|Publication number||US3878319 A|
|Publication date||Apr 15, 1975|
|Filing date||Jul 8, 1974|
|Priority date||Jul 8, 1974|
|Also published as||CA1033427A1|
|Publication number||US 3878319 A, US 3878319A, US-A-3878319, US3878319 A, US3878319A|
|Inventors||Wahl Ralph Edward|
|Original Assignee||Gen Electric|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (15), Referenced by (25), Classifications (15), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent [191 Wahl ,1
[ CORONA-RESISTANT ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE RUBBER INSULATED POWER CABLE  Inventor: Ralph Edward Wahl, Prumbull,
 Assignee: General Electric Company, New
 Filed: July 8, 1974  Appl. No.: 486,523
 US. Cl 174/106 SC; 117/218; 156/51; 174/36; 174/107; 174/110 AR; 174/120 SC;
 Int. Cl. H0lb 9/02  Field of Search 174/36, 102 SC, 105 SC, 174/106 SC, 110 AR, 110 PM, 107,120 R,
120 SC, 120 SR; 117/128, 128.4, 128.7, 216,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,060,261 10/1962 Stanley et a1 174/120 AR 3,259,688 7/1966 Towne et a1. 174/107 3,472,692 10/1969 lsshiki 174/110 AR 3,479,446 11/1969 Arnaudin, Jr. et a1 174/120 R 3,541,228 11/1970 Lombardi 174/120 SC 3,569,610 3/1971 Garner 174/110 PM X 3,617,377 ll/l97l lsshiki 117/224 3,643,004 2/1972 McKean.... 174/102 SC X 3,646,248 2/1972 Ling et a1 174/120 SC 3,684,821 8/1972 Miyauchi et al.. 174/120 SC X 3,748,369 7/1973 Durakis et a1 174/102 SC 3,749,817 7/1973 Shiga et al 174/110 AR 3,787,255 l/1974 Carini et a1. 174/120 SC X 3,792,192 2/1974 Plate 174/120 SC X 3,832,481 8/1974 Boyd et a1. 174/110 AR X FORElGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 740,093 8/1966 Canada 174/102 SC [111 3,878,319 [451 Apr. 15, 1975 OTHER PUBLICATIONS Luh, D. R., Ethylene Propylene Terpolymers in Wire and Cable Constructions, Wire & Wire Products, 4-70 pp. 79-81.
Primary Examiner-Arthur T. Grimley Attorney, Agent, or Firm-R. G. Simkins; P. L. Schlamp; F. L. Neuhauser  ABSTRACT the body of the primary or dielectric insulation around the conductor and then heat treating the thermosetcured ethylene-propylene rubber insulation prior to applying subsequent components of the multilayered covering about the conductor, including an overlying semiconductive shielding layer and a protective enclosing jacket of heat-cured thermoset polymer. The semiconductive shielding layer overlying the body or primary of dielectric insulation around the conductor, comprises a combination of a highly vapor-permeable coating of semiconductive material adhered to the surface of the underlying body of insulation and a contig uous layer of semiconductive material superimposed over the coating adhered to the insulation.
12 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure f l l I CORONA-RESISTANT ETH YLENE-PROPYLENE RUBBER INSULATED POWER CABLE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION protective enclosing jacket. Typical multilayered highvoltage carrying cables are shown. for example. in US. Pat. Nos.:
3.060.26l 3.259.688 3.472.691 3.541.138 3.569.6lt) 3.617.377 3.643.004 3.646.248 3.677.849 3.684.82l 3.748.369 3.787.255 3.792.192
and Canadian Pat. No. 740.093.
The occurrence or presence of voids within the primary insulation, or intermediate the insulation and an adjacent overlying or underlying semiconductive shielding body of the insulating coverings of such highcr-voltage carrying cables. whether due to a separation or parting of component layers. or otherwise. often results in the generation of corona or ionization in the multilayered insulating covering during service. which in time is likely to cause a breakdown in the insulating covering and a failure of the cable. Coronaprone or ionization-prone separations or partings in multilayer covered electrical cable. as well as other gas formed pores or voids. commonly occur in such cable as the result of ()utgassing" during manufacturing operations. The formation of such potentially debilitating voids due to outgassing is especially troublesome and critical in the production of cable wherein the manufacturing process includes exposure to high temperatures such as during heating operation to induce curing of thermosettable components or materials. Moreover. the presence of compositions which are prone to the formation of gases. such as thermosetting curable ethylenepropylene rubber compounds. increases the likelihood of void formation and related potential failure.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention comprises a combination of cable manufacturing conditions. cable construction and compositions therefor. for the manufacture of high voltage electric power cable having a conductor insulated with a multilayered covering. including a primary or dielectric insulating body of thermoset ethylene-propylene rubber compound. an overlying contiguous layer of semiconductive shielding. and a heat-cured. thermoset protective enclosing jacket. The invention enables the production of such cable in a manner which does not promote separations of. or a parting between. the layer of primary insulation and the immediate overlying shield. and as a result thereof the formation of intermediate voids or pores which are conductive to corona or ionization.
The invention further comprises a method wherein the body of thermosetting or curable ethylenepropylene rubber compound forming the primary or dielectric insulation for the conductor and a component of the composite insulating covering thereon. is
subjected to a prolonged heat treatment following the completion of its cure through conventional means. and prior to the application or formation of overlying components or units of the assemblage constituting the composite covering. Additionally the invention entails the application and inclusion ofa semiconductive coating of ingredients providing a highly vaporpermeable film extending over and securely adhered to the surface of the cured and heat treated body of ethlylenepropylene rubber compound. and an adjoining overlying layer of semiconducting material superimposed on the coating.
The term ionization is used throughout this specification to define the same electrical phenomenon which is frequencly referred to as corona. or corona discharge or formation in the prior art patents and/or literature.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION It is a primary object of this invention to provide a method of producing high voltage carrying electric power cable having a conductor insulated with a multilayered or composite covering which is not subject to a separation or parting of the layers or individual units of the composite and thus is not subject to ionization formation resulting from voids within the assemblage.
It is also an object of this invention to produce high voltage carrying electric power cable containing an assemblage ofa primary or dielectric insulation of a body of cured ethylene-propylene rubber compound. a unit of semiconductive insulation shielding material and an enclosing protective jacket of cured polymer material without the separations or partings of the insulation shield from the insulation.
It is a specific object of this invention to provide a method for the production of high voltage carrying electric cable including a body of primary or dielectric insulation comprising cured ethylene-propylene rubber compound and an overlying unit of semiconductive material comprising a vapor-permeable coating adhered to the surface of the cured body of insulation which effectively resists separation or parting therefrom and thus avoids the resultant occurrence of ionization-prone voids. and the product thereof.
It is additionally an object of this invention to provide a high voltage carrying electric cable product comprising a particular combination of components and materials. including a body of primary insulation and an insulation shield. which have been combined and treated in a specific manner-whereby the product is effectively free of the presence of voids or open spaces between the primary insulation and its shield which would be a potential source of ionization.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING The drawing is a cross-sectional view of a multilayered cable construction of this invention.
DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT This invention specifically deals with a high voltage carrying power cable having a conductor insulated with a multilayered covering or assemblage. including a primary or dielectric insulating body of cured or thermoset ethylene-propylene rubber composition. an overlying adjoining unit of semiconducting shielding material. and a protective enclosing jacket of a heatcur ed polymeric material such as thermoset polychloroprene.
With reference to the drawing illustrating an electric power cable product 10, the method and construction of this invention comprises the following:
A metal conductor 12, which may ,be solid or stranded, can be provided with an optional inner shield of a layer 14 of semiconductive material. or other conventional components (not shown) such as a paper wrap or separating material located intermediate the conductor and the surrounding body of a primary or dielectric insulation 16. The inner shield can comprise a conventional semiconductive material such as a polymer composition filled with an electro-conductive ingredient comprising particular metal or carbon black, and can be either applied as a fabric supported tape or extruded on as a continuum.
The body of primary or dielectric insulation 16, according to this invention. comprises a relatively thick layer of thermosetting curable ethylenepropylene rubber surrounding the conductor 12. The ethylenepropylene rubber can comprise a typical ethylenepropylene copolymer or terpolymer including any of the appropriate common curing systems comprising heat-activated sulfur-containing agents, organic peroxide-containing curing agents, and coagents therefor. Moreover, to insure the attainment of the optimum advantages and benefits of this invention. it is highly preferred that the ethylene-propylene rubber compound for the insulation be provided with a suitable peroxode curing agent in amounts within the approximate range of about 2.5 to about 3.5 parts ofactive perioxide material per I parts by weight of ethylene-propylene rubber. It is also preferred that the ethylene-propylene rubber compound be relatively free of highly volatile ingredients such as a low molecular weight organic components.
Following the application of the body of curable ethylene-propylene rubber compound insulation around the conductor and curing thereof by conventionalmeans, the formed and cured or thermoset ethylene-propylene rubber is heat treated to purge gases or sources thereof from its mass by prolonged exposure to high temperatures of at least about 200F for a period in excess of about 12 hours. Temperatures within the approximate range of about 200F to about 300+F for periods of between abuot 12 to about 98 hours are preferred. The heat treatment is carried out with a substantial .amount of the surface of the cured or thermoset ethylene-propylene rubber compound exposed to the surrounding atmosphere to encourage the emanation and dissipation of any gases therefrom.
According to this'invention, the adjoining insulation shielding unit of semiconductive material overlying the surfaceof the body of insulation comprises two distinct phases including a coating 18 having semiconductive properties adhered to the surface of the body of insulation and a contiguous layer 20 of semiconductive composition superimposed over the coating 18.
Coating 18. which covers and is adhered to the surface of the underlying body of insulation. consists of a highly vapor-permeable film comprising'a polymeric materialcontaining-an electro-conductive filler, such as an ethylene-containing polymer or copolymer with a filler of particulate metal or carbon black. The coating is applied by any suitable manner such dipping, spraying, flooding or wiping a solution. and/or dispersion thereof in an apt solvent or liquid medium. on the surface of the cured and heat-purged body of insulawith butyl rubber or other suitable elastomer containing electro-conductive filler such as particulate metal or carbon black. Suitable tapes for use in this invention are commercially available from vendors including Chase & Sons. Inc., Plymouth Rubber Co. Inc., and Haartz-Mason, Inc. a
It is to be understood that in the semiconductiv components of the construction or assemblage for cable 10, the amounts of electro-conductive filler in proportion to polymeric carrying material or'matrix,
depends upon cable designs including service voltages. the dimensions of the respective components. and the electrical properties of the particular fillers and polymeric materials employed, among other possiblefactors appreciated by those skilled in the art.
ln the preferred embodiment illustrated in the drawing for a cable 10 of this invention, a layer of shielding drain or ground 22 comprising strands of metal such as tape or wire are positioned over the composite insulation shield unit of semiconductive materials composed of coating l8 and contiguous layer 20. A typical drain or ground shield 22 consists of copper or aluminum tapes. or wires, wrapped helically about or otherwise fixed along the length of the assembly in contact with semiconducting layer 20.
Enclosing the overall cable 10 construction orthe multilayered assembly about the conductor 12, is a pro- I tective jacket 24 or sheath comprising a heat-cured or thermoset polymeric material such as a polychloroprene-chlorosulfonated polyethylene, butadieneacrylonitrile and polyvinyl chloride blends. butyl rubber, polyethylene, and the like. An optional separator of cloth. paper or plastic film can be placed between the metal shield 22 and the overlying polymeric jacket 24 to prevent adhesion and/or penetration of the polymeric material with respect to the metal shield.
in addition to the heat purging of gases or potential volatiles from the mass of the cured body of ethyleneporpylene rubber compound insulation 16 described 7 above, a further essential feature of this invention with respect to deterring separation sor a parting of the semiconductive insulation shield from the insulation with the resultant formation of detrimental corona or ionization prone voids. is the unique construction and nature of the outer insulation shield unit comprising a semiconductive composite of the coating 18 and contiguous layer 20. This aspect of the invention comprises the formation or introduction of a coating of semiconductive material which is highly permeable to vapors and also is securely adhered to the surface of the underlying body of primary insulation 16 with a bonding strength effectively greater than does occur between this coating and the overlying contiguous layer 20 of semiconductive tape or extrudate. Thus upon the emanation of any gases from the mass of the cured ethylene-propylene rubber compound insulation which have not previously been expelled by the purging heat treatment. attributable to'heat from subsequent manufacturing steps such as curing the applied thremosetting protective jacket. or whatever source or cause. the emanating gases readily permeate or diffuse through the coating '18 which is securely adhered to the surface of the underlying gas emitting insulation ratherthan causing a parting or separation therebetween at their interface. Moreover, although the gases may not as easily pass through subsequent layers or units of denser or less permeable consistency. such as layer 20 of the contiguous semiconductive material. the possible formation ofa void due to a parting or separation of semiconductive layer 20 from semiconductive coating 18 does not result in development of corona or ionization because the area of such a void or pore is effectively surrounded and protected by semiconducting material.
An illustration of a specific embodiment of all aspects of this invention. comprising the method and product thereof, is provided by the following example along with the indicated ionization properties thereof in relation to the same properties of similar cable products outside the scope of this invention.
Following the application of a strand or inner shield of semiconductive material composed of a carbon black filled ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer extruded around a copper conductor. a body of primary or dielectric insulation approximately one-fourth of an inch thick and of the below-identified composition, was continuously formed by extrusion around the taped conductor. The ethylene-propylene rubber compound constituted the given ingredients in approximate parts by weight:
40% active: DiCup 40KE. Hercules The extruded insulating body of the aforesaid compositionwascured to a thermoset condition by exposure to a temperature of about 406F over a dwell period of about five minutes. Thereafter. the cured ethylene-prop ylene rubber compound insulation was subjected to a heat-treatment of approximately 239F for 60 hours while the length of the unit thereof was wound with its convolutions or coils separated in a spaced pattern providing a high degree of access of the surface to the ambient atmosphere to expedite the purging of any internal gases.
Next a coating composition comprising approximately 39 'parts by weight of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer and approximately 59 parts by weight of carbon black disperesed in about 465 parts by weight of trichloroethane, was applied. by saturating the surface of the cured and heat treated ethylene-propylene insulation and wiping off the excess.
A helical wrapping of semiconductive tape with overlapping edges was applied over the coating. The tape was a commercial electrical tape comprising a nylon polyamide fabric impregnated with butyl rubber containing carbon black.
A wrapping of copper strips was then applied over the semiconductive composite of the coating and tape to provide a drain or ground shield. A protective jacket enclosing the overall cable construction was extruded over the composite assemblage with a curable polychloroprene (neoprene) compound and thereafter cured at about 200F for approximately 10 hours. The thermosetting curable polychloroprene composition consisted of in parts by weight:
5432-25 (Pre-dispersed acceleration) Ware Chemical Co.
Exemplary samples of the cable produced by the foregoing method and construction of this invention. designate Examples l-lV. were tested for ionization accordingto the Insulated Power Cable Engineers Associated test S-68-5l6 Interim Standard No. l dated March, 1971, and the ionization data derived from the tests were compared with respect to ionization data from samples of Standards composed of similarly constructed cables of the same capacity which did not contain a composite insulation shield unit of semiconductive coating adhered to the primary insulation com-. bined with a contiguous layer of semiconductive material.
The Standards of A, B and C comprised samples of the same cable construction as the Examples of this invention, except for the omission therefrom of the coating 18 having semiconductive properties adhered to the surface of the body of insulation 16, and wherein the manufacturing heat treatment of the same intensity and time as the Examples was carried out with the material wound on a reel in a normal manner with the convolutions in a contiguous relationship. The standards of D and E comprised samples of the same cable construction as the Examples of this invention, namely. including coating 18 described above, which were subjected to the same manufacturing heat treatment under the conditions applied in Standards A, B and C. that is with the material wound on a reel in a normal manner with the convolutions in a contiguous relationship.
The cable specifications for the samples of the Examples and Standards. and their ionization properties are all given in the following table.
Ionization Level Minimum Required Conductor Size AWG Voltage Capacity Examples KV l 1000 ll 4/0 4/0 500 forming the heat treatment, as demonstrated by Standards D and E.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters patent of the United States is:
1. An electric power cable composed of an assemblage of a conductor having a composite covering thereabout. comprising the combination including:
a. a metallic conductor;
b. a dielectric insulating body of a cured ethylenepropylene rubber compound surrounding the conductor, said cured ethylene-propylene rubber compound having been treated by heating to a temperature of at least about 200F subsequent to its curing;
8 c. a vapor-permeable coating comprising an ethylene-containing polymer and electro-conductive filler covering and adhered to said cured and heattreated ethylene-propylene rubber compound;
d. a layer of semiconductive material comprising an clastomer and electroconductive filler overlying said vapor-permeable coating; and
e. an enclosing protective jacket of heat cured polymer.
2. The electric power cable of claim 1, wherein the cured ethylene-propylene rubber compound has been treated by heating to a temperature of about 200F to about 300F for a period of at least about 12 hours.
3.-The electric power cable of claim 1, wherein the vaporpermeable coating adhered to the cured and heat treated ethylene-propylene rubber compound comprises a copolymer of ethylene-vinyl acetate and carbon black tiller. 1
4. The electric power cable of claim 1, wherein the layer of semiconductive material overlying the vaporpermeable coating comprises a fabric'impregnated with i an elastomer containing an electro-conductive tiller.
ature of about 200F to about 300 F for a period of about 24 hours to about 98 hours;
c. a vapor-permeable coating comprising a copolymer of ethylene-vinyl acetate and carbon black filler covering and adhered to said cured and heat treated ethylene-propylene rubber compound;
S d. a layer of semiconductive material comprising a fabric impregnated with an elastomer containing an electroconductive filler overlying said vapor permeable coating; and,
e. an enclosing protective jacket of heat-cured polymer.
6. The electric power cable of claim 5, wherein the layer of semiconductive material overlying the vapor v permeable coating comprises a nylon polyamide fabric 7 impregnated with butyl rubber.
7. An electric power cable composed of an assemblage of a conductor having a composite covering thereabout, comprising the combination including:
a. a metallic conductor;
b. an inner layer of semiconductive material comprising a polymeric compound and electroconductive filler shielding the conductor;
c. a dielectric insulating body of a cured ethylenepropylene rubber compound surrounding the shielded conductor. said cured ethylene-propylene rubber compound having been treated by heating LII to a temperature of about 200F to about 300 F for a period of at least about 24 hours subsequent to its curing;
d. a vapor-permeable coating comprising an ethylene-containing polymer and electro-conductive filler covering and adhered to said cured and heat treated ethylene-propylene rubber compound;
e. an outer layer of semiconductive material comprising an elastomer and electro-conductive filler overlying said vapor-permeable coating; and
f. an enclosing protective jacket of heat cured polymer.
8. The electric power cable of claim 7, wherein a shield of metal strands is positioned between the outer insulation shield of semiconductive material and the enclosing protective jacket of cured polychloroprene.
9. The electric power cable of claim 8, wherein the vapor-permeable coating adhered to the cured and heat-treated ehtylene-propylene rubber compound comprises a copolymer of ethylene-vinyl acetate and carbon black filler.
10. The electric power cable of claim 9, wherein the outer layer of semiconductive material overlying the vapor-permeable coating comprises a nylon polyamide fabric impregnated with butyl rubber containing carbon black filler. j
II. An electric power cablecomposed of an assemblage of a conductor having a composite covering thereabout, comprising the combination including;
a. ametallic conductor; v l v b. an inner layerofsemiconductive material comprising a polymeric compound and electrorconductive filler shielding the conductor;
. c. a dielectric insulating body of a cured ethylenepropylene rubber compound surrounding the shielded conductor. said cured ethylene-propylene rubber compound having been treated by heating to a temperature of about 200F to about 300F for a period of about-24 hours to about 98 hours subsequent to its curing;
d. a vapor-permeable coating comprising a copolymer of ethylene-vinyl acetate and carbon black filler covering and adhered to said cured and heat semiconductive layer: and treated ethylene-propylene rubber compound; g. an enclosing protective jacket of cured polychloroe an outer layer of semiconductivc material comprisprene.
ing a nylon polyamide fabric impregnated with 12. The electric power cable of claim 11, wherein the butyl rubber containing carbon black tiller; shield of metal strands comprises strips of metal tape. f. a shield of metal strands surrounding the outer
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|U.S. Classification||174/106.0SC, 174/110.0AR, 174/36, 174/107, 427/118, 174/120.0SR, 174/120.0SC, 156/51|
|International Classification||H01B9/00, H01B9/02, H01B7/02|
|Cooperative Classification||H01B9/027, H01B7/02|
|European Classification||H01B9/02G, H01B7/02|
|Feb 4, 1988||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: VULKOR, INCORPORATED, 950 BROADWAY, LOWELL, MA 018
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, A CORP. OF NY;REEL/FRAME:004835/0028
Effective date: 19871222
Owner name: VULKOR, INCORPORATED, A CORP. OF MA,MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, A CORP. OF NY;REEL/FRAME:4835/28
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, A CORP. OF NY;REEL/FRAME:004835/0028
Owner name: VULKOR, INCORPORATED, A CORP. OF MA, MASSACHUSETT