|Publication number||US3879767 A|
|Publication date||Apr 29, 1975|
|Filing date||Feb 11, 1974|
|Priority date||Jan 26, 1972|
|Publication number||US 3879767 A, US 3879767A, US-A-3879767, US3879767 A, US3879767A|
|Inventors||James A Stubstad|
|Original Assignee||Cutter Lab|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (250), Classifications (15)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1 Stubstad 1 Apr. 29, 1975 1 PROSTHESIS FOR ARTICULATING BODY STRUCTURES  Inventor: James A. Stubstad, Lafayette, Calif,
 Assignee: Cutter Laboratories, Inc., Berkeley,
22 Filed: Feb. 11, 1974 211 Appl. No.: 441,350
Related U.S. Application Data  Continuation of Scr. No. 220.877, .Ian. 26, 1972,
[S2] U.S. Cl. 3/1; 128/92 C; 123/92 CA; 128/010. 21  Int. Cl. A611 H24  Field of Search.... 3/1; 128/92 C, 92 CA, 92 R, 128/334 R, DIG. 21
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,679,245 5/1954 Timmermans 128/92 CA 3,462,765 8/1969 Swanson 3/1 3,593,342 7/1971 Nicbauer et a1. 3/1
FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLlCATlONS 1.047.640 7/1953 France 128/92 C 976.768 4/1964 Germany 128/92 C OTHER PUBLICATIONS Teflon Hip Prostheses in Dogs" by .l. D. Leidholt et al.
The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, V01. 47A, No. 7, pp. 1414-4420, October 1965 "Silicone Rubber Implants for Replacement of Arthritic or Destroyed Joints in the Hand" by Alfred B. Swanson.
Surgical Clinics of North America, Vol. 48, No. 5, Oct. 1968, pp. 1113-1127.
Primary Examiner-Ronald L. Frinks Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Owen, Wickersham & Erickson  ABSTRACT An article for the relief of pain and restricted movement of joints resulting from arthritic disease or trauma comprising a relatively thick contoured or cup-like member with a curved smooth surface provided by a layer of biocompatible elastomer and the opposite surface covered by a biocompatible tissueingrowth receptive material. The prosthesis is so shaped to enable it to cover and become firmly attached to the articulating surface of a bone in a joint.
19 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures PROSTHESIS FOR ARTICULATING BODY STRUCTURES This is a continuation. of application Ser. No. 220,877 filed Jan. 26, 1972 now abandoned.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to an article which enables free articulating motion between bones of a joint in an animal body. In particular, the invention relates to an article for assuring free movement between the articulating surfaces of the bones in ajoint which are scarred or show signs of deterioration as a result of injury, disease, or aging and which have resulted in restriction of motion and painful sequelae.
Many individuals are afflicted with painful joints from arthritic disease or trauma, where two or more bones articulate in ginglymus or sliding contact as in the upper or lower extremities. Direct surgical approaches have been taken in an attempt to alleviate the sources of painful irritation, swelling, and immobility of these joints such as surgically resecting the arthritic joint and implanting artificial joints such as the metacarpal-interphalangeal, or excising and replacing totally affected bones such as the carpal lunate of the wrist. These approaches are so drastic that even though they may be generally successful, they are usually reserved for those advanced cases where the joint or bone is so degenerated as to require such drastic measures of replacement of the joint or bone.
In those cases where the bone in the area of arthritic involvement has not progressed to the stage of serious degeneration and the surgeon hesitates to perform total joint replacement surgery, the attempt is usually made to alleviate the patients discomfort by more conservative means, such as injection of corticosteroids or other medication into the afflicted joint or by oral administration of a variety of anti-inflammatory agents. This form of treatment rarely provides permanent relief from this painful and incapacitating disease.
Prior to the availability of prosthetic devices for arthritic joints (especially in the upper extremity) it had been common practice to reposition a layer of natural tissue between the resected ends of adjacent bones to reduce painful contact and to improve alignment of the joint in procedures known as resection orthoplasty or pseudoarthrosis. This approach has not proven to be as predictable, stable, or long lasting as desired.
Relief from pain and increased motion has been reported to result from a somewhat less traumatic procedure involving minimal bone resection by surgically placing thin membranes of cellophane or silicone over or between the articulating surface of an afflicted joint (Breck, L. W., Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, No. 54, 133 (I967), Kessler, I, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 47, 252 (l97l). However, these membranes are subject to migration or rolling from the site unless secured to the bone as by sutures or by tissue ingrowth into one side of a membrane which has ingrowth material attached to that side. Such corrective measures, using membranes, must necessarily be restricted to those upper extremity joints subjected only to light load-bearing forces. such as the u rist in normal activities, since heavier load-bearing forces imposed on the membrane would tend to erode the surface of the membrane to the point where it would no longer adequately separate the two bones.
Another surgical approach, short of total joint excision has been the insertion of a pad-like sheet of synthetic sponge material (lvalon, foamed polyvinylalcohol) between adjacent articulating bones (Cobey, M. C. Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research No. 54, 139, (1967) This approach is limited to those joints where synovial fluid is still present and a portion of the original articular surface is intact. Sponge-like material, while providing good cushioning and separation initially, remains subject to bio-mechanical and chemical degradation with time, due to its inherent thin and porous structure.
Kessler, I. (ibid.) using silicone interpositional plates, demonstrated by clinical experience the need for stabilization of the plates. To achieve stability and fixation of his implant, he molded a lens-shaped prosthesis to which he fixed a Dacron covered stem for intramedullary insertion. Kesslers results appear clinically acceptable for the relief of pain and restoration of function. Kessler's approach requires surgery involving resection of a considerable portion of bone to accommodate the relatively thick head of the prosthesis, dislocation of the joint with attendant resection of joint tissues, and the broaching of an intramedullary cavity in the bone to receive the stem of the prosthesis.
The present invention provides an article adapted to relieve the pain and to increase the motion of a joint afflicted with arthritic disease or trauma, and the article of this invention is adapted to prevent further erosion of the articulating surfaces of the joint. It provides for greater ease of surgical emplacement, thus minimizing the trauma to tissues of the joint which results from the surgical procedure. In its simplest form, the surgery in volved in the emplacement of the article of this invention requires essentially no resectioning of the bone or drilling into the bone for emplacement of an intramedullary stem.
The article of this invention is biocompatible, i.e., is not attacked by and does not deleteriously affect body environment, tissue or body fluids; hence it can be left in place permanently. A feature of the article of this invention is that it is contoured or shaped to cover an articulating surface of bone and can be trimmed to fit as desired at the time of surgery.
The article of this invention is adapted to attach quickly and securely to the bone over a large area, thus preventing migration or slipping of the article away from the surface of the bone it is designed to cover. Furthermore, the article is adapted to provide long term use.
In the event the prosthesis of this invention must be removed post-surgically, such as if there should be a development of infection from some cause or other, this removal can be accomplished easily, and post infection healing can take place without attendant contracture of tissues at the joint, as would be the case in other procedures involving resection of significant amounts of bone.
The above and other advantages will become apparent from the description which follows.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The article of this invention is a shaped, somewhat flexible, cup-like prosthetic member having essentially an inner or concave surface and an outer or convex sur face. One of the surfaces is made of open-pore, tissueingrowth-receptive material capable of attaching to bone, and the other surface is smooth and is provided by a relatively thick layer of somewhat stiff but still flexible material capable of acting as a sliding joint surface.
Both materials are biocompatible, i.e., they are essentially nonreactive or are not reacted upon unfavorably by body tissues or fluids. For example, the tissueingrowth-receptive material may be fabric, such as mesh or velour, made from a synthetic polymer. The smooth-surfaced layer may be made of an elastomeric material or of a natural tissue material such as tanned collagen or reconstituted fibrinogen. The two surfaces of the article may be made of the same material, such as polyurethane, in which one surface is smooth and non-porous and the other surface has open pores and is receptive to tissue ingrowth.
Depending upon which articulating surface of which bone is to be covered by the article, the fabric surface may be on either the convex surface or the concave surface of the article. For example, to cover the head of the humerus bone of the shoulder, the article will have the fabric on the concave surface. To use the article in the wrist, for example to provide a smooth articulating surface between the radius bone of the lower arm and adjacent carpal bone or bones of the hand, the fabric will be on the convex surface of the article for attachment to the hollow or concave surface at the end of the radius bone.
Although not essential to the design or function of the shaped prosthesis, an intramedullary stem may be provided on the fabric-covered side of the prosthesis. When present, this stem is formed at the time of the molding operation and is made of elastomer which may be reinforced and additionally secured to the cupshaped member by stitching. The outer surface of the intramedullary stem is covered with tissue-ingrowth fabric or other tissue-ingrowth material, which may also be secured to the elastomer body of the stem by stitching and vulcanization. The stem may be any of a number of shapes, usually round or oval, and is meant to be placed into the intramedullary portion of a bone for additional stabilization of the prosthesis. This provision of a stem satisfies a well-established convention among some orthopedic surgeons of utilizing the hollow bone canal for positive, prompt, and mechanical fixation.
In utilizing the present prosthesis, the surgeon exposes the articulating surface of the afflicted bones of the joint, contours the surface of the bone, if necessary, and scarifies or roughens the surface to obtain a raw bleeding surface to invite tissue ingrowth, and places the fabric side of the appropriate sized prosthesis against the scarified surface of the bone. If the prosthesis has a stem, the intramedullary canal is first reamed before emplacement of the prosthesis. The prosthesis is then temporarily secured or affixed, by virtue of its own congruent geometry and by the small intramedullary stem (if present), or by suturing peripheral edges of the prosthesis to the bone. Following a few weeks (from I to 3 weeks) of immobilization of the joint, the prosthesis will have become further and more permanently united to the bone as a result of bony or fibrous tissue ingrowth in the fabric surface.
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The invention and some modes of carrying it out will be illustrated by the specific description herein and by the annexed drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a contoured joint liner prosthesis for the shoulder embodying the principles of this invention.
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view in elevation of a portion of the prosthesis of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of another form of the prosthesis for the wrist, also embodying the principles of this invention.
FIG. 4 is a somewhat diagrammatic skeletal view of a wrist showing the prosthesis of FIG. 3 in phantom, as emplaced in the radius bone.
FIG. 5 is a view in elevation of a modified form of the prosthesis for the wrist having an attached stem; a portion is in section to show the construction of the prosthesis.
FIG. 6 is a view in elevation with a portion in cross section of a prosthesis generally like that of FIG. 1 but with a stern attached.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION FIGS. 1 and 2 show a cup like prosthesis l0 comprising a contoured hollowed-out cap for covering the head of the humerus. This cap is approximately hemispherical and has a smooth outer or convex surface 12 provided for by a relatively thick layer 14 of elastomer, preferably silicone rubber. Its inner or concave surface 16 consists of tissue-ingrowth-receptive fabric preferably Dacron velour, and between the velour covering 16 and the rubber layer I4 there is a thin layer 18 of elastomer such as silicone rubber reinforced with fabric such as Dacron mesh. Dacron stitching 20 may be used to secure the velour covering 16 to the reinforced rubber layer 18.
The elastomer 14 may be the silicone rubber available in commerce under the trademark Silastic (made by Dow Corning Corp), but other elastomers may be used instead, such as a fluorosilicone rubber, or polyurethane, or in some instances a higher density polyethylene or polypropylene polymer. Silicone rubber is a preferred elastomer due to its ease of fabrication, wide clinical acceptance, minimal tissue response and known compatibility in joint applications.
The elastomeric layer may be internally reinforced with a biocompatible fibrous material, especially with Dacron or Teflon mesh. This elastomeric layer, with or without reinforcing material is advantageously from 0.060 to 0.250 inch in thickness and the ingrowthreceptive surface is usually from 0.005 to 0.025 inch in thickness.
The tissue-ingrowth material may be a mesh or velour of a suitable polymer such as polyethylene terephthalate available in commerce under the trademark Dacron, or polymerized tetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), or polyurethane. Dacron velour is a preferred tissueingrowth material because of the ease with which it can be backed with elastomer and because partial penetration by the elastomer of only one side of the velour structure occurs, leaving the opposite, open pore, velour surface unimpregnated by the elastomer. Thus the encouragement of and receptivity to ingrowth of bone tissue is not substantially reduced.
In the use of prosthesis 10, the surgeon exposes the head of the humerus, having separated or incised the connecting soft tissues, and scarifies the humeral head to provide a bloody surface. The prosthesis is pressed against the head of the humerus; a few stitches through the tapered edge 22 and periosteal tissue temporarily secures the prosthesis. After I to 3 weeks of immobilization of the joint, bony or fibrotic tissue ingrowth into the fabric surface 16 securely and permanently anchors the prosthesis. At the time of surgery, any spurs or rough surfaces, resulting from the desease or trauma are removed from the articulating surface of the scapula against which slides the head of the humerus covered with the prosthesis 10. Thus prepared, the joint will remain mobile whether or not cartilage or synovial fluid is present in the joint in normal or reduced amount.
A prosthesis 30 for the wrist, as shown in FIG. 3, has a shape similar to that of a clam shell, i.e., it is a shallow oblong cup-like article. it has a smooth concave surface 32 on one side, as may be provided by a fairly thick layer of silicone rubber, and a covering 34 preferably of Dacron velour, on the opposite or convex side. Between the velour covering 34 and the silicone rubber layer 32 is a thin Dacron mesh reinforced layer of silicone rubber (not visible) which is stitched to the velour with Dacron thread.
FIG. 4 shows how the prosthesis 30 may be placed into the distal end of a radius bone 36 to fit the natural depression in this bone, so that adjacent lunate 38 and scaphoid 40 bones of the wrist may slide freely against the smooth surface 32 of the prosthesis 30. The surface of the shallow depression in the radius bone 36 is roughened or scarified by the surgeon prior to emplacement of the prosthesis 30 to produce a bleeding surface and remove any irregularities or arthritic spurs. As in the shoulder joint prosthesis, following immobilization of the joint for l to 3 weeks, fibrous or bony tissue will have grown into the velour covering 34 and provide permanent fixation. it is again not essential for synovial fluid to be present in the space between the prosthesis 30 and the adjacent carpal bones in order for the joint to move freely, although minimal amounts of fluid adequate for lubrication are to be expected in virtually all cases.
A modified form of prosthesis 50 for use in the wrist is shown in FIG. 5. This modified prosthesis 50 has essentially the same oval cup-shaped configuration as the prosthesis 30 except for an intramedullary stem 52 which extends longitudinally from about the center portion of the convex side. The stem 52 may provide additional stability to the prosthesis when emplaced. An articulating cup-shaped portion 54 has essentially the same construction as the prosthesis 30, i.e., an elastomeric (e.g., silicone rubber) layer 56 providing a smooth concave surface 57, a tissue-ingrowth covering 58 (e.g., Dacron velour) on the convex side, and a mesh reinforced elastomeric layer 60 (e.g., Dacron and silicone rubber) in between. The stem 52 may be made of silicone rubber and may contain one or more layers 62 of reinforcing fabric such as Dacron mesh within the body of the stem 52 to provide a degree of stiffness and mechanical stability to the prosthesis. The layer or layers 62 of mesh may be flat or twisted at the time the prosthesis 50 is molded and cured. Dacron stitching 64 in a through-and-through pattern at the base of the articulating portion 54 further secures this portion to the stem 52.
The stem 52 has an outer covering 66, e.g., of Dacron velour, contiguous with the velour covering 58. This covering 66 is attached to the elastomeric body of the stem 52 by an intermediate layer (not visible here) of reinforced elastomer such as silicone rubber to which the velour 58 is later vulcanized and to which it may additionally be stitched. This intermediate layer is also sealed to the silicone body of the stem 52 by vulcanization, thereby accomplishing a bond between the stem 52 and the velour covering 58. Peripheral stitches 68 run around the edge of the prosthesis 50 and serve to join cut edges of the tissue-ingrowth-receptive covering 66 where it has been trimmed to fit. Then stitches 68 also extend into the body of the prosthesis 50 an amount sufficient to pick up reinforcing fibers therein and may, in some cases, extend through the entire stem of the prosthesis.
The stem 52 may be circular or oval in cross section and is preferably of uniform size throughout its length, or it may be tapered towards its outer end. In the illustrated configuration it is circular and of uniform diame' ter. The diameter of the stem 52 is no larger than the diameter of the intramedullary canal into which it is to be inserted and preferably is somewhat smaller.
A prosthesis 70, shown in FIG. 6, is a modification of the prosthesis 10 for the shoulder, having an intramedullary stem 71 attached to the concave side. The structure of the prosthesis is essentially the same as that for the wrist prosthesis 50. It has a relatively thick convex layer 72 of elastomer such as silicone rubber, an intermediate layer 73 of reinforced elastomer, such as Dacron-mesh-reinforced silicone rubber, an internal core 74 in the stem 72, which may be made of silicone rubber impregnated and reinforced with Dacron mesh or fibers, and an outer covering 75, such as Dacron velour secured, as described previously, to the concave side of the cup-shaped portion 76 and to the stem 71. The stem 71 in this configuration is circular and essentially of uniform diameter throughout its length.
In order to implant those contoured prostheses of this invention which have a stem, the surgery is essentially the same as described above except that the intramedullary canal of the particular bone involved must first be reamed to a depth to accommodate the stem of the prosthesis.
In one of the methods of making the article of this invention, a layer of fabric, preferably Dacron velour, is pressed against a layer of unvulcanized silicone rubber preferably reinforced with Dacron mesh for about one to five minutes. The composite layer is vulcanized at about 300 to 350F. for several minutes and is then stitched through and through in a suitable pattern with Dacron thread to further secure the velour fabric to the reinforced silicone rubber. The reinforced silicone rubber layer is usually from 0.015 to 0.030 inch thick. The composite layer may be notched with several pieshaped wedges in essentially a circular pattern so that when the edges of the wedges are stitched together a more or less cup-shaped form is achieved. This is draped over a suitably shaped mold so that the silicone rubber layer is facing outwardly. Alternatively, the composite layer may be stretch draped over the mold. A relatively thick layer of unvulcanized silicone rubber is applied to the composite layer on the mold and a suitably shaped female mold is placed over this layer.
While held under mild spring-clamped pressure of about to psi, the complete composite is heated at about 300 to 350F. for about 10 to [5 minutes to vulcanize the layers together and is then cured out of the mold for from l to 3 hours. The article is trimmed as necessary, e.g.. to the appropriate cup-shape, washed in pyrogen-free distilled water, sterilized. dried, and suitably packaged ready for use.
The velour surface on the thus shaped article is on the inside or concave surface. For a prosthesis requiring the fabric or tissue-ingrowth surface on the convex surface or side, the shaped article may be flipped inside out or the fabric and elastomer layers may be assembled in the mold in reverse fashion from what was described above.
The thickness, reinforcement, choice of polymer, cushioning, and method of construction of the prosthesis may vary, depending on the amount ofload-bearing forces one might anticipate at the particular joint involved. For example, in the ankle, the elastomeric layer of the prosthesis might be thicker so as to withstand for long periods of time the heavier loads that would be im posed on it. The elastomeric layer ofa prosthesis in the wrist may be thinner since the loads are generally less. In any event, the thickness, durability, and wear potential of the materials of choice can be selected so as to provide a smooth articulating surface which will func tion for a reasonable number of years acceptable to the patient and the surgeon. The elastomeric layer may vary from 0.060 to 0.250 inch in thickness. The fabric coating is preferably about 0.005 to 0.025 inch thick so that the thickness of the complete prosthesis will be between 0.065 and 0.275 inch.
The prostheses of this invention are not limited to those specific embodiments described in detail but include countoured or shaped articles of similar construction designed to conform substantially to a rounded or a depressed articulating surface of a bone in a joint, as for example in the hand, ankle, knee, hip, elbow, or mandible. These prostheses will provide longlasting utility in the relief of pain and freedom of motion, particularly in those joints of the upper extremities where lighter load bearing forces are experienced.
Clinical trials of the prostheses of this invention have uniformly been successful, partly because of the simplicity of the structure and partly because of the well documented biocompatibility of the preferred materials from which these prostheses have been made. Surgeons have particularly acclaimed the ease of implantation, the simplicity of use, and the minimal risk associated with the prostheses. For example, six human arthritic wrists have been restored to pain-free functional use, one with a stemmed prosthesis like the prosthesis 50 of FIG. 5 and five with simpler contouredcup prostheses like the prosthesis of FIG. 3. Ongoing animal tests in small primates of silicone-surfaced humeral heads articulating against normal glenoid shoulder sockets have all shown encouraging results, demonstrating that cuffed shoulder prostheses like that of HO. 1 will also make a satisfactory joint-repair prosthesis when released to human clinical trials.
To those skilled in the art to which this invention relates, many changes in construction and widely differing embodiments and applications of the invention will suggest themselves without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. The disclosures and the description herein are purely illustrative and are not intended to be in any sense limiting.
1. A contoured prosthesis adapted to cover an articulating surface of a skeletal member comprising a flexible shell shaped to cover said articulating surface and having one side a smooth relatively firm surface provided by biocompatible elastomeric material and having the other side of a reticular three-dimensional, openpore, tissue-ingrowth-receptive structure means for enabling tissue ingrowth thereinto below the surface with subsurface intertwining and intermeshing of tissue with said structure means, said structure means being secured to said elastomeric material by partial penetration of said elastomeric material into substantially the whole back of said structure means.
2. In a prosthesis for covering an articulating portion of a skeletal member, the improvement comprising a relatively thick, flexible, cup-like member having a first side with biocompatible reticular, three-dimensionally tissue-ingrowth receptive means for enabling subsurface growth of tissue to enter, grow through, inter twine, and intertangle therewith for firm, deep, inner attachment with body tissues, and a second side of smooth biocompatible elastomer providing a slidable surface preventing tissue ingrowth and attachment, said tissue-ingrowth receptive means being secured to said elastomer by partial penetration of said elastomer into substantially the whole back of said tissueingrowth receptive means.
3. A prosthesis as in claim 2 wherein said first side is convex and said second side is concave.
4. A prosthesis as in claim 3 wherein said first side has a stem consisting of elastomer which is contiguous with and extends outwardly from said first side.
5. A prosthesis as in claim 4 wherein a biocompatible, tissue-ingrowthreceptive material covers and is secured to said stem by partial penetration of said elastomer into substantially the whole back of said tissueingrowth-receptive material.
6. A prosthesis as in claim 4 wherein at least a portion of said elastomer and said stem contains reinforcing fabric.
7. A prosthesis as in claim 2 wherein said first side is concave and said second side is convex.
8. A prosthesis as in claim 7 wherein said first side has a stem of elastomeric material contiguous with and extending outwardly from said first side.
9. A prosthesis as in claim 8 wherein said biocompatible tissue-ingrowth receptive means extends over said stem and is secured to said stem by partial penetration of said elastomer into substantially the whole back of said tissue-ingrowth receptive means.
10. A prosthesis as in claim 8 wherein at least a por tion of said elastomer and a portion of said stem contain reinforcing fabric.
11. A prosthesis as in claim 2 wherein at least a portion of said elastomer contains reinforcing fabric.
12. In a prosthesis for covering the articulating surface of the head of a humerus bone, the improvement comprising, a flexible cap-like member having a smooth convex surface provided by a relatively thick layer of biocompatible elastomer and a concave surface covered by a separate discrete covering of tissueingrowth-receptive material having a tri-dimensional reticular open-pore structure means for enabling tissue to grow thereinto and become interlocked and intertwined therewith below the surface thereof when said prosthesis is emplaced on the head of a said humerous bone, said tissue-ingrowth-receptive material being secured by partial penetration of said elastomer into substantially the whole back of said tissue-ingrowthreceptive material.
13. A prosthesis as in claim 12 wherein fabric reinforcement lies within said elastomer.
14. A prosthesis as in claim 13 wherein said tissueingrowth-receptive material is secured to said reinforcement by stitching.
15. A prosthesis as in claim 14 wherein a stem consisting of elastomer and covered by tissue-ingrowthreceptive material extends outwardly from about the central portion of said concave surface, said tissueingrowth-receptivematerial being secured by partial penetration of said elastomer into substantially the whole back of said tissue-ingrowth-receptive material on said stem.
16. A prosthesis for covering the articulating surface of the distal end of a radius bone, comprising, a contoured cup-like member having a smooth concave surface provided by a relatively thick layer of biocompatible elastomer and a convex surface of said elastomer covered by a tissue-ingrowth-receptive material secured to said elastomer by partial penetration of said elastomer into substantially the whole back of said tissue-ingrowth-receptive material, said tissue-ingrowthreceptive material having a tridimensional reticular open-pore structure means for enabling tissue to grow thereinto and to become intertwined and interlocked therewith below the surface means when said prosthesis is emplaced on a said radius bone.
17. A prosthesis as in claim 16 wherein fabric reinforcement lies between said elastomer and said tissueingrowth-receptive material.
18. A prosthesis as in claim 17 wherein said tissueingrowth-receptive material is secured to said reinforcement by stitching.
19. A prosthesis as in claim 18 wherein a stem consisting of elastomer and covered by tissue-ingrowthreceptive material extends outwardly from about the central portion of said convex side, said tissue-ingrowth receptive material being secured by partial penetration of said elastomer into substantially the whole back of said tissue-ingrowth-receptive material on said stem.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2679245 *||Mar 15, 1951||May 25, 1954||Timmermans Frans Donatus||Prosthesis for femoral heads|
|US3462765 *||Jan 6, 1967||Aug 26, 1969||Dow Corning||Surgically implantable prosthetic joint|
|US3593342 *||Jan 27, 1969||Jul 20, 1971||Cutter Lab||Prosthetic joint|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4007494 *||Apr 11, 1975||Feb 15, 1977||Glasrock Products, Inc.||Bone cap|
|US4010494 *||Aug 15, 1975||Mar 8, 1977||Glasrock Products, Inc.||Canine ear implant and method for supporting defective auricular cartilage|
|US4012796 *||Sep 24, 1975||Mar 22, 1977||Howmedica, Inc.||Interpositioning collar for prosthetic bone insert|
|US4127902 *||Mar 17, 1978||Dec 5, 1978||Homsy Charles A||Structure suitable for in vivo implantation|
|US4195368 *||May 30, 1978||Apr 1, 1980||Networks Electronic Corp.||Surgical repair pad for disease-damaged joints and method of implanting the same|
|US4198712 *||Mar 19, 1979||Apr 22, 1980||Swanson Alfred B||Scaphoid implant|
|US4198713 *||Mar 29, 1979||Apr 22, 1980||Swanson Alfred B||Protective member for implantable prosthesis and method of protecting the prosthesis|
|US4213816 *||Jun 12, 1978||Jul 22, 1980||Glasrock Products, Inc.||Method for bonding porous coating to rigid structural member|
|US4232404 *||Jul 11, 1978||Nov 11, 1980||National Research Development Corporation||Endoprosthetic ankle joint|
|US4280233 *||Aug 3, 1979||Jul 28, 1981||Raab S||Bone connective prosthesis comprising a reinforcement element carrying a polymer layer having a varying modulus of elasticity|
|US4298997 *||Oct 23, 1979||Nov 10, 1981||Rybka F James||Device for inhibiting the formation of fibrous capsular contractures in silicone breast implants and method|
|US4307472 *||Apr 3, 1980||Dec 29, 1981||Glasrock Products, Inc.||Prosthetic device with rigid implantable member having bonded porous coating|
|US4313232 *||Oct 10, 1980||Feb 2, 1982||Habal Mutaz B||An elastomeric mesh hinge primarily for replacement of the finger joints|
|US4344193 *||Nov 28, 1980||Aug 17, 1982||Kenny Charles H||Meniscus prosthesis|
|US4385404 *||Feb 23, 1981||May 31, 1983||J. & P. Coats, Limited||Device and method for use in the treatment of damaged articular surfaces of human joints|
|US4400833 *||Jun 10, 1981||Aug 30, 1983||Kurland Kenneth Z||Means and method of implanting bioprosthetics|
|US4446578 *||Mar 8, 1982||May 8, 1984||Perkins Ezra C||Joint treatment|
|US4483331 *||Sep 16, 1982||Nov 20, 1984||Medical Engineering Corporation||Rod-type penile implant|
|US4491987 *||Sep 24, 1979||Jan 8, 1985||Clemson University||Method of orthopedic implantation and implant product|
|US4502161 *||Aug 19, 1983||Mar 5, 1985||Wall W H||Prosthetic meniscus for the repair of joints|
|US4642124 *||Jun 11, 1984||Feb 10, 1987||Clemson University||Hip prosthesis|
|US4645505 *||Mar 7, 1985||Feb 24, 1987||Swanson Alfred B||Wrist implant|
|US4645507 *||Sep 3, 1985||Feb 24, 1987||Gmt Gesellschaft Fur Medizinische Technik Mbh||Prosthesis|
|US4714473 *||Jul 25, 1985||Dec 22, 1987||Harrington Arthritis Research Center||Knee prosthesis|
|US4728330 *||Jun 4, 1981||Mar 1, 1988||Comparetto John E||Prosthetic bone or tooth implant and a method of surgically implanting the same|
|US4731088 *||Jun 2, 1986||Mar 15, 1988||Boehringer Mannheim Corp||Enclosure member for prosthetic joint|
|US4784661 *||Nov 22, 1985||Nov 15, 1988||Robert Beckenbaugh||Total wrist prosthesis|
|US4919667 *||Dec 2, 1988||Apr 24, 1990||Stryker Corporation||Implant|
|US4936854 *||Dec 22, 1988||Jun 26, 1990||Swanson Alfred B||Semi-constrained wrist implant|
|US4936860 *||Sep 23, 1988||Jun 26, 1990||Swanson Alfred B||Metal scaphoid implant|
|US4964868 *||Aug 27, 1987||Oct 23, 1990||Harrington Arthritis Research Center||Knee prosthesis|
|US5032445 *||Apr 5, 1989||Jul 16, 1991||W. L. Gore & Associates||Methods and articles for treating periodontal disease and bone defects|
|US5092896 *||Sep 24, 1990||Mar 3, 1992||Protek Ag||Finger joint prosthesis|
|US5093179 *||May 7, 1991||Mar 3, 1992||Scantlebury Todd V||Methods and articles for treating periodontal disease and bone defects|
|US5282851 *||Feb 18, 1992||Feb 1, 1994||Jacob Labarre Jean||Intraocular prostheses|
|US5723018 *||Nov 16, 1993||Mar 3, 1998||Cyprien; Jean-Maxwell||Shoulder-joint endoprosthesis|
|US5795353 *||Nov 2, 1996||Aug 18, 1998||Advanced Bio Surfaces, Inc.||Joint resurfacing system|
|US5954716 *||Feb 19, 1998||Sep 21, 1999||Oratec Interventions, Inc||Method for modifying the length of a ligament|
|US5980504 *||Jun 24, 1997||Nov 9, 1999||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method for manipulating tissue of an intervertebral disc|
|US5984970 *||Mar 13, 1996||Nov 16, 1999||Bramlet; Dale G.||Arthroplasty joint assembly|
|US6004320 *||Mar 4, 1998||Dec 21, 1999||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Clip on electrocauterizing sheath for orthopedic shave devices|
|US6007533 *||Mar 4, 1998||Dec 28, 1999||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Electrocauterizing tip for orthopedic shave devices|
|US6007570 *||Jun 24, 1997||Dec 28, 1999||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Apparatus with functional element for performing function upon intervertebral discs|
|US6031148 *||Apr 2, 1993||Feb 29, 2000||W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.||Implantable bioabsorbable article|
|US6068628 *||Aug 20, 1996||May 30, 2000||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Apparatus for treating chondromalacia|
|US6073051 *||Jun 24, 1997||Jun 6, 2000||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Apparatus for treating intervertebal discs with electromagnetic energy|
|US6095149 *||Jun 24, 1997||Aug 1, 2000||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method for treating intervertebral disc degeneration|
|US6099514 *||Sep 29, 1998||Aug 8, 2000||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for delivering or removing material from the interior of an intervertebral disc|
|US6122549 *||Jun 24, 1997||Sep 19, 2000||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Apparatus for treating intervertebral discs with resistive energy|
|US6126682 *||Sep 15, 1998||Oct 3, 2000||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method for treating annular fissures in intervertebral discs|
|US6135999 *||Feb 12, 1998||Oct 24, 2000||Oratec Internationals, Inc.||Concave probe for arthroscopic surgery|
|US6168593||Feb 12, 1998||Jan 2, 2001||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Electrode for electrosurgical coagulation of tissue|
|US6176857||Sep 22, 1998||Jan 23, 2001||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for applying thermal energy to tissue asymmetrically|
|US6214001||Apr 24, 1998||Apr 10, 2001||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Electrocauterizing tool for orthopedic shave devices|
|US6217616 *||Aug 31, 1999||Apr 17, 2001||Ascension Orthopedics, Inc.||Elbow prosthesis|
|US6261311||Jul 30, 1999||Jul 17, 2001||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for treating intervertebral discs|
|US6283960||Mar 19, 1998||Sep 4, 2001||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Apparatus for delivery of energy to a surgical site|
|US6350262||Apr 12, 2000||Feb 26, 2002||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for applying thermal energy to tissue asymetrically|
|US6391028||May 16, 2000||May 21, 2002||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Probe with distally orientated concave curve for arthroscopic surgery|
|US6461353||Jul 3, 1997||Oct 8, 2002||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Orthopedic apparatus for controlled contraction of collagen tissue|
|US6475242||Jan 26, 1999||Nov 5, 2002||Dale G. Bramlet||Arthroplasty joint assembly|
|US6482204||Apr 24, 1996||Nov 19, 2002||Oratec Interventions, Inc||Method and apparatus for controlled contraction of soft tissue|
|US6517568||Nov 3, 2000||Feb 11, 2003||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for treating intervertebral discs|
|US6547810||Nov 6, 2000||Apr 15, 2003||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method for treating intervertebral discs|
|US6629997 *||Mar 27, 2001||Oct 7, 2003||Kevin A. Mansmann||Meniscus-type implant with hydrogel surface reinforced by three-dimensional mesh|
|US6638276||Jun 6, 2001||Oct 28, 2003||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Intervertebral disc device employing prebent sheath|
|US6645203||Jan 2, 2001||Nov 11, 2003||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Surgical instrument with off-axis electrode|
|US6695839||Feb 8, 2001||Feb 24, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for treatment of disrupted articular cartilage|
|US6695844||Dec 5, 2000||Feb 24, 2004||Orthopedic Designs, Inc.||Surgical fastener assembly|
|US6726685||Jun 6, 2001||Apr 27, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Intervertebral disc device employing looped probe|
|US6733496||Jun 6, 2001||May 11, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Intervertebral disc device employing flexible probe|
|US6749605||Feb 1, 2001||Jun 15, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Catheter for delivery of energy to a surgical site|
|US6767347||Feb 1, 2001||Jul 27, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Catheter for delivery of energy to a surgical site|
|US6832997||Jun 6, 2001||Dec 21, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Electromagnetic energy delivery intervertebral disc treatment devices|
|US6878155||Jun 18, 2001||Apr 12, 2005||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method of treating intervertebral disc tissue employing attachment mechanism|
|US6997941||Mar 17, 2003||Feb 14, 2006||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for treating annular fissures in intervertebral discs|
|US7001431||Feb 13, 2003||Feb 21, 2006||Disc Dynamics, Inc.||Intervertebral disc prosthesis|
|US7069087||Feb 22, 2001||Jun 27, 2006||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Apparatus and method for accessing and performing a function within an intervertebral disc|
|US7077865||Feb 13, 2003||Jul 18, 2006||Disc Dynamics, Inc.||Method of making an intervertebral disc prosthesis|
|US7150747||Jan 22, 2003||Dec 19, 2006||Smith & Nephew, Inc.||Electrosurgical cutter|
|US7255712||Apr 15, 1997||Aug 14, 2007||Active Implants Corporation||Bone growth promoting implant|
|US7267683||Nov 14, 2003||Sep 11, 2007||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method for treating intervertebral discs|
|US7282061||Nov 14, 2003||Oct 16, 2007||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method of treating intervertebral disc|
|US7297163||Dec 16, 2002||Nov 20, 2007||Acumed Llc||Shoulder prosthesis|
|US7309336||Jul 26, 2004||Dec 18, 2007||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Catheter for delivery of energy to a surgical site|
|US7400930||Nov 14, 2003||Jul 15, 2008||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method for treating intervertebral discs|
|US7449019||Aug 29, 2003||Nov 11, 2008||Smith & Nephew, Inc.||Intervertebral decompression|
|US7572295||Dec 3, 2002||Aug 11, 2009||Active Implants Corporation||Cushion bearing implants for load bearing applications|
|US7591851||Feb 8, 2005||Sep 22, 2009||Kyphon Sarl||Inter-cervical facet implant and method|
|US7601170||Feb 8, 2005||Oct 13, 2009||Kyphon Sarl||Inter-cervical facet implant and method|
|US7608111||Jan 23, 2007||Oct 27, 2009||Biomet Manufacturing Corp.||Methods and devices for resurfacing the wrist joint|
|US7647123||Oct 31, 2007||Jan 12, 2010||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method for treating intervertebral discs|
|US7713301||Mar 29, 2006||May 11, 2010||Disc Dynamics, Inc.||Intervertebral disc prosthesis|
|US7758653||May 21, 2003||Jul 20, 2010||Active Implants Corporation||Implants|
|US7763050||Mar 30, 2005||Jul 27, 2010||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Inter-cervical facet implant with locking screw and method|
|US7766965||Jun 30, 2006||Aug 3, 2010||Disc Dynamics, Inc.||Method of making an intervertebral disc prosthesis|
|US7766970 *||Jun 7, 2004||Aug 3, 2010||Biomet Manufacturing Corp.||Method and apparatus for wrist arthroplasty|
|US7776090||Feb 8, 2005||Aug 17, 2010||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Inter-cervical facet implant and method|
|US7846183||Jun 10, 2004||Dec 7, 2010||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint prosthesis and method of fixation|
|US7918892||Nov 19, 2007||Apr 5, 2011||Acumed Llc||Shoulder prosthesis|
|US7922766||Mar 9, 2007||Apr 12, 2011||Gerraspine A.G.||Method for resurfacing a cervical articular facet|
|US7988712||Mar 9, 2007||Aug 2, 2011||Gerraspine A.G.||Method for resurfacing a lumbar articular facet|
|US7998172||Apr 16, 2009||Aug 16, 2011||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint prosthesis and method of fixation|
|US8029540||May 8, 2006||Oct 4, 2011||Kyphon Sarl||Inter-cervical facet implant with implantation tool|
|US8052756||Oct 9, 2009||Nov 8, 2011||Biomet Manufacturing Corp.||Method and apparatus for wrist arthroplasty|
|US8066749||Dec 14, 2005||Nov 29, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Implant for stabilizing a bone graft during spinal fusion|
|US8066777||Sep 3, 2009||Nov 29, 2011||Biomet Manufacturing Corp.||Method and apparatus for wrist arthroplasty|
|US8070777||Feb 12, 2008||Dec 6, 2011||Queen's University At Kingston||Method and device for treating abnormal curvature of a spine|
|US8100944||Mar 30, 2005||Jan 24, 2012||Kyphon Sarl||Inter-cervical facet implant and method for preserving the tissues surrounding the facet joint|
|US8105388||Oct 5, 2007||Jan 31, 2012||Biomet Manufacturing Corp.||Method and apparatus for wrist arthroplasty|
|US8105389||Feb 20, 2009||Jan 31, 2012||Biomet Manufacturing Corp.||Method and apparatus for wrist arthroplasty|
|US8105390||Sep 18, 2009||Jan 31, 2012||Biomet Manufacturing Corp.||Method and apparatus for wrist arthroplasty|
|US8118838||Jun 6, 2006||Feb 21, 2012||Kyphon Sarl||Inter-cervical facet implant with multiple direction articulation joint and method for implanting|
|US8128619||Oct 30, 2007||Mar 6, 2012||Neurotherm, Inc.||Method for treating intervertebral discs|
|US8128660||Dec 14, 2005||Mar 6, 2012||Kyphon Sarl||Inter-cervical facet joint implant with locking screw system|
|US8152854||Sep 30, 2009||Apr 10, 2012||Imbriglia Joseph E||Resurfacing implant for the wrist and method of implantation thereof|
|US8172877||Dec 14, 2005||May 8, 2012||Kyphon Sarl||Inter-cervical facet implant with surface enhancements|
|US8187312||Oct 15, 2007||May 29, 2012||Neurotherm, Inc.||Method for treating intervertebral disc|
|US8226697||Oct 15, 2007||Jul 24, 2012||Neurotherm, Inc.||Method for treating intervertebral disc|
|US8292954||Sep 10, 2010||Oct 23, 2012||Articulinx, Inc.||Disc-based orthopedic devices|
|US8292955||Sep 26, 2011||Oct 23, 2012||Articulinx, Inc.||Disc-shaped orthopedic devices|
|US8343189||Sep 25, 2008||Jan 1, 2013||Zyga Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus for facet joint stabilization|
|US8357203||Sep 26, 2011||Jan 22, 2013||Articulinx, Inc.||Suture-based orthopedic joint devices|
|US8372154||Oct 27, 2005||Feb 12, 2013||Biomet Manufacturing Corp.||Method and apparatus for wrist arthroplasty|
|US8394125||Jul 24, 2009||Mar 12, 2013||Zyga Technology, Inc.||Systems and methods for facet joint treatment|
|US8425530||Aug 4, 2011||Apr 23, 2013||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Apparatus for sizing a facet joint|
|US8551180||Dec 28, 2011||Oct 8, 2013||Biomet Manufacturing, Llc||Method and apparatus for wrist arthroplasty|
|US8597362||Aug 27, 2010||Dec 3, 2013||Cotera, Inc.||Method and apparatus for force redistribution in articular joints|
|US8652137||Feb 21, 2008||Feb 18, 2014||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint drill and method of use|
|US8663293||Apr 11, 2011||Mar 4, 2014||Zyga Technology, Inc.||Systems and methods for facet joint treatment|
|US8696707||Mar 7, 2006||Apr 15, 2014||Zyga Technology, Inc.||Facet joint stabilization|
|US8740942||Jan 23, 2013||Jun 3, 2014||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint prosthesis and method of fixation|
|US8740949||Feb 24, 2011||Jun 3, 2014||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for stabilizing bone|
|US8764830||Oct 19, 2012||Jul 1, 2014||Articulinx, Inc.||Disc-shaped orthopedic devices|
|US8814946||Jul 17, 2009||Aug 26, 2014||Active Implants Corporation||Cushion bearing implants for load bearing applications|
|US8821581||Sep 7, 2006||Sep 2, 2014||Biomet Manufacturing, Llc||Method and apparatus for wrist arthroplasty|
|US8845724||Feb 7, 2014||Sep 30, 2014||Cotera, Inc.||Method and apparatus for altering biomechanics of the articular joints|
|US8858597||Dec 3, 2010||Oct 14, 2014||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint prosthesis and method of fixation|
|US8882804||May 6, 2013||Nov 11, 2014||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint prosthesis and method of fixation|
|US8940055||Sep 23, 2011||Jan 27, 2015||Biomet Manufacturing, Llc||Method and apparatus for wrist arthroplasty|
|US8992533||Aug 18, 2010||Mar 31, 2015||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint drill and method of use|
|US8998953||Aug 30, 2011||Apr 7, 2015||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint prosthesis and method of fixation|
|US9017389||Mar 11, 2013||Apr 28, 2015||Zyga Technology, Inc.||Methods for facet joint treatment|
|US9060787||Aug 14, 2012||Jun 23, 2015||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Method of using a vertebral facet joint drill|
|US9114016||Feb 7, 2014||Aug 25, 2015||Cotera, Inc.||Method and apparatus for altering biomechanics of the articular joints|
|US9131990 *||Jun 5, 2003||Sep 15, 2015||Karl Storz GmbH & Co. K||Arrangement and implant for replacing surfaces that are subject to stresses|
|US9179943||Apr 18, 2014||Nov 10, 2015||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for stabilizing bone|
|US9204971 *||Sep 7, 2011||Dec 8, 2015||Memometal Technologies||System and method for ankle arthroplasty|
|US9233006||Nov 15, 2012||Jan 12, 2016||Zyga Technology, Inc.||Systems and methods for facet joint treatment|
|US9254137||Aug 29, 2003||Feb 9, 2016||Lanterna Medical Technologies Ltd||Facet implant|
|US9271765||Feb 23, 2012||Mar 1, 2016||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint fusion implant and method for fusion|
|US9278004||Mar 15, 2013||Mar 8, 2016||Cotera, Inc.||Method and apparatus for altering biomechanics of the articular joints|
|US9301786||Aug 16, 2011||Apr 5, 2016||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for stabilizing bone|
|US9314277||Aug 21, 2013||Apr 19, 2016||Zyga Technology, Inc.||Systems and methods for facet joint treatment|
|US9421044||Mar 14, 2013||Aug 23, 2016||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Apparatus for bone stabilization and distraction and methods of use|
|US9456855||Sep 19, 2014||Oct 4, 2016||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Method of placing an implant between bone portions|
|US9468466||Aug 23, 2013||Oct 18, 2016||Cotera, Inc.||Method and apparatus for altering biomechanics of the spine|
|US9492291||Mar 28, 2014||Nov 15, 2016||Kunovus Pty Ltd.||Systems, methods and apparatuses for formation and insertion of tissue prosthesis|
|US9517077||Feb 24, 2015||Dec 13, 2016||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint drill and method of use|
|US9572602||Jan 19, 2016||Feb 21, 2017||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint fusion implant and method for fusion|
|US9668868||Mar 11, 2015||Jun 6, 2017||Cotera, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for treatment of patellofemoral conditions|
|US9675387||Feb 26, 2015||Jun 13, 2017||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint prosthesis and method of fixation|
|US20020022884 *||Mar 27, 2001||Feb 21, 2002||Mansmann Kevin A.||Meniscus-type implant with hydrogel surface reinforced by three-dimensional mesh|
|US20030181964 *||Mar 17, 2003||Sep 25, 2003||Oratec Interventions, Inc. a Delaware corporation||Method and apparatus for treating annular fissures in intervertebral discs|
|US20030220649 *||Feb 13, 2003||Nov 27, 2003||Qi-Bin Bao||Intervertebral disc prosthesis|
|US20040102824 *||Nov 14, 2003||May 27, 2004||Sharkey Hugh R.||Method for treating intervertebral discs|
|US20040127963 *||Aug 29, 2003||Jul 1, 2004||Uchida Andy H.||Intervertebral decompression|
|US20040138647 *||Oct 15, 2003||Jul 15, 2004||Medtronic, Inc.||Cycle mode providing redundant back-up to ensure termination of treatment therapy in a medical device system|
|US20040193151 *||Apr 6, 2004||Sep 30, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Intervertebral disc device employing looped probe|
|US20050004675 *||Jun 7, 2004||Jan 6, 2005||Shultz Jason M.||Method and apparatus for wrist arthroplasty|
|US20050049705 *||Aug 29, 2003||Mar 3, 2005||Hale Horace Winston||Facet implant|
|US20050085915 *||Dec 3, 2002||Apr 21, 2005||Amiram Steinberg||Cushion bearing implants for load bearing applications|
|US20050149011 *||Jul 26, 2004||Jul 7, 2005||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Catheter for delivery of energy to a surgical site|
|US20050159746 *||Jan 21, 2004||Jul 21, 2005||Dieter Grob||Cervical facet resurfacing implant|
|US20050177240 *||Jun 10, 2004||Aug 11, 2005||Jason Blain||Vertebral facet joint prosthesis and method of fixation|
|US20050177244 *||Dec 3, 2004||Aug 11, 2005||Amiram Steinberg||One piece snap fit acetabular cup|
|US20050187599 *||Apr 21, 2005||Aug 25, 2005||Hugh Sharkey||Method and apparatus for controlled contraction of soft tissue|
|US20050202371 *||May 21, 2003||Sep 15, 2005||Mcguire John||Implants|
|US20060015189 *||Jun 5, 2003||Jan 19, 2006||Klaus Draenert||Implant and arrangement for especially replacing surfaces that are subject to stresses|
|US20060036330 *||Oct 27, 2005||Feb 16, 2006||Biomet Manufacturing Corp.||Method and apparatus for wrist arthroplasty|
|US20060149239 *||Mar 30, 2005||Jul 6, 2006||St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc.||Inter-cervical facet implant with locking screw and method|
|US20060149254 *||Mar 30, 2005||Jul 6, 2006||St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc.||Inter-cervical facet implant and method for preserving the tissues surrounding the facet joint|
|US20060149272 *||Feb 8, 2005||Jul 6, 2006||St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc.||Inter-cervical facet implant and method|
|US20060149373 *||Feb 8, 2005||Jul 6, 2006||St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc.||Inter-cervical facet implant and method|
|US20060149374 *||Feb 8, 2005||Jul 6, 2006||St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc.||Inter-cervical facet implant and method|
|US20060200137 *||Apr 13, 2006||Sep 7, 2006||St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc.||Method and device for treating ailments of the spine|
|US20060235391 *||Mar 7, 2006||Oct 19, 2006||Sutterlin Chester Iii||Facet joint stabilization|
|US20060241597 *||Dec 14, 2005||Oct 26, 2006||St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc.||Inter-cervical facet joint implant with locking screw system|
|US20060247632 *||Dec 14, 2005||Nov 2, 2006||St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc.||Inter-cervical facet implant with surface enhancements|
|US20060247650 *||Dec 14, 2005||Nov 2, 2006||St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc.||Inter-cervical facet joint fusion implant|
|US20060276801 *||Apr 4, 2006||Dec 7, 2006||Yerby Scott A||Inter-cervical facet implant distraction tool|
|US20060276897 *||Dec 14, 2005||Dec 7, 2006||St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc.||Implant for stabilizing a bone graft during spinal fusion|
|US20060282169 *||Dec 19, 2005||Dec 14, 2006||Felt Jeffrey C||System and method for upper extremity joint arthroplasty|
|US20070016195 *||May 8, 2006||Jan 18, 2007||Winslow Charles J||Inter-cervical facet implant with implantation tool|
|US20070016196 *||May 8, 2006||Jan 18, 2007||Winslow Charles J||Inter-cervical facet implant with implantation tool|
|US20070016218 *||May 8, 2006||Jan 18, 2007||Winslow Charles J||Inter-cervical facet implant with implantation tool|
|US20070038300 *||Mar 29, 2006||Feb 15, 2007||Disc Dynamics, Inc.||Intervertebral disc prosthesis|
|US20070055381 *||Sep 7, 2006||Mar 8, 2007||Berelsman Brian K||Method and apparatus for wrist arthroplasty|
|US20070123863 *||Jun 6, 2006||May 31, 2007||St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc.||Inter-cervical facet implant with multiple direction articulation joint and method for implanting|
|US20070149976 *||Mar 9, 2007||Jun 28, 2007||Gerraspine A.G.||Method for resurfacing a lumbar articular facet|
|US20070179619 *||Mar 9, 2007||Aug 2, 2007||Gerraspine A.G.||Method for resurfacing a cervical articular facet|
|US20070185582 *||Jan 23, 2007||Aug 9, 2007||Palmer Andrew K||Methods and Devices for Resurfacing the Wrist Joint|
|US20070244483 *||May 8, 2006||Oct 18, 2007||Winslow Charles J||Inter-cervical facet implant with implantation tool|
|US20080027558 *||Oct 5, 2007||Jan 31, 2008||Biomet Manufacturing Corp.||Method And Apparatus For Wrist Arthroplasty|
|US20080039941 *||Jul 27, 2007||Feb 14, 2008||Active Implants Corporation||Bone growth promoting implant|
|US20080091252 *||Oct 15, 2007||Apr 17, 2008||Oratec Interventions, Inc., A California Corporation||Method for treating intervertebral disc|
|US20080177311 *||Oct 30, 2006||Jul 24, 2008||St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc.||Facet joint implant sizing tool|
|US20080208249 *||Feb 21, 2008||Aug 28, 2008||Jason Blain||Vertebral facet joint drill and method of use|
|US20080255501 *||Apr 8, 2008||Oct 16, 2008||Michael Hogendijk||Percutaneous delivery and retrieval systems for shape-changing orthopedic joint devices|
|US20080255664 *||Sep 26, 2007||Oct 16, 2008||Mdesign International||Percutaneously deliverable orthopedic joint device|
|US20080287996 *||Feb 12, 2008||Nov 20, 2008||Soboleski Donald A||Method and device for treating scoliosis|
|US20080306600 *||Nov 19, 2007||Dec 11, 2008||Huebner Randall J||Shoulder prosthesis|
|US20090012612 *||Sep 17, 2008||Jan 8, 2009||David White||Devices and methods for push-delivery of implants|
|US20090204152 *||Apr 16, 2009||Aug 13, 2009||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint prosthesis and method of fixation|
|US20090204224 *||Feb 20, 2009||Aug 13, 2009||Biomet Manufacturing Corp.||Method And Apparatus For Wrist Arthroplasty|
|US20090319050 *||Sep 3, 2009||Dec 24, 2009||Biomet Manufacturing Corp.||Method and Apparatus for Wrist Arthroplasty|
|US20100010636 *||Sep 18, 2009||Jan 14, 2010||Biomet Manufacturing Corp.||Method and Apparatus for Wrist Arthroplasty|
|US20100087879 *||Oct 9, 2009||Apr 8, 2010||Biomet Manufacturing Corp.||Method and Apparatus for Wrist Arthroplasty|
|US20100131069 *||Feb 2, 2010||May 27, 2010||Jeffrey Halbrecht||Method and system for patella tendon realignment|
|US20100168864 *||Jan 26, 2010||Jul 1, 2010||Articulinx, Inc.||Tensioned delivery of orthopedic joint device|
|US20100198354 *||Jul 30, 2008||Aug 5, 2010||Jeffrey Halbrecht||Method and system for patella tendon realignment|
|US20110029094 *||Jan 26, 2010||Feb 3, 2011||Articulinx, Inc.||Retrieval of orthopedic joint device|
|US20110040301 *||Aug 18, 2010||Feb 17, 2011||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint drill and method of use|
|US20110077744 *||Sep 30, 2009||Mar 31, 2011||Imbriglia Joseph E||Resurfacing Implant for the Wrist and Method of Implantation Thereof|
|US20110082503 *||Dec 3, 2010||Apr 7, 2011||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Vertebral facet joint prosthesis and method of fixation|
|US20110125158 *||May 1, 2008||May 26, 2011||Ashish Dhar Diwan||Systems, methods and apparatuses for formation and insertion of tissue prostheses|
|US20110196491 *||Apr 4, 2011||Aug 11, 2011||Acumed Llc||Bone prosthesis|
|US20110202138 *||Aug 27, 2010||Aug 18, 2011||The Foundry Llc||Method and Apparatus for Force Redistribution in Articular Joints|
|US20110213466 *||Aug 27, 2010||Sep 1, 2011||The Foundry Llc||Method and Apparatus for Force Redistribution in Articular Joints|
|US20110224790 *||Sep 10, 2010||Sep 15, 2011||Articulinx, Inc.||Disc-based orthopedic devices|
|US20110320005 *||Sep 7, 2011||Dec 29, 2011||Rydell Mark A||System and Method for Ankle Arthroplasty|
|US20150335433 *||Apr 30, 2015||Nov 26, 2015||Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg||Arrangement and implant for replacing surfaces that are subject to stresses|
|USD724733||Oct 26, 2011||Mar 17, 2015||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Interbody bone implant|
|USD748262||Jan 23, 2015||Jan 26, 2016||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Interbody bone implant|
|USD748793||Jan 23, 2015||Feb 2, 2016||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Interbody bone implant|
|USD765853||Aug 21, 2015||Sep 6, 2016||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Flexible elongate member with a portion configured to receive a bone anchor|
|USD777921||Nov 12, 2015||Jan 31, 2017||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Interbody bone implant|
|USD780315||May 13, 2016||Feb 28, 2017||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Flexible elongate member with a portion configured to receive a bone anchor|
|USD790062||Apr 25, 2016||Jun 20, 2017||Spinal Elements, Inc.||Interbody bone implant|
|CN105434086A *||Feb 1, 2016||Mar 30, 2016||中南大学湘雅医院||Wrist joint implant body|
|CN105434086B *||Feb 1, 2016||May 17, 2017||中南大学湘雅医院||一种腕关节植体|
|EP0010865A1 *||Sep 28, 1979||May 14, 1980||Imperial Chemical Industries Plc||Product adapted for transcutaneous use|
|EP0338715A1 *||Apr 11, 1989||Oct 25, 1989||Bahaa Botros Seedhom||Prosthetic finger joint|
|EP2095794A1 *||Feb 20, 2009||Sep 2, 2009||Finsbury (Development) Limited||Prosthesis|
|EP2145604A1||Dec 3, 2002||Jan 20, 2010||Active Implants Corporation||Cushion bearing implants for load bearing applications|
|WO1982001816A1 *||Nov 16, 1981||Jun 10, 1982||Dow Corning||Meniscus prosthesis|
|WO1982004390A1 *||Jun 8, 1982||Dec 23, 1982||Kenneth Z Kurland||Means and method of implanting bioprosthetics|
|WO1989009580A1 *||Apr 11, 1989||Oct 19, 1989||Bahaa Botros Seedhom||Prosthetic finger joint|
|WO1994010941A1 *||Nov 16, 1993||May 26, 1994||Plus Endoprothetik Ag||Shoulder joint endoprosthesis|
|WO2003103543A1 *||Mar 27, 2002||Dec 18, 2003||Mansmann Kevin A||Meniscus implant having mesh reinforced hydrogel|
|U.S. Classification||623/21.19, 128/DIG.210|
|International Classification||A61F2/42, A61F2/40, A61F2/30|
|Cooperative Classification||A61F2002/30878, A61F2/4003, A61F2/4261, A61F2/30907, Y10S128/21, A61F2/4014|
|European Classification||A61F2/40A, A61F2/40C, A61F2/30L4, A61F2/42W|