|Publication number||US3879966 A|
|Publication date||Apr 29, 1975|
|Filing date||Sep 20, 1973|
|Priority date||Aug 31, 1972|
|Publication number||US 3879966 A, US 3879966A, US-A-3879966, US3879966 A, US3879966A|
|Inventors||Eiland Phillip F, Worth Daniel L|
|Original Assignee||Singer Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (8), Classifications (6), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1 7 Worth et al.
CONTINUOUS YARN DYEING MACHINES Inventors: Daniel L. Worth, Chattanooga.
Tenn.; Phillip F. Eiland, Reading, Pa.
Assignee: The Singer Company, New York,
Filed: Sept. 20, 1973 Appl. No.: 399,210
Related US. Application Data Division of Scr. No. 285.409, Aug. 3 I, 1972, Pat. No. 3,800,565. which is a continuation of Ser. No. 49.064, June 23 1970, abandoned.
US. Cl. 68/203; 101/172; 118/247 Int. Cl. B05c 1/08 Field of Search 68/203; 8/14, 149;
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 10/1951 Epstein 68/203 RANDOM l IZ PATTERN GENERATOR m or: STATION [111 3,879,966 [451 Apr. 29, 1975 3.227.077 1/1966 Farrer ct 101/172 3.304.862 2/1967 Lawrence et a1. .0 68/203 X 3,503,232 3/1970 Farrcr et a1 68/203 Primary Examinerl-larvey C. Hornsby Assistant Examiner-Philip R. Coe
Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Chester A. Williams, Jr.; Alan Ruderman; Marshall J. Breen  ABSTRACT This disclosure relates to an apparatus and method of dyeing yarn in a continuous manner. More specifically, the disclosure is directed to the continuous dyeing of bulk yarn in a random fashion with substantially no pattern repeats and means also being provided for retaining the bulk in the dyed yarn during the continuous process.
4 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures FINISH APPLICATOR CONTINUOUS YARN DYEING MACHINES This is a division of application Ser. No. 285,409, filed Aug. 3i, 1972, now US. Pat. No. 3,800,565, which in turn is a continuation of application Ser. No. 49,064 filed on June 23, 1970, now abandoned.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION It is highly desirable in the formation of some types of fabrics, such as carpets and the like, to provide a color patterned effect which is random in nature. Fabrics of this type preferably have a multicolor effect with no visible pattern. It is known in the art to dye yarns prior to fabric formation, such as by tufting, with the dye being applied by various means such as by rollers or drums. [t is preferred that several colors be applied at spaced intervals on the yarn so that when the yarn is present in the finished fabric, the colors will appear on the face thereof with no predetermined pattern. This type of dyed yarn is commonly known as spaced dyed yarn.
However, because in the aforementioned method of applying dye, the circumference of the rollers and drums is fixed and, due to the lack of suitable pattern control means, the colors are placed on the yarn in a predetermined or fixed manner. Thus, when the yarn is placed into the fabric in an attempt to produce a random pattern, undesirable pattern effects may appear, such as herringbone or striated effects and the like. It cannot be said, therefore, that the pattern is truly random in nature.
There has also been the problem in the dyeing of bulk type yarns of characteristic the bulk in the yarn during the dyeing process. During the normal dyeing procedure, which may encompass dyeing, fixing, washing, and drying, bulk yarns tend to lose their bulky charactgeristic and must often be separately treated to restore the bulk. This, of course, is time consuming and increases the cost of dyeing this type of yarn.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the present invention, an apparatus is provided wherein yarn is dyed in a truly random fashion and wherein bulk yarns can be continuously dyed while retaining the bulk therein without requiring separate treatment for replacing lost bulk. in general, the yarn ends, which initially are preferably in an undyed state, may be first passed through a dye bath to apply a base color. The yarn ends are then predried to partially fix the base dye and to prevent dye migration during further processing. The yarn ends are then passed through a dye station which includes a plurality of banks of individual dye mechanisms with each bank being operative to apply a different color to the yarn. The individual dye mechanisms, which are preferably of the impact or hammer type, are individually responsive to a control signal for applying a discrete length of dye to the yarn at a position therein dictated by a pattern control mechanism. The pattern control mechanism is operative to generate random control signals with substantially no repeat in sequence so that when a yarn end is dyed, there will be no discer table pattern repeat. Thus, when the yarn is used in fabric formation, there is little likelihood of any such effscts as the herringbone or striated effect appearing in the face of the fabric.
From the dye station, the yarn ends pass through a predr; r f" removing a substantial amount of moisture therefrom and again for minimizing dye migration. The yarn ends are then conducted into a dryer and fixer chamber wherein they will travel under substantially no tension. [t has been found that by eliminating the tension on the yarn ends while acting upon them with superheated steam, the bulk will be restored in the yarn and that drying and fixing will take place in minimum time.
After drying and fixing, the yarn ends are preferably passed through a counterflow washer station to remove any excess dye or other substances which may be present on the yarn such as carriers or the like. After washing, a finish, such as an antistatic solution or the like, may be applied and the yarn ends may then be finally dried. To further ensure that pattern effects will be eliminated in the finished goods, prior to winding, the yarn ends may be conducted through a scrambling apparatus which may further displace the yarn ends, both laterally and longitudinally, from their relative positions which they assumed upon passing through the apparatus. The yarn ends can then be wound on beams or other like means.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a schematic view ofa preferred embodiment of the complete dyeing range of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view of the printing mechanism of the dyeing range and taken along line 22 of FIG.
FIG. 3 is an end view of the printing mechanism taken in the direction of line 3-3 of HG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a top plan view of the printing mechanism of FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic view of the random pattern generator of the dyeing range;
FIG. 6 is a front view of another embodiment of a random pattern generator mechanism; and
FIG. 6A is an end view of the apparatus of FIG. 6.
DETAILED DESCRlPTlON OF THE DRAWINGS Referring to FIG. 1, a schematic representation of a preferred embodiment of the dyeing range is shown therein and comprises, in general, a dye bath staion 10, a predryer 12, a dye station 14, a random pattern generator 16, a second predryer 18, a dryer and fixer 20, a wash station 22, a finish applicator 24, a final dryer 26, a yarn scrambler 28 and a windup station 30. The general operation of the dyeing range is as follows.
A plurality of yarns is provided such as on spools or cones 32 which yarns are fed through the dye bath station 10 by a driven roll 34. The yarn on spools 32 which is colorless or having a single base color is dyed at the dye bath station 10 and is then fed under tension to the predryer station [2. The predrying of the yarns while under tension in the predryer 12 functions to partially fix the base dye and to prevent dye migration. The yarns are fed from the spools through the mechanism in a sheetlike or weblike manner and are under tension at the stage thusfar described. The yarns are fed from the'predryer 12 to a dyeing station 14 where, as will be more apparent hereinafter, they will be individually printed or dyed by the mechanism the dye station l4. In order to provide a random pattern and to individually control the dyeing of each yarn, a random pattern generator 16 is provided which, as will be described in greater detail below, provides random control signals for operating the dyeing mechanism of the dye station 14. After the yarns are individually dyed, they are again predried in the predryer station 18 which provides a similar function as the predryer 12. The predryers l2 and 18 may be of the infrared type or may also be microwave dryers. From the predryer the yarns are fed to a dryer and fixer station 20 wherein they are treated with superheated steam under minimum tension which, in effect, is substantially no tension. The drying and fixing of the yarns in this manner provides for relatively rapid fixing of the dyes while maintaining the desired bulk in the yarn without requiring subsequent treatment for restoring the bulk.
From the dryer and fixing station 20, the yarns are fed to a counterflow washing station 22 to wash off the excess dye. A finish solution, such as an antistatic solution, may be applied at the applicator station 24. However, this stage is optional and has little, if any, effect on the inventive process. The yarns are then fed to a final dryer station 26 where, again, there is substantially no effective tension and the yarns are substan tially completely dried. Again, the final dryer 26 may be of the infrared or microwave type. In order to provide a further random effect, a yarn scramble station 28 may be provided, if desired, wherein the yarns may be further scrambled in longitudinal and lateral relationship. Finally, the yarns may be preferably wound on beams at a windup station 30 or, alternatively, the yarns may be wound onto cones or the like. A still further random effect may be provided on winding by starting the windup at different lengths on the yarn ends and by further lateral displacement of the yarns relative to one another.
More specifically, the yarn ends Y, only four being shown, are fed from the cones 32 by a driven feed roll 34, which is suitably driven by motor means, not shown. The yarn ends Y pass through a comb structure 36 in a sheetlike manner over idler roll 38 and under idler roll 40 and between driven squeeze rolls 42 and 44. The idler roll 40 is supported in a trough 46 which is filled with a dye fluid so that, as the yarns Y pass through the dye trough 46, they will be impregnated with the dye. The squeeze rolls 42 and 44 squeeze the yarns to remove any excess dye from the yarns Y which will then be returned to the trough by roll 44 which is partially suspended in the trough 46. The squeeze rolls 42 and 44 also ensure that the dye penetrates the yarns. The yarns Y are then passed into the predryer 12 while under tension wherein they will be partially dried to preferably about 40% of their moisture content although the drying may be in the range of 20% to 50%. Applying tension to the yarn during this stage of opera tion has been found to distribute the dye evenly along and across the yarn Y without affecting the bulk in the yarn. Such tension can be applied in a known manner such as provided by feed rolls (not shown) in the predryer which operate at a faster rate of speed than the squeeze rolls 42 and 44. It has also been found that predrying to about 40% moisture content before allowing the yarn to relax immobilizes the dye so that the yarn dyes evenly in the drying and fixing zone and also reduces the time required for drying and fixing.
After the yarns have been dyed with a base color and predried, they may then be fixed and dried, washed and finally dried in the manner of the invention as will be more fully explained hereinafter and then used in forming single colored fabrics or in combination with other yarns for forming color patterned fabrics. As explained above, the yarns may also be space dyed in a random fashion for use in random color patterned fabrics. In
order to carry out this purpose, a dye printing station 14 is provided which comprises a frame structure 48, 5 FIGS. 2-4, which supports dye troughs 50 and 52 (FIG. 1 which contain therein a dye liquor there being a different color dye liquor in each of said troughs 50 and 52. As will be apparent, with the dye trough 46, the number of colors that can be applied to the yarn by the dye mechanism as thus far described will be three. It should be understood that the number of colors may be varied by varying the number of dyeing components to the dye station 14.
A roll 54 is partially immersed in trough 50 and a roll 56 is likewise supported in trough 52, the said rolls 54 and 56 serving as dye pick-up rolls. Supported in driving frictional contact with the pick-up rolls 54 and 56, are lick rolls S8 and which serve to lick the dye from the surface of their respective rolls S4 and 56 wherein the surfaces of rolls 58 and 60 will then be coated with dye liquor. The rolls 58 and 60 may be driven as by a motor 62, belt or chain 64, shaft 66 with pulley or sprockets 68 and 70, belt 71, shaft 72 with pulley or sprocket 74 (FIG. 3) and belt or chain 76 riding on pulleys or sprockets 78 and 80, supported on the shafts carrying rolls 58 and 60.
In order to impregnate the yarns with the dye liquor, a plurality of hammerlike devices is provided and each includes a head portion 82 carried at the end of a rod 84. The rod 84 is supported in spaced arms 86 and 88 of a yokelike support member and has a coil spring 90 connected therewith between the arms 86 and 88 in a manner which biases the hammer in an upward or nonoperative direction. As can be seen in FIG. 3, the head portion 82 of each hammer printer is relatively wide and therefore each can print a group of yarns passing between an associated hammer and a roll 58 or 60, as shown in FIG. 1. Supported at the uppermost portion of the rod 84 is a contact portion 92 which is disposed for engagement with a contact portion 94 supported at the end of a rod or shaft 96 supported substantially perpendicular to the rod 84. The contact portion 94 preferably is in the form of a roll for minimizing friction contact with the contact portion 92 and with a cam 98 which comes into contact therewith in a manner to be explained below.
Each rod 96 is constructed in the form of a plunger which is disposed in an air cylinder 100 for reciprocation therein in accordance with the direction of air pressure supplied to said cylinder. A spring (not shown) may be carried in each cylinder 100 for returning the plunger rod 96 to an inoperative position in accordance with changes in the air pressure source. A manifold 102 is supported on a bracket 104 and has air pressure supplied therto as through a supply tube 106 in a known manner. A tube 108 supplies air pressure from the manifold 102 to a solenoid control valve 110 which may be selectively controlled by the random pattern generator 16 as will be apparent hereinafter. A tube 112 leads from the solenoid control valve [10 to the cylinder I00 for actuating the plunger rod 96 into an operative position when said valve 110 is actuated. Thus, in accordance with a predetermined control sig nal, the plunger 96 will be actuated into a position below cam 98 and above contact portion 92 so that, as the cam rotates, the hammer will be forced downwardly into contacting position with roll 58 or 60 and press the yarns against said roll where the yarn will be impregnated with dye liquor. As will be apparent, the yarns will be pressed against the roll 58 or 60 with substantial force and it has been found that this hammerlike pressing of the yarninto the dye provides for excellent dye impregnation of the yarn in discrete areas thereof without the yarn running or smearing. When the control signal is turned off. the solenoid valve 110 reacts accordingly to cut off the air pressure from cylinder 100 and the spring in the cylinder and the spring 90 returns their respective members 96 and 94 to their inoperative positions. As seen in H0. 4 the cams 98 are supported on shaft 111 there being a cam 98 associated with each contact member 94. Also, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, there may be groups of hammer printers spaced laterally across the dye station 14.
Referring now to FIG. 5, the random pattern generator 16 is shown therein and includes a cabinet closure 112 which carries therein a motor 114 connected to a suitable source of power. The motor 114 drives a belt "6 and pulley 118 supported on a shaft 120 which, in turn, has pulleys 122 and 124 supported at its respective ends. The pulleys 122 and 124 drive pulleys 126 and 128 carried on independent shafts 130 and 132 respectively through belts 134 and 136. As seen in FIG. 5, the pulley 126 is a different size from tl'fi pulley 128 so that the shafts 130 and 132 will be driven at different rates of speed. Preferably the shaft 130 is driven six times the rate of speed of shaft 132 as will be more fully explained below. A transparent drum 138 is supported for rotation on shaft [30 and a similar transparent drum 140 being supported for rotation on shaft 132 with each said drum having an opaque pattern thereon. The pattern is selected and applied to the drums to correspond with the line of feed of the yarns and the relative orientation of dye printing mechanism. A light source 142 is provided inside each drum 138 and 140 for illuminating the transparent portions of the drums. Photocell devices 144 are positioned above and below each drum 138 and 140 in close relationship therewith for reading the light and opaque portions of the drums as they rotate relative to said photocells. It will be apparent, therefore, that, as the drums rotate relative to the photocell devices, signals will be generated in accordance with the pattern on the respective drum. The photocells 144 have each of the photocell sensors connected to a solid state circuit 146 which is of the logic type and may include AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, etc. electronic circuits which are known in the art. The circuits 146 are, in turn, connected to the individual solenoid valves 110, there being one such solenoid valve for each hammer printer so that each solenoid valve is actuated in accordance with a control signal from the random pattern generator.
The principle of operation of the random pattern generator in generating random control signals is as follows. Consider two equal length cyclic binary patterns consisting of ones and zeros and denominate these patterns A and B. For purposes of this example, let A cycle repeat rate be six times that of B. Taking the first six bits of A compare these bits with the first bit of B to produce six bits of a generated pattern P in accordance with the following basic rules: When A equals B, P equals B; when A does not equal B, P equals A. Continuing to use these rules, the second six bits of A are selected to compare with the second bit of B to generate the second six bits of P. This procedure must continue until the A pattern has been cycled six times for B to cycle one time. If A and B are random ones and zeros, then P will be a random or nonrepeating pattern with six times the length of A or B. it should be understood, however, that the ratio of six to one has been chosen arbitrarily and the same logic would apply to other ratios. Using the above logic, a pattern for each drum 138 and can be designed to reduce the logic to a practically operative random pattern generator.
Alternatively to the transparent drum type pattern, a pattern generator such as shown in H0. 6 and 6A can be used. A first disc 138a having transparent portions or openings 141a adjacent its primeter can be provided with the openings being of varying sizes. A second disc 1400 is positioned adjacent to disc 1380 so that its four protruding portions or shutters 1430 are in overlapping disposition with the openings 1410. The disc 138a is operable to rotate preferably at a six-to-one ratio relative to disc 1400. A light source 142a may again be provided, as above with photocell sensors l44a generating signals in accordance with the light passing through the overlapping discs. in each case the theory of operation is the same and results in a theoretical infinite repeat of pattern so that it may be said that the pattern generated is truly random in nature.
Subsequent to the random pattern being printed on the groups of yarns by the printer 14, the yarns are passed through a predryer 18 under tension. The predryer 18 is similar to the predryer l2 and functions in the same manner thus producing similar results on the dyed yarns.
Upon leaving the predryer 18 the yarns are pulled by a pair of tension rolls 148 (FIG. 1). Thus, prior to entering the dryer and fixer 20, the yarn is under tension. The dryer and fixer 20 is essentially in the form of a fes toon type steam treatment chamber included in a cabinet 150. As the yarn passes therethrough, it is treated by superheated steam in the range of 300F. to 500F. and which, for example, in the case of nylon yarn may be at 350F. and for polyester yarn may be 450F. However, it has been found that by passing the yarns through the chamber 20 with the tension relaxed the bulk can be maintained. in such fields as the carpet field, high bulk yarns are desirable for producing commercially desirable carpets. In most dyeing processes, the high bulk is lost in the yarn and the yarns must undergo separate treatment to restore the bulk. This separate treatment is time consuming and costly to the yarn producer and is to be avoided if possible. ln accordance with the present invention, the bulk is maintained in the yarn in one continuous process and there is no need for separate bulk restoring treatment.
As the yarn ends pass through the chamber 150, they are fed therethrough by a series of rolls, as illustrated. The operation of the rolls is such that the roll 152 is operated at a relatively slower speed than the speed of the tension rolls 148. The roll 154 is, in turn, operated at a relatively lower speed than the roll 152. The remainder of the rolls 154 all operate at the same speed as the first roll 154. Therefore, as the yarn ends enter the chamber 150, the festooning effect and the varying of the feed is such that the tension is reduced to a point where it may be said that the yarns are under substantially no tension while being acted on by the superheated steam. lt has been found that, by treating the yarn with superheated steam in a tensionless condition. the fixing of the dyes is relatively rapid. Further, when using a predryer in combination with a superheated steam chamber, the fixing time is even further reduced in the magnitude of approximately Dyes have been fixed using the above process in as little time as 32 seconds in passing through the entire fixing chamher.
The yarns are next fed over rolls 156 and 158 into the counterflow washing station 22. The station 22 includes a plurality of washing troughs. there being three shown at 160, 162 and 164. Fresh warm water at approximately l40F. is fed into top trough 164 where it is then overflowed into trough 162 and 160 respectively. The yarn is first fed through squeeze rolls 166 and into trough 160 passing under rolls 168. Suitable washing fluids, such as detergents or other treatment fluids may be added to trough 160 to give the yarn its initial washing so that any excess dyes will be removed. The yarns are then squeezed lightly between rolls 170 and fed into trough 162 by rolls 172. The yarn is then rinsed and squeezed again by squeeze rolls 174. From the rolls 174 the yarn passes over rolls 176 as shown and through the final washing in fresh water in trough 164. The yarns are then squeezed relatively heavily by squeeze rolls 178. All of the rolls 156, 158, 166, 168, [70, 172, I74, I76 and 178 are driven at the same speed as rolls 154 so that the tensionless condition remains substantially the same through the washing cycle.
After washing and rinsing, the yarns may be fed by rolls 180, operating at the same speed as rolls 154, to the finish applicator 24 where the yarns may be treated with an antistatic solution or the like. However, this step forms no part of the invention and may be eliminated, if desired. A pair of feed rolls 182 and a roll 184 feed the yarn to the final dryer chamber 186. Again, the speed of the rolls is the same. The dryer chamber I86 is substantially the same as chamber 150 but in this case no superheated steam is supplied but preferably only hot air for drying. Again, in order to preserve the bulk quality of the yarn, the tension is further reduced while the yarn is being dried. Accordingly, the speed of the roll I88 is reduced from the speed of roll [84 and the speed of rolls 190 is reduced from the speed of roll 188. After drying, the yarns are fed by rolls 192 and 194 and may then be wound on beams 198 or alternatively fed through a yarn scrambler 28. The yarn scrambler 28 may include a series of yarn feed tubes of different length and may be further scrambled according to lateral orientation. By this means a further random effeet can be brought about but it is not definitely known what, if any, percentage improvement is brought about over the random printing described above. The yarn scrambler merely provides one further step which may be taken to insure a complete random effect. The yarn are then fed by rolls 196 onto beams 198. Again a further scrambling of the yarns may be provided by varying the position of the yarns on the beams from that in which they left the dryer station 186.
It will be seen from the above description that a novel continuous dyeing process is provided wherein high bulk yarns can be relatively rapidly dyed in a continuous fashion. Further, the process of the invention pro vides for substantially complete random space dyeing of yarns so that undesirable pattern effects in the finished fabric are eliminated. The dyeing range of the invention has great versatility in that the random yarn printing means may be eliminated and the dyeing range operated for producing one color high bulk dyed yarn in a continuous manner. Further, the range may be used to random print a wide variety of yarns other than the so-called high bulk type wherein it is desired to continuously produce a completely random effect in a spaced dyed yarn.
What is claimed is:
1. In a continuous dyeing machine for dyeing yarns including means for feeding said yarns through said machine, dye printing means including a plurality of dye printing members and actuation means associated with each said dye printing member for initiating movement of its dye printing member into an operative dye printing position, random pattern means for generating random pattern control signals including a first pattern media having transparent portions and opaque portions, a second pattern media having transparent portions and opaque portions, a source of light for illuminating the transparent portions of each pattern media, light responsive means for generating a voltage signal when impinged by light, each said media being positioned between the source of light and the light responsive means, means for moving the first pattern media relative to the second pattern media at a fixed relationship, and means for comparing the voltage signals generated by the light responsive means associated with the pattern media for generating control signals having a substantially infinite repeat for selectively activating said actuation means such that a substantially completely random pattern will be printed on said yarns.
2. In a continuous dyeing machine as recited in claim 1 wherein each of said first and second pattern media comprise a transparent drum having an opaque pattern on the surface thereof.
3. In a continuous dyeing machine as recited in claim 2 wherein said source of light is positioned within said drums and said light responsive means is positioned outside said drums.
4. In a continuous dyeing machine as recited in claim I wherein said first pattern media comprises a first disc having a plurality of holes of varying sizes formed therein, and said second pattern media comprises a second disc mounted adjacent said first disc and having a plurality of shutters in overlapping disposition with the holes of the first disc.
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|U.S. Classification||68/203, 118/247, 101/172|
|Mar 16, 1984||AS02||Assignment of assignor's interest|
Owner name: FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF BOS
Owner name: FNB FINACIAL COMPANY A MASSACHUSETTS BUSINESS TRUS
Owner name: SPENCER WRIGHT INDUSTRIES, INC., A CORP OF TENNESS
Effective date: 19840209
|Mar 16, 1984||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SPENCER WRIGHT INDUSTRIES, INC., A CORP OF TENNESS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:FNB FINACIAL COMPANY A MASSACHUSETTS BUSINESS TRUST;FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF BOSTON, THE A NATIONAL BANKING ASSOCIATION;REEL/FRAME:004248/0926
Effective date: 19840209