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Publication numberUS3875413 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 1, 1975
Filing dateOct 9, 1973
Priority dateOct 9, 1973
Also published asCA1014214A, CA1014214A1, DE2442892A1, DE2442892B2, DE2442892C3
Publication numberUS 3875413 A, US 3875413A, US-A-3875413, US3875413 A, US3875413A
InventorsJohn A Bridgham
Original AssigneeHewlett Packard Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Infrared radiation source
US 3875413 A
A source of infrared radiation is provided which includes a thin film resistive heater of high emissivity evaporated onto a substrate. The thin film heater is positioned between a pair of thin metal elements on the substrate. The resulting structure provides a well-defined, mechanically stable source. In one embodiment of the invention, the resistive element is coated with an antireflecting layer to enhance its emissivity.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

XR 3 9 8 7 5 s 4-13 United States Patent 1 [111 3,875,413 Brid ham A r. l 1975 g P a INFRARED RADIATION SOURCE 3.6941124 9/1972 Buchtam 219/553 Inventor: J n A. Bridgham! a Alto Calif- 3,78l.528 12/1973 SchrcWellus 2l9/553 Assigneel Hewlett-Packard p y P310 Primary Examiner-James W. Lawrence Alto, C allf. Assistant Examiner-C. E. Church O 9, AUUIHC)", Agent, 0" Firm-Ronald Grubman 2] A l. N 404,845 1 PP 0 57 ABSTRACT [52] Us. Cl 250/492 219/553 350/164 A source of infrared radiation is provided which in- 511 int. Cl. ..1-i05b 1/02 cludes a thin film resistive heater high emissivity [58] Field of Search H 250/503 504 492 evaporated onto a substrate. The thin film heater is 219/3521 6 positioned between a pair of thin metal elements on the substrate. The resulting structure provides a well- [56] References Cited defined. mechanically stable source. In one embodiment of the invention, the resistive element is coated x H 387 27 g fv tl PATENTS 50/504 with an antireflecting layer to enhance its emissivity.

6.. 196 21 'ron 3.533.850 10/1970 Tarncja 350/164 9 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures INFRARED RADIATION SOURCE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention is concerned generally with radiation sources, and more particularly with a new planar source of infrared radiation.

As more small, portable instruments using infrared sources are being designed, it is becoming of importance to have infrared sources of high overall efficiency. Various infrared sources are presently known. One common source is a Nernst glower, which uses a silicon carbide filament. These glowers have been found to be difficult to start-up and operate, while the typical physical configuration does not provide a good point source for applications requiring such.

Tungsten in the shape of a coil filament is also used to provide infrared radiation. For use in systems which require good imaging and low noise, however, tungsten coil filaments are not adequate. Because of the physical configuration of the coil, the image does not consist of a solid area of radiation, but rather consists of areas of radiation intermingled with areas in which not radiation is present. The image is said to have a poor fill factor. Furthermore, a system employing a coil filament is very susceptible to errors induced by mechanical movement or jarring of the system. When jarred, the coil filament tends to jiggle resulting in spurious noise in the detected radiation. Also, the tungsten material typically used in coil filaments has a comparatively low emissivity (about 0.l5) in the infrared region. and is therefore not well suited for use as an infrared source.

In the prior art. some-of the problems of a coil filament have been avoided by using a ribbon of tungsten as a source. A ribbon, however, does not eliminate the problems of using low emissivity tungsten as an infrared source Furthermore, becauseof the low resistivity of tungsten. it is difficult to provide a small well-defined source with a tungsten ribbon, there being no discontinuity between source and leads. If, however, only a small section of tungsten is used as a source in conjunction with thin wire current leads, most of the electrical power is then dissipated in the leads rather than in the low resistance source, so that the source is very ineffieient.

Another radiation source which is of current interest is the light emitting diode (LED). Present LEDs are very low power devices which are not suitable for all uses.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION According to the illustrated preferred embodiment, the present invention provides a small, well-defined source of infrared radiation which can be easily and efficiently imaged through an optical system. The invention includes a thin film resistive heater of a high emissivity substance such as CIgSI evaporated onto a substrate. The resistive heater is confined to a small area between a pair of metal elements on the substrate. The high emissivity of the thin film heater and the low thermal conductivity of the substrate material each contribute to providing a highly efficient source.

The resistive heater of high emissivity is positioned between, and immediately adjacent to, a pair of metal elements of low resistivity and emissivity to provide a well-defined source which is particularly suited to imaging with mirror optics. The source is planar, and may DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a radiation source in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 2 shows a portion of a light source in accordance with another embodiment of the invention including an antireflecting layer.

FIG. 3 illustrates a light source in a package including a reflecting surface.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION In FIG. 1 there is illustrated a substrate 11 of low thermal conductivity, e.g. conductivity in the range 0.02 to 0.08 watt/cmK. Several suitable materials are thin sapphire, Y O and quartz. The dimensions of substrate Il may be chosen in accordance with a desired size of the light source; e.g. operating devices have been built in which the dimensions of substrate 11 are about 0.150 by 0.020 by 0.002 inch. Positioned centrally with respect to the long dimensions of substrate 11 is a radiation source area 13 which comprises a region of a highly resistive. highly emissive material, emissivity greater than about 0.5 being preferred. Preferably, source area 13 consists of Cr Si evaporated onto substrate 11 to a depth of about l2,u.. In the illustrated embodiment, source area 13 is a 0.02 X 0.02 inch square having a resistance of about IOOIL-In the infrared radiation region of interest, about 4p. wavelength, the emissivity of Cr Si is about 0.5. Immediately adjacent to both sides of source area 13 are a pair of metallic conductors 15 which are preferably of a low emissivity relative to that of the Cr Si in the infrared-region. Platinum, which has an emissivity in the infrared of about 0.1 is suitable, but other metals such as gold may also be used. Each metallic conductor 15 includes a portion 17 which overlaps a small area of source 13. This configuration helps to provide a well defined source region. A pair of leads 19, of a material such as gold, are bonded to metal layers 15 to serve as input and output leads supplying electrical power to source area 13. As will be explained further below, it is desirable that spurious radiation not be emitted from the device, as from the bottom of substrate 11. To prevent spurious radiation from being emitted, an additional metal layer 21 is deposited onto the bottom of substrate 11.

In operation. current leads 19 are connected to a source which provides sufficient current to heat thin film resistive heater 13 to a temperature of about 700C. For the 1000 square of Cr- Si described above, a current in the range of about 50-70 ma has been found to provide adequate heating. Spurious radiation from metal layer 15 is kept to a minimum by using a substrate which is of very low thermal conductivity, thereby ensuring that only small amounts of heat are conducted away from source 13 to metal plates 15 via substrate 11. Additionally, the use of low emissivity metals such as platinum for metal plates 15 adjacent to resistive heater 13 further reduces emission from layers 15, so that the region from which radiation is emitted is spatially well defined.

FIG. 2 again shows a portion of substrate 11, and a portion of both metal layers 15 including raised portions 17. Also shown is thin film resistive heater l3 positioned adjacent to metal layers 15. There is also illustrated an antireflecting layer 23of a material such as TiO thickness of about 0.44u, which is in contact with resistive heater 13. Antireflecting layer 23 serves to effectively increase the emissivity of the infrared source. Preferably, the material of antireflecting layer 23 is selected so that its index of refraction is approximately equal to the square root ofthe index of refraction of the material of heater 13.

in FIG. 3, there is illustrated source strip 11 encapsulated in an optical package 25. Package 25 includes a base 27 on which is mounted a reflecting surface 29. Reflecting surface 29 is preferably an eliptical or parabolic reflector of a solid piece of metal such as aluminum. A pair of metal posts 31 extend through base 27 and reflector 29 and are connected to leads 19 to provide electrical power to strip source 10. lnfrared radiation emitted from source area 13 is directed to reflecting surface 29, from which it is reflected out of package 25 to form a magnified image (not shown). It may be seen from this illustration that light emitted from the side of source 13 away from reflector 29 would be directed toward the right in the figure, and thereby degrade the image produced by rays reflected from reflector 29. As was described above in connection with FIG. 1. a metallic surface is deposited on the back (right side in the figure) of substrate 11 to prevent the occurrence of such spurious radiation. Preferably, package 25 is hermetically sealed to enclose an inert atmosphere such as nitrogen or argon, to prolong the life of the filament.

1 claim:

1. An infrared radiation source comprising:

a substrate:

a pair of metal strips of emissivity less than about 0.2

in the infrared region positioned on one side of the substrate;

the substrate material is selected from the group consisting of sapphire and Y O and quartz.

4. An infrared radiation source as in claim 2 including an antireflecting layer on the Cr Si layer for increasing the effective emissivity of the heater.

5. An infrared radiation source as in claim 4 wherein the antireflecting layer is of TiO;.

6. An infrared radiation source as in claim 5 including another metal strip on another side of the substrate opposite the side on which the resistive heater is deposited, for preventing spurious radiation from said other side of the substrate.

7. An infrared radiation source as in claim 6 wherein the substrate is mounted in a housing including a base and a reflecting surface mounted on the base. the reflecting surface for reflecting and focusing infrared radiation from the thin film resistive heater.

8. An infrared radiation source as in claim 7 wherein: the housing is of a circular cross section; the reflecting surface is an eliptical mirror; and the substrate and thin film resistive heater are mounted in spaced relation with the reflecting surface. 9. An infrared radiation source as in claim 7 wherein: the housing is of a circular cross section; the reflecting surface is a parabolic mirror; and the substrate and the thin film resistive heater are mounted in spaced relation with the reflecting sur-

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3316387 *Nov 26, 1963Apr 25, 1967North American Aviation IncElectric lamp having directly heated sheet radiator
US3533850 *Oct 13, 1965Oct 13, 1970Westinghouse Electric CorpAntireflective coatings for solar cells
US3694624 *Jun 24, 1970Sep 26, 1972Beckman Instruments GmbhInfrared radiator arrangement
US3781528 *May 30, 1972Dec 25, 1973Bulten Kanthal AbHeat resistant,electrical insulating heating unit
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4620104 *Feb 16, 1983Oct 28, 1986Nordal Per ErikInfrared radiation source arrangement
US4644141 *Oct 4, 1985Feb 17, 1987Dragerwerk AgInfrared radiator
US4899053 *Oct 21, 1987Feb 6, 1990Criticare Systems, Inc.Solid state non-dispersive IR analyzer using electrical current-modulated microsources
US5062146 *Oct 13, 1989Oct 29, 1991Nkk CorporationInfrared radiator
US5128514 *Jun 29, 1988Jul 7, 1992Siemens AktiengesellschaftBlack radiator for use as an emitter in calibratable gas sensors
US5369277 *Oct 17, 1990Nov 29, 1994Ntc Technology, Inc.Infrared source
US5838016 *Aug 4, 1997Nov 17, 1998Johnson; Edward A.Infrared radiation filament and method of manufacture
US6169275 *Jun 3, 1999Jan 2, 2001Ngk Spark Plug Co, Ltd.Ceramic heater and oxygen sensor using the same
US6249005Nov 12, 1998Jun 19, 2001Ion Optics, Inc.Infrared radiation filament and method of manufacture
US6525814Oct 22, 1999Feb 25, 2003Mission Research CorporationApparatus and method for producing a spectrally variable radiation source and systems including same
US7081602 *Jul 27, 2004Jul 25, 2006Trebor International, Inc.Fail-safe, resistive-film, immersion heater
US7164104 *Jun 14, 2004Jan 16, 2007Watlow Electric Manufacturing CompanyIn-line heater for use in semiconductor wet chemical processing and method of manufacturing the same
US8558201Mar 13, 2010Oct 15, 2013Siemens AktiengesellschaftInfrared radiator arrangement for a gas analysis device
US20050274714 *Jun 14, 2004Dec 15, 2005Hongy LinIn-line heater for use in semiconductor wet chemical processing and method of manufacturing the same
EP0177724A1 *Aug 21, 1985Apr 16, 1986Drägerwerk AktiengesellschaftInfrared radiator
EP1653778A1 *Oct 26, 2004May 3, 2006Cheng-Ping LinFilm heating element having automatic temperature stabilisation function
WO1983003001A1 *Feb 16, 1983Sep 1, 1983Per-Erik NordalInfrared radiation source arrangement
U.S. Classification250/492.1, 219/553, 392/426, 359/580
International ClassificationH05B3/00, G01J3/10, H05B3/26
Cooperative ClassificationH05B2203/017, H05B2203/032, G01J3/108, H05B2203/011, H05B3/00, H05B2203/013, H05B3/26, H05B3/009
European ClassificationH05B3/00, H05B3/00L4, H05B3/26, G01J3/10F