US 3881586 A
This invention relates to a selective printing mechanism. The printing apparatus includes several carrousels which are themselves mounted on a principal rotating plate. Each carrousel supports, in addition to rotating cylinders having printing characters, charactercarrying elements fixed with respect to the plate of the respective carrousel. The principal rotating plate carries also rotating printing cylinders and character-supporting elements fixed with respect to its plate. The rotating unit thus constituted can be disposed horizontally behind the paper and the whole of this unit and of a percussion element is displaceable horizontally at each stroke, in order to type a line of characters. This apparatus has particularly efficient application to the construction of a typewriter for printing in the Chinese or Japanese languages.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
[ 5] May 6, 1975 3,605,977 9/1971 Janzetal.............................. 197/18 3,772,989 ll/l973 Burkhardt........................... l0l/ll0 Primary Examiner-Edgar S. Burr Assistant ExaminerEdward M. Coven Attorney, Agent, or FirmWenderoth, Lind & Ponack  ABSTRACT This invention relates to a selective printing mechanism. The printing apparatus includes several carrousels which are themselves mounted on a principal rotating plate. Each carrousel supports, in addition to rotating cylinders having printing characters, charactercarrying elements fixed with respect to the plate of the respective carrousel. The principal rotating plate carries also rotating printing cylinders and charactersupporting elements fixed with respect to its plate. The rotating unit thus constituted can be disposed horizontally behind the paper and the whole of this unit and of a percussion element is displaceable horizontally at each stroke, in order to type a line of char- Arva'l' PRINTING APPARATUS WITH LARGE NUMBER OF CHARACTERS Inventor: Tibor Arva'i, Paris, France Assignee: Tokyo Juki Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo, Japan Filed: June 11, 1973 Appl. No.: 368,588
Foreign Application Priority Data June 20, l972 France..................,........... 72.22l62 U.S. 197/1 A; 101/110; 101/86; 197/49 Int. B41j 7/04 Field of Search.......... 197/] A, 49, 18; 101/77, 101/86-87, 109, 110
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS United States Patent PATENTEDHAY 6|975 SHEET 10F 3 1 gag SHEET 3 OF 3 [5 ini] PRINTING APPARATUS WITH LARGE NUMBER OF CHARACTERS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING In these drawings: FIG. 1 shows the schematic arrangement ofa carrou- The present invention relates to mechanisms for sesel printing assembly according to the invention;
lective printing and more specifically to a printing device having a large number of characters.
When it is desired to produce a typewriter for Chinese or Japanese writing, great difficulties are encountered because of the large number of characters. In fact, even though the governments of these countries have made considerable efforts to reduce the number of characters utilized, there still remain no less than 1,850 official kanjis in Japan without including the kanas, and in China the situation is analagous (1,556 characters satisfy 95% of present needs), without mentioning other Asiatic countries which make use of ideograms. It is clear that under these conditions a typewriter of the usual sort could not be employed.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The invention thus has for its object to resolve such a problem, permitting the provision of a mechanism capable of printing selectively a large number of characters, possessing acceptable inertia and execution time, and requiring a relatively small space.
For this purpose, the present invention is based on the utilization of at least one carrousel having wheels or cylinders carrying printing characters on their periphery and turning about their individual axes. At least one carrousel is carried on a plate turning about a principal axis or rotation, the wheels being capable ofturning about their individual axes perpendicular to the plate, independently of the rotation of the latter. and a unique movable element external to the carrousel and capable of controlled percussion, disposed relative to the printing location at the periphery of the carrousel. to which any character can be brought, the whole assembly being such that the printing can be effected upon a sheet placed between the movable element and the printing location.
In fact, in the prior art, there are already known printing devices including a carrousel having a small number of wheels (four) carried by a rotating plate, which is displaceable as a unit to effect printing against a fixed backing member, the paper being interposed. This combination obviously does not offer the wame possibilities, particularly as to the number of characters that may be chosen, as the apparatus of the invention.
According to another aspect of the invention, it has also as an object a carrousel of printing wheels or cylinders which include, on the one hand, several wheels supporting printing characters carried by a plate turning about a principal axis of rotation, such wheels being capable of turning about their individual axes perpendicular to the plate and independently of the rotation proper of the latter, and on the other hand, elements rigidly fixed to the plate at its exterior periphery. supporting printing characters situated at the same distance from the principal axis of the plate as are the characters ofthe wheels when they are found in the peripheral printing position, these fixed elements being located at intervals between the said wheels.
The invention will be better explained and understood with reference to the following description of one embodiment, given by way of a non-limiting example, with reference to the drawings.
Flg. 2 is an enlargement, executed in detail, of a part of the printing assembly;
FIG. 3 is an axial section of the assembly, to a scale smaller than that of Flg. 2;
FIG. 4 shows the general schematic arrangement of a printing assembly with a large number of characters, and
FIG. 5 shows a very small part of the key board" constituting a part of the assembly of FIG. 4 by way of illustration.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION According to a first aspect of the invention, there will be considered first a carrousel C, such as one of the three shown in FIG. I. In fact, although the present invention is not limited to the embodiment hereinafter described, that is, the printing of Sino-Japanese ideograms it will be assumed initially, in order to explain the invention, that there exists only one of these carrousels (C,).
The carrousel in the present case carried by a plate 1 (or cage 1,1), includes six cylinders (or wheels) 2 to 7, each supporting a plurality of rows of characters (8 in number) about their periphery. These cylinders are perpendicular to the plate 1 and capable of turning about their pivots or axes 11,11, also perpendicular to the plate. The plate turns about an axis 12 parallel to axes 11, 11', the movements of the axis 12 and of axes 11,11 being independent.
In the intervals or spaces between the successive cylinders 2 to 7, and at the periphery of the carrousel. there has been fixed also to the plate 1 or to the cage 1,1 integral non-turning elements 41, having only one row of characters in relation to the peripheral dimension of the carrousel C,. These characters can be brought to the printing location by the simple rotation of the plate, whereas a printing character carried by a cylinder. in order to arrive at the printing location, will generally require the combined rotations of the plate and of the printing cylinder.
For printing, a movable percussion or hammer element 8 is activated to apply the paper 10 against the selected character (arrow F, FIG. 1) which has been brought to the printing location, in relation to which the movable element is located.
To select the character, a key board" or table of characters 13 is utilized (of which the enlarged view can been seen in FIG. 5, with the illustration of a few characters). Each character of the key board is in fact a metallic plaque isolated from the others and including a printed circuit, each one associated with means (not shown) which make it a small generator of coded impulses of a limited number and of characteristic sequential arrangement. With the aid of a stylus 14, the chosen character is brought to a predetermined potential. This manoeuvre causes the emission of a series of coded impulses, characteristic of the chosen character.
The series of impulses is sent to the logic unit 15 constituting a memory and control organ. This organ inproximately at the same time, if that is possible. The unit 15 controls the rotations of the axes l2 and 11,11 for example by respective step-wise ratchet systems 16, 17, causing movement of the corresponding gearing. Thus the rotations of the plate or cage 1,1 and of the cylinders 2 to 7 are controlled. At the same time if it is required, through the effect of the control signals issued by the unit 15, the element 8 is displaced along a vertical rod, for example one that is threaded and meshing with a part similar to a nut carried by the element 8. The rod turns for example under the action of a small motor 18.
A comparator 19 is connected by multiple lines to the table 13 on the one hand, and on the other hand to means which establish the position of the different coordinates" of the characters with respect to the printing location. When correspondence occurs between the control code produced by the table 13 and the posi tions attained by the elements, the comparator orders the printing, by way of the logic unit and an electromagnet 9 which serves to urge the element 8 with percussive force against the chosen character, with the sheet 10 sandwiched between.
For example, in the case of printing of a character, such as the stylus 14 touches the representation of the character A on the key board 13 to emit coded impulses inherent to the character, thereby placing the logic unit 15 in active condition. The unit 15 controls ratchet systems 16, 17 and the motor 18. Assuming the character A" to be included in the right cylinder of carrousel C, as shown in FIG. 4, ratchet 16 moves the axis 12 around 180 and thus causes such cylinder of carrousel C. to face the hammer 8. Then ratchet l7 rotates the selected cylinder of carrousel C about its axis to position the row of characters containing the selected character "A" facing the top end of the hammer 8. Motor 18 moves the hammer 8 upwardly or downwardly to make it face the position of the character A" of the carrousel C,. After the completion of these printing preparation movements in accordance with ratchets l6 and 17 and motor 18, a signal from a known device such as an incoder (not shown) mounted on the ratchet systems 16 and 17 and motor 18 is received by the comparator 19. When the signal from the incoder and the signal from the key board 13 selected by the stylus 14 coincide, the resultant signal is fed to the logic unit 15. The unit 15 feeds percussive force to the electro-magnet 9, so the magnet 9 urges the hammer 8 toward the character and the selected character A is printed on the sheet 10.
The preceding constitutes an example of a simplified embodiment in which, apart from the height shift of element 8, there are only two movements to control. It must be understood that this example can be extended to a more complex apparatus such as that which is now to be described and which is adapted to print a larger number of characters. The principle of the arrangement of FIG. 4 is preserved, with however a larger number of rotation instructions.
In this instance the assembly of FIG. 1 is to be considered. The plate 20, or more exactly the cage formed by the plates 20, 21 turning freely on the axis 22, supports three printing cylinders 23, 24, 25. It also carries three identical auxiliary carrousels C C C the make-up of which has already been described for C and six elements 26 to 31, fixed to the plate, all of these elements supporting characters, and all of the printing characters supported by these elements being capable of being moved to the printing location to effect printing (arrow F).
It is seen that it is thus possible to achieve a selection of a larger number of characters in total.
Specifically (see FIG. 2), supposing that there are l I vertical printing locations, i.e., each row has I l characters, the number i of the characters of the rotating printing cylinders 2 to 7 of the three auxiliary carrousels C C and C is represented as follows:
since there are three auxiliary carrousels C C C each having six cylinders (such as 2 to 7), each cylinder having eight rows of l 1 characters each.
The numberj of characters of the fixed elements 41 on the auxiliary carrousels is represented as follows:
since there are three carrousels, each having six elements (e.g. 41), each having one row of l 1 characters fixed on the auxiliary carrousels.
The number k of characters of the fixed elements 26 to 31 on the principal plate 20 is represented as follows:
since there are six elements (e.g. 27) fixed to the principal plate, of which each one carries four rows of eleven characters.
The number I of characters of the three printing cylinders (23, 24, 25) carries by the principal plate is represented as follows:
since each cylinder (e.g. 23) carries 15 characters around its transverse section.
Ultimately, the total number of different characters possible in N =i+j+k +l= 2,541.
In the same conditions, if we raise to l2, 13 or 14 the number of possible printing locations along the vertical line (or along each row), we will have respectively:
It is seen that this number permits a practical resolution of the problem posed for the Chinese or any other Asiatic language, or of any similar problem where it is necessary to have access to a large number of different signs or characters (from 2,000 to 4,000 in practice).
In the present case, (in addition to the linear up-anddown movement), it is necessary to have four independent rotational movements. These are obtained by conjugated gearing as is seen in FIG. 3.
For the first movement (I), the edge of the plate 20 carries gear teeth G meshing with a gear wheel H. This movement thus causes the principal plate to turn about the axis 22, and independently of it.
For the second movement (II), the shaft 22 carries, keyed to itself, a gearing 32 which receives its movement from a toothed wheel 33. At its other extremity, the shaft 22 carries, keyed to itself, a toothed wheel F meshing with three wheels E which directly rotate the cylinders 23, 24, 25. This movement thus brings about the rotation of the said cylinders on their individual axes.
For the third movement (III) a toothed wheel D includes a sleeve received on the shaft 22 without engaging the same. It meshes at 34 with wheels C fixed with respect to each of the plates of the three auxiliary carrousels and it is rotatable because it is fixed with respect to a toothed wheel 35 which is rotated by an exterior wheel 36. This movement thus provides the rotation of the plates of the auxiliary carrousels.
Finally as concerns the fourth movement (IV an exterior wheel 37 meshes with a central gear 38 turning about the sleeve of the wheel D without engagement therewith; the wheel 38 meshes with the wheels 39 (of which one is shown in FIG. 3). Each wheel 39 is keyed on a shaft 40, independent of the rotation of the auxiliary carrousel plate which carries, fixed with respect to itself, a wheel B which rotates. by way of wheels such as A, the six printing cylinders of the carrousel. This movement thus provides the rotation of the rotating printing cylinders of the auxiliary carrousel.
For the sake of greater completeness, there is found below a table giving the essential elements that is, successively. the number of teeth Z, the module M and the diameter d) of the pitch-circle of the fundamental gears A to H for one embodiment of the invention:
In FIG. 2, the gears A to H have been shown by their pitch-circles.
Moreover, throughout the above description, it has been supposed. more or less implicity. that the printing assembly was mounted vertically: Hence the expression shift in height of the movable percussion element which brings about printing results. It is clear that the latter should not be taken in a limiting sense, that is to say that it is merely a matter of a relative movement between a movable element and the complex printing apparatus with rotating carrousels, and that what is involved is a relative movement of which the direction, remaining parallel to the axis of the plates may be other than vertical. It could even be advantageous to have the carrousel assembly horizontal and placed behind the sheet of paper. Under these conditions. the assembly is well balanced and could be displaced as a unit through horizontal sliding while still being hidden from the view of the operator and at least in part, while the percussion element is in a fixed location. It will have been supposed also here that the paper is displaced in stepwise fashion relative to the printing location by one character for each stroke. It is also possible to suppose that the paper is fixed. In this case, the carrousel assembly will be preferably horizontal and the whole of this assembly and the printing element will move step by step with each stroke, in order to print a horizontal line of characters.
It goes without saying that the described embodiments are merely examples and that it would be possible to modify them, particularly through the substitution oftechnical equivalents, without departing thereby from the framework of the invention.
Beyond any utilization of the assembly for a given language, it is also possible to envisage its extension to the printing of a large number of distinct signs or symbols whenever the necessity for this makes itself felt. Moreover, the assembly of the invention can be carried out just as well with a single carrousel, like that in FIG. 4, as with several carrousels, like that in FIG. 1.
What we claim is:
l. A typing machine for selectively typing on a sheet a large number of characters, said machine comprising:
I. a printing assembly containing thereon a plurality of characters and mounted to bring a selected one of said characters to a printing position, said printing assembly comprising:
A. a first plate rotatable about a first longitudinal axis, a plurality of printing cylinders mounted on second axes rotatably mounted parallel to said first axis about the periphery of said first plate, said printing cylinders having about the periphery thereof rows of characters extending parallel to said first axis;
B. at least one carrousel including a second plate rotatably mounted about a third axis parallel to said first axis about said first plate between adjacent of said printing cylinders;
C. said at least one carrousel having a plurality of auxiliary printing cylinders rotatable about fourth axes, parallel to said first axis, about the periphery of said second plate, each of said auxiliary printing cylinders having about the periphery thereof rows of characters extending parallel to said first axis;
D. at least one row of characters, extending parallel to said first axis, fixedly mounted to said second plate about the periphery thereof between adjacent of said auxiliary printing cylinders; and
E. at least one row of characters, extending parallel to said first axis, fixedly mounted to said first plate about the periphery thereof between adjacent of said printing cylinders and said at least one carrousel; and
II. hammer means mounted adjacent said printing position for forcing a sheet against a selected one of said characters when said printing assembly has brought said selected character to said printing position.
2. A machine as claimed in claim 1, further comprising means to move one of said printing assembly and said hammer means relative to the other of said printing assembly and hammer means in a direction parallel to said first axis.
3. A machine as claimed in claim 2, further comprising first drive means operatively associated with said first plate for selectively rotating said first plate about said first axis; second drive means operatively associated with said printing cylinders for rotating said printing cylinders about said second axes; third drive means operatively associated with said second plate for rotating said at least one carrousel about said third axis; and fourth drive means operatively associated with said auxiliary printing cylinders for rotating said auxiliary printing cylinders about said fourth axes.
4. A machine as claimed in claim 3, further comprising keyboard means containing a representation of each of said characters for emitting impulses representative of each of said characters upon the selection of each of said characters; logic and control means interconnecting said keyboard means. said means for moving and said drive means for receiving impulses from said keyboard means representative of the selection of a character and operating said drive means and said means for moving for bringing said selected character to said printing position opposite said hammer means; and comparator means operative to compare said selected character and the character brought to said printing position and operate said hammer means to force said sheet against said selected character at said printing position.
5. A machine as claimed in claim 2, wherein said means for moving moves said hammer means.
6. A machine as claimed in claim 1, wherein each of said rows of characters has an equal number of characters, said number being from 1 l to 14.
9. A machine as claimed in claim 8, wherein said at least one row of characters fixedly mounted to said first plate comprises four rows between each adjacent printing cylinder and carrousel.