|
|US7435933||Jan 12, 2007||Oct 14, 2008||3M Innovative Properties Company||Enhanced sample processing devices, systems and methods|
|US7507376||Dec 19, 2002||Mar 24, 2009||3M Innovative Properties Company||Integrated sample processing devices|
|US7569186||Mar 16, 2005||Aug 4, 2009||3M Innovative Properties Company||Systems for using sample processing devices|
|US7595200||Aug 2, 2006||Sep 29, 2009||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sample processing devices and carriers|
|US7678334||Apr 6, 2006||Mar 16, 2010||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sample processing devices|
|US7754474||Jul 5, 2005||Jul 13, 2010||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sample processing device compression systems and methods|
|US7763210||Jul 5, 2005||Jul 27, 2010||3M Innovative Properties Company||Compliant microfluidic sample processing disks|
|US7767937||Oct 31, 2007||Aug 3, 2010||3M Innovative Properties Company||Modular sample processing kits and modules|
|US7790468 *||Mar 4, 2005||Sep 7, 2010||Brother Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Test object receptacle, test apparatus, and test method|
|US7837947 *||Dec 12, 2003||Nov 23, 2010||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sample mixing on a microfluidic device|
|US7855083||Apr 6, 2006||Dec 21, 2010||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sample processing devices|
|US7932090||Aug 5, 2004||Apr 26, 2011||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sample processing device positioning apparatus and methods|
|US7939018||Mar 24, 2004||May 10, 2011||3M Innovative Properties Company||Multi-format sample processing devices and systems|
|US8002995 *||Apr 1, 2008||Aug 23, 2011||Industrial Technology Research Institute||Fluid analytical device|
|US8003051||Jun 25, 2009||Aug 23, 2011||3M Innovative Properties Company||Thermal structure for sample processing systems|
|US8003926||Sep 5, 2008||Aug 23, 2011||3M Innovative Properties Company||Enhanced sample processing devices, systems and methods|
|US8057757||Oct 12, 2010||Nov 15, 2011||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sample mixing on a microfluidic device|
|US8080409||Jun 4, 2010||Dec 20, 2011||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sample processing device compression systems and methods|
|US8092759||Jun 23, 2010||Jan 10, 2012||3M Innovative Properties Company||Compliant microfluidic sample processing device|
|US8097471||Nov 10, 2010||Jan 17, 2012||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sample processing devices|
|US8128893||Dec 21, 2007||Mar 6, 2012||3M Innovative Properties Company||Thermal transfer methods and structures for microfluidic systems|
|US8435462||Dec 30, 2005||May 7, 2013||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sample processing devices|
|US8481901||Aug 22, 2011||Jul 9, 2013||3M Innovative Properties Company||Enhanced sample processing devices, systems and methods|
|US8834792||Nov 13, 2009||Sep 16, 2014||3M Innovative Properties Company||Systems for processing sample processing devices|
|US8931331||May 18, 2012||Jan 13, 2015||3M Innovative Properties Company||Systems and methods for volumetric metering on a sample processing device|
|US8988677 *||Apr 23, 2010||Mar 24, 2015||Avacta Limited||Cuvette and optical method|
|US9067205||May 18, 2012||Jun 30, 2015||3M Innovative Properties Company||Systems and methods for valving on a sample processing device|
|US20040121471 *||Dec 19, 2002||Jun 24, 2004||Dufresne Joel R.||Integrated sample processing devices|
|US20040137634 *||Jan 9, 2003||Jul 15, 2004||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sample processing device having process chambers with bypass slots|
|US20040179974 *||Mar 24, 2004||Sep 16, 2004||3M Innovative Properties Company||Multi-format sample processing devices, methods and systems|
|US20050129583 *||Dec 12, 2003||Jun 16, 2005||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sample mixing on a microfluidic device|
|US20050180890 *||Mar 16, 2005||Aug 18, 2005||3M Innovative Properties Company||Systems for using sample processing devices|
|US20050202733 *||Mar 4, 2005||Sep 15, 2005||Brother Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Test object receptacle, test apparatus, and test method|
|US20050242091 *||May 6, 2004||Nov 3, 2005||3M Innovative Properties Company||Enhanced sample processing devices, systems and methods|
|US20120099098 *||Apr 23, 2010||Apr 26, 2012||Avacta Limited||Cuvette and Optical Method|
|USRE30391 *||Feb 23, 1976||Sep 2, 1980||Abbott Laboratories||Chemical analysis cuvette|
|EP0039825A1 *||Apr 29, 1981||Nov 18, 1981||F. HOFFMANN-LA ROCHE & CO. Aktiengesellschaft||Cuvette rotor for analyzer and method of operation of said cuvette rotor|
|EP0072284A2 *||Jul 26, 1982||Feb 16, 1983||LE MATERIEL BIOMEDICAL Société à Responsabilité Limitée dite:||Multiple receptacle reaction support for testing liquid doses|
|EP0262497A1 *||Sep 12, 1987||Apr 6, 1988||E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company||Analysis device|
|EP0428040A2 *||Nov 6, 1990||May 22, 1991||BEHRINGWERKE Aktiengesellschaft||Cuvette rotor|
|EP0528472A2 *||Jul 29, 1992||Feb 24, 1993||INSTRUMENTATION LABORATORY S.p.A.||Centrifugal analyzer rotors|
|EP1062495A1 *||Feb 17, 1999||Dec 27, 2000||Robert Aaron Levine||Calibration of a whole blood sample analyser|
|WO1996029137A1 *||Mar 21, 1996||Sep 26, 1996||Charles Jewell||Apparatus and method for blood analyses|
|WO2001089675A2 *||May 23, 2001||Nov 29, 2001||Micronics Inc||Jet vortex mixer|
|WO2005061084A1 *||Oct 20, 2004||Jul 7, 2005||3M Innovative Properties Co||Sample mixing on a microfluidic device|
|U.S. Classification||356/246, 250/576, 422/72, 356/427, 422/547|
|International Classification||G01N21/25, G01J1/04, G01N37/00, B01F5/00, G01N33/483, G01N21/07, G01N35/00, B01F13/00|
|Cooperative Classification||B01F15/0233, B01F13/0059, B01F5/0068, G01N21/07|
|European Classification||B01F15/02B40E, G01N21/07, B01F5/00B8|