|Publication number||US3877850 A|
|Publication date||Apr 15, 1975|
|Filing date||Apr 23, 1973|
|Priority date||Apr 23, 1973|
|Publication number||US 3877850 A, US 3877850A, US-A-3877850, US3877850 A, US3877850A|
|Inventors||Berry Samuel M|
|Original Assignee||Commercial Metals Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (15), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1 1 1111 3,877,850
Berry Apr. 15, 1975 SPHERICAL POWER DEVICE  Inventor: Samuel M. Berry, Dallas, Tex.  ABSTRACT Assign: Commercial Metals Company The present invention relates to spherical power de- Danas, vices and particularly to a positive displacement  Filed: Apt 23, 1973 spherical power device comprising a housing having a generally spherical cavity or chamber therein with a PP 51043539557 diametrically extending piston positioned between a pair of rotating wedge shaped pistons which have their 52 US. c1 418/68; 418/68 axes disposed at an angle with respect to eaeh ether- 51 Int. Cl. F01 3/00 Rotation of the Wedge Pistons causes the central  Field of Search 418/68 metrically disposed piston to Simultaneously rotate and oscillate to thus produce variations in the volume  References Cited between adjacent surfaces of the central piston and UNITED STATES PATENTS the end pistons. The spherical power device of the present invention can be used either as a pump, a
2,049,775 8/1936 Holmes 418/68 Compressor or a gas expander andwith the addition g l i of suitable ignition apparatus, as an internal combus- 3,816,039 6/1974 Berry 418 68 engme' Primary ExaminerC. J. Husar 6 Claims 15 Drawing Figures F") 4 y t PATENTEU 3.877. 850
SHEET 2 Q5 9 SPHERICAL POWER DEVICE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The spherical power device of the present invention relates to a fluid handling structure which, in various embodiments provides hydraulic pump or motor, a compressor or expander, such as an air motor, steam expander or the like, and which also may be embodied as an internal combustion engine.
2. Description of the Prior Art There have been various attempts in the past to provide a power device which overcomes the inherent inefficiencies of reciprocating pumps, compressors or motors and which provide the advantages of positive displacement while eliminating the inherent inertial disadvantages of reciprocating devices.
Such prior art includes various pumps, motors and compressors having a generally spherical configuration and which in some instances, bear a superficial resemblance to the apparatus of the present invention. However, such devices fail to afford the simplicity of design and operation provided by applicants invention. In many instances, the configuration of the moving parts renders the manufacture of the prior art devices extremely complicated and costly and in other instances, the devices are fraught with sealing problems which make their practical operation highly speculative.
SUMMARY OF THE PRESENT INVENTION The spherical power device of the present invention comprises a housing having a generally spherical chamber therein with a central piston extending diametrically of the chamber with journals extending diametrically across opposite sides or faces of the central piston and disposed at substantially right angles relative to each other. A pair of substantially identical wedgeshaped pistons are disposed on opposite sides of the central piston with their axes of rotation disposed at an angle other than 180 with respect to each other. Such pistons also have diametrically extending grooves therein for receiving the respective journals formed on the opposite sides of the central piston. The structure of the present invention substantially eliminates line seals or line contact and provides surface-to-surface seals at all leakage paths except for those embodiments using cylindrical end pistons in which case point seals exist between the pistons and the housing. Further, with the construction of the present invention, the wedge-shaped pistons have only rotary motion and the center piston is provided with rotating and oscillating motion. However, the majority of the mass of the center piston rotates with the outer piston and exhibits reciprocating motion only in relation to the outer pistons. Of course, the spherical design provides relatively large displacement per unit size since the volume varies with the cube of the radius of the sphere and thus provides the additional advantage of relatively small weight to the displacement ratio. However, an additional benefit of the apparatus of the present invention is that it provides a relatively large volume displacement per the leakage perimeter since the leakage perimeter increases linearly as compared to an increase in volume that varies with the cube of the radius.
Additional advantages of the present invention include a construction which is made of a small number of parts with several of the parts being identical and a construction which provides ample room for bearings without sacrificing component size and weight.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a schematic top view showing the relationship of the three pistons in the spherical housing at the zero position of rotation;
FIG. 2 is a schematic top view of the three pistons rotated clockwise from the zero position shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is another schematic top view showing the three pistons in their relative positions when rotated clockwise from the zero position shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a fourth schematic top view showing the relationship of the three pistons rotated 270 clockwise from the zero position shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is an isometric exploded view showing details of construction of each of the three pistons;
FIG. 6 is a schematic top view of an internal combustion engine embodiment of the present invention showing the three pistons mounted in aspherical housing with the ignition and valve means also shown;
FIG. 7 is a sectional view taken on line 77 of FIG. 6 showing additional details of the internal combustion engine embodiment of this invention;
FIG. 8 is a schematic top view of the internal combustion engine shown in FIG. 6 with the pistons therein rotated 180 clockwise from the position shown in FIG.
FIG. 9 is a schematic top view showing an alternate internal combustion engine embodiment of the present invention showing a fuel system through the shaft and journals of the pistons;
FIG. 10 is a sectional view taken on line 10l0 of FIG. 9 showing additional details of the through-theshaft-and-journal fuel distribution system;
FIG. 11 is a schematic top view showing another alternate internal combustion engine embodiment of this invention with valved passages for flowing an air fuel mixture from one scale of the central piston to the other;
FIG. 12 is a sectional view taken on line 1212 of FIG. 11 showing additional details of such cross flow arrangement;
FIG. 13 is a schematic view ofa hydraulic pump embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 14 is a sectional view taken on line 14-14 of FIG. 13 showing additional details of the hydraulic pump embodiment;
FIG. 15 is a sectional view similar to FIG. 14 showing the cylindrical form of end pistons.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT As best seen in FIG. 6 of the drawings, the apparatus of the present invention comprises a housing H having a truncated, spherical chamber or cavity C formed therein for receiving three pistons, P-l and P-2, which are substantially identical to each other and which are rotatably mounted in the housing H with the axis P-l' of the piston P-l aligned at an angle with respect to the axis P-2 of the piston P-2. Between such facing pistons P-1 and P-2, is mounted an intermediate piston P-3 which rotates with the pistons P-l and P-2 and simultaneously oscillates between such pistons as it rotates with them.
As shown in the exploded isometric view of FIG. 5 of the drawings, the piston P-l comprises a substantially hemispherical body 7 having a pair of inclined faces or surfaces 10 and 11 which are connected adjacent their inner edges 10a and 11a by a longitudinally extending concave groove or channel 12 that extends diametrically across the piston P-l. As shown, the piston shaft 14, on which the piston is rotatably mounted in the housing H, is positioned on the axis P-l' which extends at essentially a right angle to the groove 13. The piston P-2, also shown in FIG. 5 of the drawings, is substantially identical to the piston P-l in that it has a substantially hemispherical body 16 and is provided with a pair of inclined faces 20 and 21 which are connected at their inner edges 20a and 21a by a longitudinally extending concave groove 22 which is disposed at substantially a right angle with respect to the axis P2' that extends through the piston shaft 24 and the body of the piston P-2.
The central piston P-3 .comprises a circular plate or baffle member designated generally 25 which includes substantially plane and parallel opposite sides 27 and 28, respectively. As shown, the side 27 is divided into equal sections 30 and 31 by means of a journal having an arcuate configuration which extends diametrically across the surface of the plane side 27. Such journal 37 is provided with a convex curved outer surface 3711 which is of substantially the same radius as the groove 12 in the piston P-l in which such journal 37 is normally received, as will be described in detail hereinafter.
The opposite plane side 28 is divided likewise into a pair of substantially equal sections 40 and 41 by means of the journal 35 which preferably, has an arcuate or convex outer curved surface 35a which is of substantially the same radius as the concave groove 22 in the piston P-2 in which such journal is normally received.
As shown in FIG. 5, the journals 35 and 37 are disposed at substantially right angles of 90 degrees with respect to each other.
In the preferred form of the present invention, the outer edge 39 of the circular baffle 25 is curved at substantially the same radius as the inner surface of the spherical chamber or cavity C in the housing H.
In FIGS. 1-4 of the drawings, the positions of the pistons P-l, P-2 and P-3 are shown in progressive degrees of rotation clockwise about their respective axes, P-1' and P-2'. As shown schematically in FIG. 1, when P-l, P-2 and P-3 are positioned in the spherical chamber (not shown) and operably connected together, the journal 37 is positioned in the groove 12 with the faces 10 and 11 positioned adjacent to and facing the corresponding surfaces or faces 30 and 31, respectively. The piston faces 10 and 30 form the chamber or cylinder 51 in conjunction with the outer surrounding housing (not shown) and piston faces 11 and 31, together with the outer housing wall, form the cylinder chamber 53 on one side of the central piston P-3. In the zero rotation position shown in FIG. 1 the cylinder 51 is shown in the full open position and the cylinder 53 is shown in the full closed position, whereas the chambers or cylinders 52 and 54, on the other side of the diametrically disposed baffle 25 are both in the half-open position, as will be described in more detail hereinafter.
As the pistons P-1 and P-2 are rotated clockwise about their respective axes 90 to the position shown in FIG. 2 of the drawings, the faces 20 and 40 are opened,
enlarging the chamber 52 and the faces 21 and 41 are rotated, closing or reducing the volume of chamber 54. With the piston P-l in the position shown in FIG. 2 of the drawings, the cylinders or chambers 51 is partially closed and the chamber 53, which was closed, is partially opened.
Continued clockwise rotation of the pistons P-1 and P-2 about their respective axes another to the position shown in FIG. 3 of the drawings, continues closing the surfaces 10 and 30 together to close the chamber 51 and rotate the piston or baffle 25 to a position where the surfaces 31 and 11 are separated to expand or enlarge the chamber 53. During the rotation of 90 clockwise from the position shown in FIG. 2 to the position shown in FIG. 3, the cylinder 52 is partially closed and the cylinder 54 is partially opened.
Continued rotation clockwise from the position shown in FIG. 3 an additional 90 to the position shown in FIG. 4 causes the surfaces 21 and 41 to open, opening cylinder 54 and closing cylinder 52. Simultaneously, the cylinder 53 begins to close and the cylinder 51 begins to open.
Thus, it can be appreciated that upon a complete revolution of the pistons P-1 and P-2 about their respective axes, the center piston P-3 moves into and outof engagement with each of the faces 10, 11, 20 and 21 of the pistons P-1 and P-2, respectively, to thereby open and close, respectively, the four chambers or cylinders 51, 52, 53 and 54, and, with suitable valving ;as
will be described hereinafter, the continuing flow of fluids through the spherical power device of this invention produces continuous rotation of the pistons about their axes and vice versa.
Thus, it will be appreciated that upon each complete revolution of the pistons P-1 and P-2 with, the piston P3, each of the cylinders or chambers 51, 52, 53 and.
54 move through two complete strokes, a compression stroke and an expansion stroke. For example, during of rotation the chamber 51 adjacent piston face 10 is compressing or closing while the chamber 53 adjacent the opposite piston face 11 is expanding or opening. Simultaneously, the. chambers 52 and 54 are also closing and opening, respectively. Thus, as soon as the piston P-l begins rotating clockwise from the position shown in FIG. 1, the cylinder or chamber 51 begins to. close and the opposite chamber 53 begins to open.
Through the next 180 of rotation, the chambers continue to close and open, respectively until the pistons P-1 and P-3 reach the respective positions shown in.
FIG. 3, whereupon, continued rotation another 180 clockwise causes the chambers to reverse functionsas the chamber 51 opens and the chamber 53 opens.
In the schematic views of FIGS. 6, 7 and 8 there is shown the spherical power device of the present invention in an internal combustion engine embodiment. As shown in FIG. 6, the housing H is provided with exhaust ports 60 and 61 which are positioned on opposite sides of the sweep of the center piston P-3 and similarly, spark plugs 62 and 63 are shown mounted in the housing H for igniting a fuel-air mixture. FIG. 7 shows the inlet passage 65 as well as the exhaust port 60 and an internal passage or conduit 66 which extends through the journal 37 which communicates with the cylinder or chamber 51 and chamber 53 on the opposite side of. the piston P-l for a purpose to be described in detail hereinafter.
The engine is a two-cycle internal combustion engine which fires twice per revolution. As shown in FIG. 6, the piston P-l is at top dead center with respect to cylinder 53 which is in position for firing upon ignition of the fuel-air mixture in such chamber. Assuming such pistons are moving in a clockwise direction, when the fuel-air mixture in chamber 53 is ignited, the resulting expanding gases will drive the piston faces 11 and 31 apart causing rotation during the expansion stroke from the position shown in FIG. 6 to a position which is similar to that shown in FIG. 2 of the drawings which represents the first 90 of clockwise rotation and for an additional 90 of rotation to the position shown in FIG. 8. Throughout this first 180 of rotation gases in the chamber 53 expand simultaneously during such 180 of rotation the gases in the opposite chamber 51 are being compressed as the piston face 30 moves toward the piston face 10. A fresh fuel-air mixture was drawn into the chamber 51 on its previous revolution, as will be described in detail hereinafter. As the fresh fuel-air mixture in the chamber 51 is compressed, the fuel-air mixture is forced through the journal passage 66 to expel the burned exhaust gas from the cylinder or chamber 53 through the exhaust port 60. And the fresh fuel-air mixture also re-charges the cylinder 53 for the next ignition. Continued clockwise rotation of the piston P-l causes the fresh air-fuel mixture in the chamber 53 to be compressed through the next 180 of rotation as such piston returns to the position shown in FIG. 6 at top dead center with respect to the chamber 53 adjacent the plug 62 where such plug causes the compressed air-fuel mixture to be ignited thereby completing the cycle of rotation of the piston P-l. During each cycle of rotation a fresh fuel-air mixture is drawn into the chamber 51 through the intake port 65 and thereafter compressed and forced through the journal passage 66 to expel burned gas from the chamber 53 and thereafter charge such chamber with a fresh fuel-air mixture for ignition upon the return of the chamber 53 to the top dead center position.
The first 90 degrees of rotation after ignition of the fuel-air mixture in the chamber 53 (FIG. 6) will move the piston P2 to the position shown in FIG. 2 where ignition of the compressed fuel-air mix in the chamber 54 being ignited by the plug 63. Each rotation of the piston P-2 produces a two-cycle sequence identical to that of the two cycle sequence with respect to the piston P-l except that, such ignition sequence for the piston P-2 occurs 90 after the ignition sequence of P-l, otherwise, such sequences are identical. After the fresh fuel-air mixture in the cylinder or chamber 54 has been ignited, clockwise rotation of the piston P-2 causes the fresh fuel-air mixture in the chamber 52 to flow through a journal passage (similar to the passage 66) and the journal 35 to exhaust burned fuel gases from the chamber 54 through another 180 of the piston P-Z will compress such fresh fuel-air mixture and move the piston to position shown in FIG. 2 for ignition such by the spark plugs 63. It will be appreciated that during the portion of rotation while gas is being compressed, the pistons P-1 and P-2 close the inlet ports and open the exhaust ports for expelling the expanded gases.
It will also be appreciated that suitable poppet or other type of control valves, which may be pressure or mechanically actuated, may be employed to control the flow of the fuel-air mixture as well as the flow ofexhaust gases through the respective intake and exhaust valves employed in this embodiment of the present invention.
An alternate embodiment of the internal combustion engine of the present invention which fires four times per revolution is shown in FIGS. 9 and 10 of the drawings. With this embodiment, the fresh air-fuel mixture is injected through a passage 71 in the shaft 72 of the piston P-2. The passage 71 communicates with a passage 74 formed in the journal 35' of the central piston P-3. Longitudinally extending conduits or passages 75 extend longitudinally of such journal and communicate with a plurality of longitudinally spaced slots 76 which open through the outer surface of the journal 35 to communicate with the combustion chambers or cylinders 51, 52, 53, 54, etc. which are formed between the piston P-2" and the center piston P-3". Exhaust ports or passages 60' having suitable valves 61 are provided in the housing H for exhausting the burned fuel-air mixture from the combustion chambers as will be described in detail hereinafter.
In the operation of the four-combustion-perrevolution embodiment of this invention shown in FIGS. 9 and 10 of the drawings, a fresh air-fuel mixture is drawn into the chamber through the center passage 71 in the shaft 72. This mixture enters the combustion chambers 51, 52, 53 and 54, respectively when the center piston P-3 rotates with respect to the outer piston P-2" so as to open or uncover the slots 76 in the journals 35 and 37, as the case may be, to admit a fresh fuel-air mixture to the respective chambers for combustion therein. Also, it will be appreciated that positive pressure means may be associated with the inlet passage 71 to supply such fresh fuel-air mixture to the respective combustion chambers under a positive pressure if desired.
As the fresh fuel-air mixture enters the chamber under pressure either from positive pressure in the inlet chamber or, under the pressure of centrifugal force which results from the high speed rotation of the pistons P-1" and P-2", the exhaust gases in such chambers will be forced out through the exhaust ports and vented to the atmosphere..Assuming that a cycle begins with the combustion of a fresh charge of air and fuel, such combustion causes the pistons P-1 and P-2" to rotate thus expanding the gas between such piston and the adjacent wallof the center piston P-3". After such piston rotates approximately the exhaust port is opened to thus allow the combustion products under pressure to escape and be vented through such exhaust ports. Additional rotation of the pistons to approximately the position opens the slots or passages 76 in the journal 35' and 37' to deliver a fresh fuel-air mixture to the respective chambers. Such fresh fuel-air mixture is delivered either under positive pressure through the supply passage 74 or, may additionally be moved via centrifugal force to cause such fresh fuel-air mixture to expel the burned gases from the chambers and replace such burned gas with a fresh fuel mixture. In the preferred embodiment of this invention as the pistons rotate to approximately the 210 position, the openings in the journals 76 are then closed or covered by such outer pistons P-l" and P-2" and as such pistons continue to rotate to the top dead center or 360 position, ignition and combustion occur. Thereafter, the cycle is repeated.
It will be appreciated, that when referring to various positions of the pistons in the housing with respect to top dead center, such as the 140 position or the 150 position that such positions are measured from the top dead center position of each individual combustion chamber and that combustion occurs once per cylinder per revolution or once every 90 of rotation of the pistons P-1 and P-2. Thus, by injecting the fuel-air mixture through the shaft of one of the pistons, it can be appreciated that the total power output of the sperical power device of this invention can be substantially increased over that which may be attained through the use of the two cycle embodiment described and shown with respect to FIGS. 6, 7, and 9 herein.
Another alternate embodiment of the internal combustion version of the apparatus of the present invention shown in FIGS. 11 and 12. This embodiment provides a two-stage combustion engine which is the equivalent of a two-cycle, two-cylinder engine with a displacement of one half the total displacement of the spherical power device. In this embodiment, chambers 52 and 54 on the opposite sides of the piston P-2 (see FIG. 2) are not combustion chambers but merely draw a fresh fuel-air mixture into the spherical power device and force it into combustion chambers 51 and 53, re spectively. As such piston P-2 is rotated it compresses the fuel-air mixture and forces it through suitable check valves 80 and 81 which are formed in the central piston P-3 on opposite sides of the journal 37 that divides the baffle between the sides and 31. Also, as shown, suitable passages 90 and 91 are provided through the plate 25 for communicating air-fuel mixtures from the charged chambers 52 and 54 to the compression, combustion and expansion chambers 51 and 53 adjacent the piston P-l. A fresh fuel-air mixture inlet 95 is shown in the side of the housing H which is connected by suitable conduits to a supply of fuel and air for injection into the spherical power device. A suitable spark plug 96 isprovided in the housing H for igniting the fuel-air mixture after it has been compressed and similarly, a suitable exhaust port 97 is provided in the housing H for exhausting the burned fuel-air mixture from the combustion chambers 51 and 53 after ignition.
With this embodiment of the internal combustion engine of the present invention, fuel and air are drawn into the intake and charge chambers 52 and 54 and, as the piston P-2 is rotated counterclockwise to compress the charge in these chambers such compressed charge is forced through the ports or passages 90 and 91 past the check valves 80 and 81, respectively, into the compression, combustion and expansion chambers 51 and 53, respectively. As this charge enters the chambers 51 and 53, it forces the expanded burned exhaust gases from such chambers via the exhaust port 97, thus leaving such chambers full of fresh air and fuel. As the piston P-1 rotates, it closes the exhaust port and the new charge of fuel and air is then compressed and subsequently ignited by the spark plug 96 when the piston P-l moves to the top dead center position shown in FIG. 12 of the drawings. The ignition of the charge of fuel and air in the chamber 51 causes piston P-l to continue rotating in a couterclockwise direction compressing the fuel-air mixture in the chamber 53 and subsequently igniting it as the piston continues to rotate 180 from the position shown in FIG. 11.
Thus, it would be appreciated that with this embodiment of the apparatus of the present invention, the chambers 52 and 54 function solely as intake and charge chambers and such air-fuel mixture is moved through the center piston P-3 via suitable passages 90 and 91 and held in the combustion chambers 51 and 53 by means of the one-way acting check valves and 81. As a further variation of this embodiment of the invention, suitable conduit means may be provided externally of the housing H communicating the intake and charge chambers 52 and 54 with the combustion chambers 51 and 53 rather than conducting such charges internally through the passages and 91.
In the spherical fluid pump or motor embodiment of the spherical power device of the present invention shown in FIGS. 13 and 14 of the drawings, the housing H, which preferably is formed of interconnecting pieces and 101, is provided with a chamber C which has a spherical inner surface 103' extending circumferentially of such housing H. As shown, the adjacent edges 104 and 105 of the housing sections 101 and 100, respectively, are joined together and sealed by an O-ring seal 106 or other suitable sealing means to provide a sealed spherical chamber for receiving the rotating pistons P-1 and P-2. The housing sections 100 and 101 are provided with cylindrical bores 100a and 101a chamber C at a distance from the center line 112 of the spherical chamber C equal to the radius r of the jour nals 117 and 115. With this arrangement, the seals be tween the cylindrical piston portions 110 and 111 and the surrounding cylindrical walls of the bores 100a and 10101 have a cylindrical rather than a spherical configuration. As shown, the end portions 110a and 111a of the pistons 110 and 111 and the ends 117a and 115a of the journals 117 and 115 and the edge 116 of the center portion of the central piston P-3 have a spherical configuration, however, the cylindrical shoulder portions 110 and 111 may be provided on the pistons P-1 and P-2 to facilitate sealing between the pistons and the surrounding housing H. Further, this embodiment of the spherical power device lends itself well to use for hydraulic pumps, motors, air motors, steam expanders and the like. As shown, the inlet and discharge ports or passages 120 and 121, respectively, are wider than the ports'shown in the other embodiments. Also,
it will be appreciated that such ports are opened and closed by the rotation pistons P1, P-2 and P-3.
The case 205 is sealed with the front end section 200 1 by means of an O-ring 206 or other suitable sealing means. Also, an intermediate seal is formed by an O- ring or other suitable seal 210a which extends circumferentially between the exterior housing section 200 and the interior surface of the body or case 205 to provide a pair of sealed passages or manifolds 208 and 210 which serve as fluid inlet conduits and fluid discharge conduits, respectively.
FIG. 15 of the drawings shows another alternate embodiment of the spherical power device of the present invention wherein the pistons P-1 and P-2 positioned in the housing H are provided with cylindrical piston bodies 400 which are disposed in cylindrical housing portions 401 of each of the halves of the housing H. In this embodiment of the invention the seals between the pistons P-l and P2 and their respective portions of the surrounding housing H are preferably formed at the cylindrical portion 400 and a point type seal will be provided at the opposite edges of the spherical portion 404 forming the cavity or chamber C.
As shown, the diameter of the cylindrical bore 401 in which the piston 400 is received is such that the intersection of the cylindrical bore 401 with the spherical chamber C is such that the distance d from the center line of the spherical housing to the edge of such bore is equivalent to the radius r of the journals 35 and 37, respectively.
It will be appreciated that the inlet and outlet passages for the embodiment shown in FIG. will be substantially the same as the passages 120 and 121 shown in FIG. 14 of the drawings. Also, the outer edge 439 of the central piston body 425 has a spherical configuration and is adapted to engage the inner spherical surface of the chamber C.
Further, as shown in FIG. 15 of the drawings, the journals such as 37 are the same length as the diameter of the cylindrical portions 400 of the pistons P-1 and P-2.
This particular embodiment facilitates manufacture of the device as the cylindrical configuration is more easily machined and produced than the spherical configuration shown in other embodiments of the pistons P-1 and P-2. And, this particular embodiment is particularly adaptable for use as a hydraulic pump or motor.
The foregoing disclosure and description of the invention are illustrative and explanatory thereof, and various changes in the size, shape and materials as well as in the details of the illustrated construction may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention.
What is claimed is:
l. A fluid handling device having a plurality of variable volume chambers for use as a pump, compressor or motor comprising:
a. a housing having a cavity therein, at least a portion of which has a substantially spherical configuration;
b. a pair of end pistons disposed in said spherical cavity;
c. each of said end pistons being mounted for rotation in said spherical cavity about an axis of rotation;
d. the axis of rotation of each of said pair of end pistons being disposed at an angle other than 180 with respect to the other axis of rotation;
e. each of said pair of end pistons having a pair of faces inclined axially inwardly toward the center of said spherical cavity;
f. first semi-cylindrical journal means in each of said pair of pistons extending diametrically of said spherical cavity;
g. a central piston disposed in said spherical cavity between said pair of end pistons and extending diametrically of said spherical chamber;
h. said central piston having second semi-cylindrical journal means on opposite sides thereof for operably connecting said first semi-cylindrical journal means of each said pair of end pistons and a pair of piston faces on each side of said second journal,
means aligned with said inclined piston surfaces to form a plurality of chambers in said spherical cavity whereby said central piston is simultaneously oscillated as it rotates with said pairs of pistons to vary the volume of said plurality of chambers.
2. The invention of claim 1 wherein each of said pair of pistons is provided with a cylindrical base disposed substantially perpendicular to the axis of rotation of said piston.
3. The invention of claim 1 wherein said central piston is provided with ports extending through said central piston for communicating fluid from one side of said piston to the opposite side thereof with one-way valves associated with said ports for controlling the flow of fluids therethrough.
4. The invention of claim 1 including:
a. a passage extending through one of said pair of pistons and communicating with passage means in said second journal;
b. said passage means in said second journal extending longitudinally thereof and having a plurality of ports therein for discharging fluid into said chambers.
5. The invention of claim 1 including passage means through said central piston communicating the opposite sides of said second journal means for conducting fluids from the chamber on one side of said second journal means to the chamber on the opposite side thereof.
6. The invention of claim 1 wherein said housing is provided with cylindrical bores adjacent said spherical cavity portion and wherein each of said pair of pistons is provided with a cylindrical shoulder adapted to engage said cylindrical bore.
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|International Classification||F01C3/00, F01C3/06, F01C9/00|
|Cooperative Classification||F01C3/06, F01C9/005|
|European Classification||F01C3/06, F01C9/00C|