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Publication numberUS3874298 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 1, 1975
Filing dateFeb 1, 1974
Priority dateNov 1, 1972
Publication numberUS 3874298 A, US 3874298A, US-A-3874298, US3874298 A, US3874298A
InventorsSmith Willis R, Turner Daniel E
Original AssigneeGen Signal Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Noise suppression system for car retarders
US 3874298 A
Railway classification yard noise is suppressed by spraying an oil-in-water emulsion, formed by admixing a high viscosity petroleum lubricating oil emulsion with water in a ratio of 30 : 1 to 50 : 1, water to oil, against the rail car wheels as they pass through the retarder.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Smith et al. Apr. 1, 1975 [54] NOISE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM FOR CAR 3.200.245 iii/I965 Brown 104/26 A X RETARDERS OTHER PUBLICATIONS 7 l t.:W'l'iR.S' ;D E.T l Sl men on I mllh amel umer BN Studies Retarder Noise Abatement," by Burlingboth of Rochester, NY.

ton Northern-November, l972, Issue of Railway Sys- [73] Assignee: General Signal Corporation, {em C trols pp. 14-17, 20.

Rochester, NY.

[22] Filed: Feb. I, 1974 Primary Examiner-Lloyd L. King Assistant Examiner-Randolph A. Reese lzl l Appl 438858 Arwrney, Agent, or Firmblon, Fisher, Spivak,

Related U.S. Application Data McClelland & Maier [63] Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 302,701. Nov. I,

57 ABSTRACT U.S. Cl 104/26 A, lO4/l R, 188/62 Railway classification yard noise is suppressed by Int. Cl. B6lb l/00 spraying an oil-in-water emulsion, formed by admixing Field of Search 104/26 R. 26 A, l R; a high viscosity petroleum lubricating oil emulsion l88/62, 264 B, 264 E; 184/2. 3 R. l B with water in a ratio of 30 l to 1, water to oil.

against the rail car wheels as they pass through the relfihl References Cited tarder.


NOISE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM FOR CAR RETARDERS This is a continuation-in-part application of Ser. No. 3017M filed Nov. 1, I972.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a noise suppression systetn for use in a railway classification yard. Specifically, it eliminates the squeal caused by metal to metal contact when the brake shoes of master and group retarders exert a braking action against the wheels of the incoming railway cars.

Car retarders are employed in railway classification yards in conjunction with a -hump" over which a string of cars is pushed. The cars are then individually, or in cuts, allowed to accelerate down the hump and through the appropriate switching networks to their ultimate destination. As the cars accelerate down the hump, it is necessary to keep the speed of travel within certain predetermined levels in accordance with their rolling resistance. distance to he travelled before coupling, and various other factors.

Since light cars generally have the greatest rolling resistance and thus must he given the greatest acceleration to reach the most distant destination in the classification yard, the hump is built high enough to cause light cars to reach sufficient speed to carry them to the furthest point. Car retarders are then added to reduce the speed of the heavier cars. The first retarder is employed on the main track downstream ofthe hump but before the track divides into the classification branches. This main retarder is known as the master car retarder, and the retarders that are placed on the individual branch lines are known as group retarders.

Each of these retarders employ a pair of elongated brake shoes on either side of each rail which come together to grip the wheels of the rail car and cause a partial braking of the cars movement. The steel-on-steel friction generated by the car retarder at the substantial loads imposed by the retarder results in a loud and offensive squeal each time the retarder engages a railway car. The present invention is particularly adapted to eliminate the squeal with only a minimal amount of reduetion in braking efficiency.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly. it is one object of the present invention to provide a method ofeliminating the squeal of a railway car retarder by spraying the wheels of the railway ear with an oil-in-water emulsion as the car passes through the retarder.

It is another object of the invention to provide an oilin-water emulsion which can be used in said noise suppression system.

These and other objects of this invention. as will hereafter become more readily apparent, have been attained by the discovery that a high viscosity petroleum lubricating oil emulsion can be admixed with water in an amount of I to 50 l water-to-oil emulsion which can be sprayed into the wheels of the railway car whereby the "chatterin vibration which results in the squealing noise is eliminated without substantial imparing of the braking efficiency of the car retarder.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a plan view of a portion of a railway classification yard illustrating a master retarder and three group retarders with the appropriate controls for each;

FIG. 2 is a plan view of a car retarder:

FIG. 3 is an elevation view of a car retarder illustrating the retarder and a sump formed below the retarder;

FIG. 4 is a detailed plan view of a portion of a car retarder illustrating the spray means employed in the present invention;

FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of a car retarder taken along section line S5 of FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of a car retarder taken along section line 6-6 in FIG. 4;

FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional elevation view of the storage means utilized in the present invention; and

FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional elevation view of the mixing means used to mix the oil-in-water emulsion in the present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT FIG. I is a plan view of a portion of a rail classification yard. It illustrates the main track II which passes through the master retarder l2 and then splits into three branch lines l3, l4 and IS. Each of these branch lines is equipped with a group retarder such as those illustrated at I6. 17 and 18.

As will be more fully described in FIGS. 2, 3 and 4, each of the retarders is equipped with a plurality of spray means for spraying an oil-in-water emulsion against the wheels of a rail car as it passes through the retarder. The master control for the noise suppression system is controller 19 which is connected to car detectors 20 and 21 and which energizes the spray pump 22 for the master retarder when the car detector 21 senses an incoming freight car or cut of freight cars.

As was pointed out previously, it is intended that every car be sprayed in the master retarder, but that only those cars in excess of fifty tons be sprayed in the group retarder. It has been found the residual lubrication remaining after the spraying operation in the master retarder is sufficient to prevent excessive noise for light cars when they pass through the group retarder. It is desirable, however, to energize the spray means for those exceptionally heavy cars.

A weight detector 23 is placed on the main track to identify those cars which are in excess of fifty tons. This is coordinated through the controller 19, and the controller for the main rail classification yard to energize the appropriate spray pump control for the group retarders 16, I7 and I8. These spray pump controls 24. 25 and 26 are also equipped with car detectors to determine the presence of a rail car at the group retarder. The spray pump control 24 receives signals not only from the weight detector 23 and the main controller I9, but also from the car detectors 27 and 28. The spray pump control 24 will energize group retarder 16 if positive or and" signals are received from both the weight detector and the controller 19. Similarly, spray pump control 25 is equipped with car detectors 29 and 30 while spray pump control 26 is equipped with car detectors 31 and 32. The ear detectors 28, 30 and 32 deenergize the spray pumps as the ear or cut of cars pass through the retarder.

A fluid mixing and handling system is provided to supply an oil-in-water emulsion consisting essentially of a lubricating oil and water. The fluid mixing system is indicated generally at 33 in FIG. I and, as will be hereinafter later described with reference to FIG. 8, in cludes a fluid handling and mixing means. Conduits 34 and 35 lead to the master retarder and the group retarders and provide a fresh emulsion consisting essentially of one part of lubricating oil to ten parts of water. Conduit 34 leads to pump 36 which continually fills a storage means 37. The pump 22 is energized by a signal from the car detector 21 and draws from the storage means 37. The emulsion is then sprayed against the wheels of the rail car as will be hereinafter later described and the surplus drains into a sump 38 which will be hereinafter later described. The sump drains through conduit 39 to the group retarder 17. Each of the group retarders 16. 17 and 18 are also equipped with concrete sump basins to collect the excess emulsion after it has been sprayed against the railway car wheels. The sump basins are connected to drain line 40 which returns the used emulsion back to the mixing and storage means 33. A positive assist is added by means of pump 41.

The outlet supply conduit 35 leads to the group retarders 16. 17 and 18 and is pumped to intermediate storage tanks 42, 43 and 44 by means of pumps 45. 46 and 47. The pumps 48, 49 and 50 are energized by means of spray pump controls 24, 25 and 26 and draw from the intermediate storage tanks 42, 43 and 44 when the proper combination of signals has been received by the spray pump controllers.

The spray means used to spray the oil-in-water emulsion against a railway car wheels is illustrated in FIGS. 4. 5 and 6. FIG. 4 is a plan view of one section of a car retarder equipped with a spray means. FIG. 5 is a crosssectional view taken along section line 55 of FIG. 4. FIG. 6 is a sectional view taken along section line 66 in FIG. 4. As will be noted from a briefexamination of FIGS. 3 and 4. each of the car retarders is equipped with a plurality of sections and shoes. One such section or shoe is illustrated in FIG. 4. The car retarder com prises a pair of elongated brake shoes 50 and 51 mounted on either side of a railway car rail. The brake shoes are supported by means of beams 52 and 53. Each of the beams is adapted to move the brake shoes 50 and 51 into and out of engagement with a railway car wheel as illustrated in FIG. 5. The actuating mechanisms l'or means 52 and 53 are well-known in the art and will not be further described. Each of the means 52 and 53 define a load bearing flange 54 and 55 which extends the entire length of the beam and provides a mounting surface for the brake shoes 50 and 51. This flange is reinforced by a plurality of perpendicularly aligned and equally spaced support ribs 56-62. The ribs are joined together by means ofa web 63 which also extends the length of the support beam 52. The support beam 53 also defines a plurality of ribs 64-70 and a longitudinally extending web 71.

The spray means comprises a plurality of nozzles mounted on either side of the rail for spraying the oilin-water emulsion against the rail car wheel as illus trated in FIG. 5. In the preferred embodiment, /2 inch pipes 72 and 73 are mounted on either side of the rail by means ofa plurality of spring clips 74 and 75 which extend over the pipe 73 and down through an opening 76 defined in the webs of the beams 52 and 53 to clamp said pipes against said beams. The pipe itself rests upon the upstanding ribs 56-62 of beam 52. The resilient nature of claims 74 and 75 ensures that the pipes 72 and 73 are held securely in place.

Each of the pipes 72 and 73 is equipped with a plurality of spray nozzles. These spray nozzles 77-83 for pipe 72 and nozzles 84-90 for pipe 73 are aligned to provide a continuous bath of oil-in-water emulsion on either side of the rail 91. The diverging nature of the sprays, and the curved portions 72:: and 73:: provide angled sprays which will thoroughly wet both the flange 92 and the rim 93 of the rail car wheel. The curved portions 720 and 73a also ensure the space between the individual retarder sections is covered. Since the brake shoes are brought to bear against the rim on one side and the flange on the other, it is necessary that both surfaces receive the proper amount of lubrication. The I l0 ratio or mixture of oil and water has been found to provide the proper degree or amount of lubrication when the rail car wheels are thoroughly wetted with the emulsion.

FIGS. 2 and 3 are diagrammatical views of the complete retarder with some of the detail omitted for purposes of clarity. FIG. 2 illustrates a plurality of elongated braking shoes 101-120 mounted on either side of each rail 121 and 122. Each of these braking shoes is supported by the respective support or retarder beam 1010-1200. The beams in turn support spray pipes 121-140 which are secured to the beams in the manner illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6. The pipes are connected together by means of rubber hose connectors 121u-140u. These connector hoses provide the requisite flexibility for the spray pipes since each section is individually operated. They also provide for the relative expansion between the various members due to extremc temperature variation. The spray pipes 121-140 are connected to the fluid supply system by means of manifold 141 which extends perpendicularly to the tracks 121 and 122 and intersects the spray pipes 121-140 at a convenient midpoint. The midpoint is selected to minimize the problems associated with pressure drop across the respective lengths of piping 121-140. Each of the terminal ends of spray pipes 121-124 and 137-140 is equipped with caps to seal the ends of the spray pipes and to prevent the discharge of emulsion therefrom.

The retarder illustrated in FIG. 2 is illustrated in elevation view in FIG. 3. As indicated previously, the retardcrs are generally placed on the slant of a bump to assist in regulating the speed of a railway car after it passes over the hump and is routed to its preselected destination. The individual retarder beams 1040-1201: are supported by a plurality of wooden railway cross tics 142-150. These cross ties are in turn supported by a concrete basin or sump illustrated generally by numeral 151. This sump provides a collection point for the excess emulsion sprayed against the car wheels as they pass through the retarder. As was previously described in FIG. 1. the emulsion 152 collected in the lower portion of the sump is routed back to the mixing and storage means 33 by means of drain pipes 39 and 40 and pump 41.

The fluid mixing and handling system for supplying the oil-in-water emulsion is illustrated in FIGS. 7 and 8. FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional and elevation view of the storage tank provided at each of the retarders. FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional and clevational view of the mixing means for preparing the oil-in-water emulsion.

As illustrated in FIG. 8. the mixing means comprises a water inlet 201. an oil inlet 202. and a discharge outlet 203 for discharging the oil-in-water emulsion. The

tank 204 is sized to accomodate the total volume of all the retarder storage tanks. The incoming solution from conduit is first filtered by filter means 205 and then pumped by means of pump 206 into the mixing tank 204. This pump is actuated whenever the liquid level in the mixing tank drops below a certain predetermined level. This predetermined level is established by the position or placement of the detector 207 mounted in the wall of the mixing tank 204. When pump 206 is acti vated, it drains the emulsion from each of the retarder sumps and recycles the filtered emulsion for reuse in the system. In the preferred embodiment, a large perecntage of the solution is recovered and recycled for reuse in the system. In the event there is no solution available in the retarder sumps to fill the mixing tank 204, the mixing controller 208 will open the water control valve 209 and allow a predetermined quantity of water to be admitted to the mixing tank 204.

A second detector 210 is placed within the mixing tank 204 to determine the level where the maximum addition of soluble oil will fill the tank if the solution is pure water. When detector 210 has indicated that the requisite amount of water has been supplied to the mixing tank 204. it will close valve 209 and energize the refractometer 211 to analyze the solution 212 in the mixing tank 204. At the same time, the mixing means 213 will be energized by drive means 214 to thoroughly mix the existing emulsion with the incoming water. After a suitable time delay, the refractometer will analyze the percentage of oil and water and provide a representational signal to the master controller 208. The master controller 208 will then open the lubricant control valve 215 to allow the proper amount of oil to enter the mixing tank 204. Detector 216 senses the maximum quantity of emulsion desired in the mixing tank 204. lt

also operates as a high limit or upper limit control in the event of failure of one of the other components.

The automatic analysis of the emulsion 212 is also necessary since substantial amounts of rain water will he collected in the sump basins 151 and the mixture pumped from the retarder sumps may have a vastly altered oil to water mixture ratio. In the event a substantial amount of fresh water has been added to the system, pump 206 will fill the mixing tank to the level indicated by detector 210. At that time, the mixture will be analyzed by refractometer 211 and if additional oil is needed to bring the mixture to the proper ratio, valve 215 will be open, and the appropriate amount of oil will be added to the solution. Although the emulsion is extremely stable. it may be desirable to have the mixing means 213 continuously rotating within the tank 204. This would ensure that the lubricant and oil do not separate. The solution is drawn from the mixing tank 204 to each of the retarder storage tanks by means of pumps 36, 45. 46 and 47. The storage tank for retarder 12 is illustrated in FIG. 7 wherein pump 36 draws the mixture from the mixing tank to the storage tank 37. A pair of liquid level indicators 217 and 218 provide low level and upper level limit indicators for the amount of solution stored in tank 37. When the amount of solution has dropped below the level predetermined by level indicator 217, the control means 219 energizes pump 36 and withdraws the appropriate amount of solution from tank 204 to fill the local storage tank 37. When the level of the solution reaches the level indicated by level indicator 218. pump 36 is deenergized. The solution is withdrawn from storage tank 37 through conduit 220 by means of pump 22. Pump 22 is activated by controller 19 whenever the car detector 21 senses a railway car entering the master retarder. After the car has left the retarder, pump 22 is deenergized by the car detector 20.

The emulsion provided by the fluid mixing and bandling system is an oil-in-watcr solution consisting essentially of a high viscosity petroleum base lubricating oil and water. It has been found that a mixture of a soluble heavy duty high viscosity oil, mixed with 30-50 parts of water to one part of oil will eliminate the noise and squeal of the normal car retarder but will only inconsequentially reduce the braking efficiency.

Suitable petroleum oils which are usable in this invention are those having viscosities at l30F of at least 300 Saybolt Universal Secondsv One such oil found to be particularly effective is a type known as Texaco 1609 class 38, soluble heavy duty oil which is mineral oil of a petroleum base emulsion having a viscosity of 307 at F, a specific gravity of0.659 and a sulphurchlorine-zinc analysis of l.8'/r, 1.871, and 0.1471, respectively.

Ethylene glycol can be added to the oil as an antifreeze for use in colder weather environments. When ethylene glycol is used it is preferred to be present in an amount of 20-60'/( ethylene glycol/water.

The mixture of oil and water appears thoroughly emulsified. The Texaco 1609 class 38 soluble heavy duty oil is reddish in appearance, but when mixed with water, provides a milky, almost opaque solution.

While there has been described what at present is considered to be the preferred embodiment ofthe present invention, it would be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the invention. For example, it would be possible to interchange the liquid level detectors 207, 210, 216, 217 and 218 with continuous line level indicators to provide an analog output. Additionally, the refractometer 211 could continuously analyze the solution 212 to continuously adjust the oil and water mixture present in the mixing tank 204.

Having thus described a noise suppression system in one specific embodiment, it is understood that this form is selected to facilitate the disclosure of the invention rather than to limit the number of forms which it may assume. It is further understood that various modifications. adaptations, and alterations may be applied to the specific form shown to meet the requirements of practice, without in any manner departing from the sphere or scope of the following appended claims.

What is claimed as new and intended to be covered by Letters Patent is:

1. A method for suppression of noise in railway car retarders which comprises spraying an oil-in-water emulsion of a high viscosity soluble petroleum lubricating oil in a ratio of 30 l to 50 1 water to oil, against the wheels of a railway car so that said emulsion is brought into the zone of interface contact between said wheels and the braking shoes on either side of said rail.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein said oil has a Saybolt viscosity of at least 300 at l30F.

3. The method of claim 1 wherein said oil has a Saybolt viscosity of 307 at 130F, a specific gravity of 0.659 and a sulphur-chlorine-zinc analysis of 1.871, 1.871 and 0.149 respectively.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein ethylene glycol is added to said emulsion in an amount of 20-60% ethylene glycol/water.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3155191 *Jan 12, 1959Nov 3, 1964New York Central Railroad CompAutomatic journal box oiling apparatus
US3200245 *Sep 17, 1958Aug 10, 1965Gen Signal CorpAutomatic car retarder control system
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4393960 *Jan 21, 1981Jul 19, 1983Aaa Sales & Engineering, Inc.Low noise railroad retarder brake shoe structure
US4674718 *Nov 13, 1984Jun 23, 1987Flakt AbMethod and apparatus for keeping railway switches free from snow
US5676337 *Jan 6, 1995Oct 14, 1997Union Switch & Signal Inc.Railway car retarder system
EP0313771A1 *Sep 5, 1988May 3, 1989Thyssen Industrie Aktiengesellschaft Umformtechnik/BergbautechnikBeam type brake for decelerating railroad cars
U.S. Classification104/26.2, 104/307, 188/62
International ClassificationB61K3/00, B61K7/00, B61K7/02, B61B1/00
Cooperative ClassificationB61K7/02, B61K3/00, B61B1/005
European ClassificationB61B1/00B, B61K3/00, B61K7/02
Legal Events
Mar 19, 1991ASAssignment
Owner name: SASIB S.P.A., VIA DI CORTICELLA 87/89, 40128 BOLOG
Effective date: 19910311
Mar 19, 1991AS02Assignment of assignor's interest
Owner name: SASIB S.P.A., VIA DI CORTICELLA 87/89, 40128 BOLOG
Effective date: 19910311