|Publication number||US3881359 A|
|Publication date||May 6, 1975|
|Filing date||Apr 26, 1974|
|Priority date||Apr 26, 1974|
|Publication number||US 3881359 A, US 3881359A, US-A-3881359, US3881359 A, US3881359A|
|Inventors||Culbertson Thomas L|
|Original Assignee||Us Navy|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (19), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent Culbertson HOT ATMOSPHERE PARTICULATE SAMPLER May 6, 1975  ABSTRACT A hot atmosphere particulate sampler comprised of a heated sample box having a separator and filter, a sample probe, a remotely mounted condenser box and a heated vacuum tube for maintaining the temperature of a particulate sample during flow from the sample box to the condenser box. The heated vacuum is housed in an insulated, flexible umbilical cord, which also houses electrical, thermocouple and pitot tube leads. The temperature of the particulate sample is kept above dew-point during flow to a condenser box containing impinger bottles in a cooling ice and water bath. The system is operated by a control console which provides electrical power to the heaters and thermocouples and a vacuum to the impinger bottles of the condenser box.
6 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures CONTROL CONSOLE HOT ATMOSPHERE PARTICULATE SAMPLER BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates generally to a hot atmosphere particulate sampler, and more specifically to a hot atmosphere sampler for use in areas having high ambient temperatures.
This invention was conceived to provide source emission tests with the capability of using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended particulate sampling trains in locations where the ambient temperatures are above 100F, such as found in ship testing and in some stationary testing. The EPA particulate sampling train consists of a probe, a sample box. and a control console. The probe removes particulates from the flow being sampled and delivers them to the sample box which consists of a separator. filter and impinger bottles held in an ice bath. The difficulties associated with the use of the EPA sampling train are due to the sample box. It is heavy and cumbersome and requires delicate handling due to the glass impinger bottles. Also. the ice bath for the impingers is impossible to maintain where ambient temperatures are above 100F. This heat problem has occurred repeatedly during emission sampling on ships. and occasionally in steam power plants.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The purpose of the present invention is to overcome the major shortcomings of the present, commerciallyavailable EPA recommended particulate sampling trains. This invention reduces the size and weight of the sample box and makes the sample box more rugged. It also alleviates the difficulty of maintaining the ice bath for the impingers in areas where the ambient temperatures are above 100F. The invention allows the glass impinger bottles to be positioned well away from the heat of the stack and assures complete moisture removal from the sampled gas obtained.
A sample probe delivers a particulate sample to an insulated sample box containing a separator and a filter. The temperature in the sample box is maintained by a heater and thermostat. A condenser box containing a plurality of glass impinger bottles in an ice bath is positioned well away from the heat of the stack and is connected to the sample box by a vacuum hose which is heated for substantially its entire length to maintain the temperature of the particulate sample well above dew point. The heated vacuum hose is enclosed in an umbilical cord which also houses electrical and pitot tube leads.
OJBECTS OF THE INVENTION It is one object of the present invention to provide a hot atmosphere particulate sampler for use in areas where the ambient temperatures are above 100F.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a hot atmosphere particulate sampler in which the condenser box can be positioned remotely from the heat of the stack.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a hot atmosphere particulate sampler which permits reduction of the size and weight of the sample box and makes the sample box more rugged.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a hot atmosphere particulate sampler which assures complete moisture removal from the sampled gas obtained.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a hot atmosphere particulate sampler in which the condenser box can be remotely positioned so that the ice bath for the impinger bottles can be readily maintained.
Other objects, advantages and novel features of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a diagram of the complete hot atmosphere particulate sampler of the invention in somewhat schematic form.
FIG. 2 is a sectional view illustrating the umbilical cord of the hot atmosphere particulate sampler.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring now to FIG. I, there is shown a hot atmosphere particulate sampler system similar to that recommended by EPA. The system has three major components which comprise a sample box 10, a condenser box 12, and a control console 14. Particulate samples are delivered to the sample box 10 by a probe 16, which removes the particulates from the flow being sampled. The particulate sample is delivered to the condenser box 12 by umbilical cord 18.
The sample box 10 is an insulated container which is heated by an electrical heater 20 controlled by thermostat 22. Mounted in the sample box 10 is a cyclone separator 24 and a filter holder 26 for mounting a glass filter disc. The cyclone separator 24 should be capable of removing particles larger than 5 microns, and the glass fiber filter disc in the filter holder 26 should be capable of removing particles larger than approximately 3/10 of a micron. The cyclone separator 24 is connected to the probe which collects the particulate sample.
Sample box 10 is connected to the condenser box 12 and control console 14 by an umbilical cord 18 composed of up to feet of tubing and electrical conductors. A vacuum tube 44, housed in the umbilical cord 18, delivers the particulate samples to a plurality of impinger bottles 30 (usually four) which in turn are connected by vacuum line 32 to a pump (not shown) in control console 14. The umbilical cord 18 permits positioning of condenser box 12 well away from the heat of the stack, thus permitting the ice bath for impinger bottles 30 to be more readily maintained. The umbilical cord 18, which will be more fully discussed below, also provides electrical connections from control console I4 to sample box 24, thus also permitting it to be positioned away from the heat of the stack.
Pitot tubes 34 and thermocouple 36 sense flow rate and temperature of the stack, respectively, and provide the operator of control console 14 with information permitting him to adjust the sampling rate. Thermocouple leads 38 and pitot tube leads 40 connect the thermocouple 36 and pitot tubes 34, respectively. to the control console 14 via the umbilical cable 18.
The construction of umbilical cord 18 for providing electrical, vacuum and pitot tube connection is shown in detail in FIG. 2. Umbilical cord 18 is constructed of a flexible outer material. such as rubber, with thermocouple leads 38, pitot tube leads 40, electrical power connector 42 and vacuum tube 44 passing through the cord and insulated from each other by a suitable insulating material 46. An important feature of the invention is the heating of vacuum tube 40 by electrical wires 48 surrounding the vacuum tube 44. Power is supplied to electrical heating wires 48 by electrical power conductor or cord 42. Electrical cord 42 also supplies power to the heater 20, housed in the insulated sample box 10. The heated vacuum tube 44 is connected to sample box and condenser box 12 by quick disconnects 50 and 52. The electrical heating wires 48 are made from nickel-chromium alloy (Nichrome), commonly used in electrical heating devices.
The condenser box 12 is comprised of a plurality of impinger bottles 30, in this case four. supported in an ice-water bath in the usual manner. The impinger bottles 30 are connected at one end to vacuum line 44 by quick disconnect 52 to receive the particulate sample. The opposite end of the impinger bottles are connected to the vacuum pump (not shown) in the control console 14 by vacuum line 32. The condenser box 12 is positioned a sufficient distance from the flow being samples to prevent the heat of the stack from interfering with the ice-water bath. This separation of the condenser box 12, containing the delicate impinger bottles 30, from the sample box 10, permits greater flexibility in particulate sampling and also reduces the size and weight of the sample box, making the sample box more rugged.
In operation, the user observes the temperature and flow rate of the hot atmosphere sensed by thermocouple 36 and pitot tubes 34, and adjusts the sampling rate of sample probe 16. The temperature in the sample box 10 is controlled by adjusting heater and the temperature in the vacuum tube 44 of the umbilical cord 18 is also controlled by adjusting the heat supplied by electrical heating wires 48. In this manner, complete moisture removal from the sample gas is obtained during its flow from the sampling probe 16 through the sample box 10 to the condenser box 16 and impinger bottles 30. This arrangement permits the hot atmosphere particulate sampler of this system to meet EPA recommended particulate sampling trains in locations where the ambient temperatures are above 100F.
Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.
1. A hot atmosphere particulate sampler comprising:
a. an insulated box;
b. means for heating the interior of said insulated box;
c. a separator mounted in said insulated box for receiving the particulate sample;
(1. a filter mounted in said insulated box and connected to receive the particulate sample from the separator;
e. a condenser box having impinger bottles in a cooling bath remotely mounted away from said insulated box;
f. means remotely connecting the flow of the particulate sample, from the filter to the condenser box; and
g. means for heating the remotely connecting means to maintain the particulate sample above a predetermined temperature during its flow from the filter to the condenser box.
2. The particulate sampler according to claim 1 wherein said remotely connecting means comprises:
a flexible umbilical cord containing a heated vacuum hose.
3. The particulate sampler according to claim 2 wherein said means for heating the remotely connecting means comprises:
a heated nickel-chromium wire surrounding the vacuum hose.
4. The particulate sampler according to claim 3 wherein the vacuum hose is heated to maintain the particulate sample above the dew point temperature.
5. The particulate sampler according to claim 4 wherein said separator is a cyclone separator capable of removing particles larger than 5 microns.
6. The particulate sampler according to claim 5 wherein said umbilical cord includes:
a. electrical leads for energizing the means for heating the insulated box;
b. thermocouple leads for controlling the temperature in the insulated box; and
c. pitot tube leads.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3668825 *||Aug 28, 1969||Jun 13, 1972||Nat Dust Collector Corp||Method and apparatus for determining the difficulty of removing pollutants by wet scrubbing action|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4686848 *||Nov 20, 1984||Aug 18, 1987||Umec Corporation||High temperature particulate filter media test unit|
|US4856352 *||Aug 23, 1988||Aug 15, 1989||The Babcock & Wilcox Company||Gas sampling system for reactive gas-solid mixtures|
|US4900445 *||Feb 22, 1989||Feb 13, 1990||Conoco Inc.||Low pressure hydrocyclone separator|
|US5349833 *||Feb 22, 1993||Sep 27, 1994||Xontech, Inc.||Cryotrap for air pollution analyzer|
|US5551311 *||May 26, 1994||Sep 3, 1996||R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company||Air sampling system and flow calibration system for same|
|US5553507 *||Jun 5, 1995||Sep 10, 1996||Rupprecht & Patashnick Company, Inc.||Airborne particulate|
|US5646357 *||May 2, 1996||Jul 8, 1997||R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company||Air sampling system and flow calibration system for same|
|US6022510 *||May 13, 1993||Feb 8, 2000||Testoterm Fritzsching Gmbh & Co.||Gas-sampling means for a flue-gas analysis apparatus|
|US7430893 *||Dec 1, 2004||Oct 7, 2008||Entegris, Inc.||Systems and methods for detecting contaminants|
|US8726747 *||Apr 22, 2010||May 20, 2014||Syncrude Canada Ltd.||Sampling vessel for fluidized solids|
|US20050120775 *||Sep 2, 2004||Jun 9, 2005||Extraction Systems, Inc.||Systems and methods for detecting contaminants|
|US20050183490 *||Dec 1, 2004||Aug 25, 2005||Anatoly Grayfer||Systems and methods for detecting contaminants|
|US20100269599 *||Apr 22, 2010||Oct 28, 2010||Syncrude Canada Ltd. In Trust For The Owners Of The Syncrude Project||Sampling vessel for fluidized solids|
|CN102768137A *||Aug 14, 2012||Nov 7, 2012||公安部第三研究所||Trace explosive and drug gas generation device and using method thereof|
|DE4122658A1 *||Jul 9, 1991||Jan 21, 1993||Msi Elektronik Gmbh||Soot measuring probe for chimney gases - has condenser for condensing gas moisture content|
|EP0570684A1 *||Mar 24, 1993||Nov 24, 1993||TESTOTERM FRITZSCHING GmbH & Co.||Gas sampling device for combustion gas analyser|
|EP1060363A1 *||Oct 13, 1998||Dec 20, 2000||Dieterich Standard, Inc.||Flow meter pitot tube with temperature sensor|
|EP1060363A4 *||Oct 13, 1998||Mar 26, 2003||Dieterich Standard Inc||Flow meter pitot tube with temperature sensor|
|WO1994029716A1 *||Jun 7, 1994||Dec 22, 1994||Rupprecht & Patashnick Company, Inc.||Airborne particulate sampling monitor|
|U.S. Classification||73/863.12, 73/28.4|
|International Classification||G01N1/22, G01N1/24|
|Cooperative Classification||G01N1/2205, G01N1/2211, G01N1/2258, G01N2001/2261, G01N1/24|