|Publication number||US3882751 A|
|Publication date||May 13, 1975|
|Filing date||Dec 11, 1973|
|Priority date||Dec 14, 1972|
|Also published as||CA985536A, CA985536A1, DE2362037A1, DE2362037B2, DE2362037C3|
|Publication number||US 3882751 A, US 3882751A, US-A-3882751, US3882751 A, US3882751A|
|Inventors||Okumura Takatoshi, Takeda Toshio, Tomisawa Norio, Uchiyama Yasuji|
|Original Assignee||Nippon Musical Instruments Mfg|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (13), Referenced by (75), Classifications (8), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1191 [451 May 13, 1975 ELECTRONIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT EMPLOYING WAVESHAPE MEMORIES [75 Inventors: Norio Tomisawa, ll-Iamamatsu;
Yasuji Uchiyama, Hamakita; Takatoshi Okumura, Toshio Takea, both of Hamamatsu, all of Japan  Assignee: Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha 22 Filed: Dec. 11, 1973 21 App]. 110.; 423,846
 Foreign Application Priority Data July 6, 1973 Japan 48-125513 Dec. 14, 1972 Japan 47-125514 Dec. 14, 1972 Japan 47-125515 Dec. 14, 1972 Japan 47-125516 Apr. 13, 1973 Japan 48-41964 July 6, 1973 Japan 48-76397 July 6, 1973 Japan 48-76398  US. Cl. ..84/1.0l;84/1.l;84/l.ll; 84/l.l3; 84/l.l9; 84/125; 84/126; 84/127  Int. Cl. G10h 1/02; GlOh 5/02  Field of Search 84/1.01, 1.03, 1.09-1.11, 84/l.l3, 1.19, 1.22-1.28
 References Cited UNlTED STATES PATENTS 2,855,816 10/1958 Olson et a1 84/103 3,305,657 2/1967 Haase 84/].23 3,515,792 6/1970 Deutsch 84/1.03 3,594,487 7/1971 Jones, Jr. 84/1.1 3,610,799 10/1971 Watson 84/101 3,610,805 10/1971 Watson et al.. 84/1.l3
3,697,661 10/1972 Deutsch 84/101 3,740,450 6/1973 Deutsch 84/].24
3,743,755 7/1973 Watson 84/].01
3,755,608 8/1973 Deutsch 84/].01 3,763,364 10/1973 Deutsch et al..... 84/].03 X 3,821,714 6/1974 Tomisawa et al.. 84/].01 X 3,823,390 7/1974 Tomisawa et al.. 84/l.01 X
KEVSOARD I CIRCUIT (ounflk Primary Examiner-Richard B. Wilkinson Assistant ExaminerStanley J. Witkowski Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Ladas, Parry, Von Gehr, Goldsmith & Deschamps 57] ABSTRACT In an electronic musical instrument, actuation of each key switch produces a key data signal indicative of the identification name of the key switch. A key address code corresponding to this key data signal is stored in a key address code memory. Frequency data corresponding to the fundamental frequencies of musical tones for the respective key switches are stored beforehand in a frequency information memory. The key address code read from the key address code memory is used to read frequency information corresponding to the key address code from the frequency information memory. The frequency information is thereafter counted cumulatively in a counter to produce a waveshape address code successively changing with time. Musical tone waveshape memories are provided for storing waveshapes in time-sampled analog representation. The sampled analog values are successively read out in accordance with the changing waveform address code thereby constructing the waveform. Envelope shapes of the musical tones are stored in timesampled analog representation in envelope memories. Control signals representing depression and release of a key are produced from the key data signal which is produced by the depression and release of the key. A suitable clock pulse is selected by these control signals to read out the envelope shapes. The read out outputs of the envelope memories are applied to the voltage control terminals of the musical tone waveshape memories to determine the instantaneous amplitude thereby causing the musical tone waveshape memories to produce musical tone Waveshapes with desired 'envelopes. In order to enable a simultaneous reproduction of a plurality of musical tones, the instrument is constructed as a dynamic logic system wherein logical circuits as well as the memories and the counters are used in a time sharing manner.
25 Claims, 53 Drawing Figures wAvE$HAPE MEMORIES EIMI EIMZ 1 3 TC rnuncm's CcunrBR CAR PATENTEB HAY l 3 875 SHEET fJZfiF 17 I s F G. 2 CHANNEL TIME Fl I laus ME(256 KEY TIMES) FSCANNING Tl FIG.6A
memo m 3 ms SHEET OR 0F 17 5 umaouwo SHEET 10 OF 17 PATENIEB RAY I 31975 tian GBNNEEC mxN PATENIEB 14m 31975 SHEET 12%??17 Pf-JENIEQ MAY 1 3 ms SEEN 133F 17 Emit PATENIEB m 1 3197s SHEET U4 0F 17 mum w 31% WEEK 15 a; 1? F I 6.20 H
PATENTEDHAH ams 3,882,751
sum 15 SF 17 2 FIG.22
(C) I lr- KEYBOARD 50' EARC \T WAVESHAPE EMoRxiS 9555mm m z 3582751 sum 17UF 1? MEMORY couNTEIZ COUNTER KEY ASSICQNE WAVESHAPE M EMQRIES KI K2 F|G.25
ADDER ER g g MEMORIES 5A 602 FREQ, CouHTER 6b2 mr-o. g 6A 662 MEM. I wAvEsHAP:
MEMORIES IO 55 AK 5 i ouNTEk WAVESHAPE. MEMQRIES oosz ELECTRONIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT EMPLOYING WAVESHAPE MEMORIES BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to an electronic musical instrument and, more particularly, to an electronic musical instrument capable of simultaneously producing a plurality of musical tones respectively having predetermined envelopes. The electronic musical instrument according to the invention comprises memories which store musical tone waveshapes in time-sampled analog representation and memories which store, also in timesampled analog representation, envelope signals for the respective musical tones and is adapted to process key data signals corresponding in time relation to the notes of depressed keys and key address codes representing the notes of the depressed keys by utilizing a principle of dynamic logic for reading the waveshapes from these memories.
Electronic musical instruments of conventional types employ a plurality of oscillators or frequency dividers for providing sound source signals from their outputs. These sound source signals are supplied to a tone-color circuit through key switches by closing thereof, whereupon desired musical tone signals are obtained. The prior art electronic musical instruments therefore require a large number of oscillators or frequency dividers. Besides, the tone-color circuit has an extremely complicated construction. As a result, the musical instrument generally has a complicated and large system for producing required musical tone signals.
Moreover, it was impossible in the prior art electronic musical instruments to obtain musical tone signals having the same wave shapes as those of natural musical instruments. The musical tones reproduced from the prior art electronic musical instruments therefore only resembled natural musical tones to a degree which was far from being satisfactory.
The prior art electronic musical instruments require a plurality of musical tone signal production systems which make theirconstruction further complicated and large.
Again, in the prior art electronic musical instruments, an envelope of a musical tone signal which determines the shape of the rise portion of the musical tone when a selected key is depressed, the sustain portion of the tone and the fall portion of the tone after the key has been released, is provided by a switching circuit utilizing charging and discharging characteristics of a capacitor.
Thus, a musical tone signal having a predetermined envelope has been obtained from the output terminal of the switching circuit by applying thereto a signal having a predetermined amplitude and operating a switch provided in the charging and discharging circuit in response to the operation of a key switch.
However, the above described instrument which utilizes charging and discharging characteristics of a capacitor for obtaining a musical tone signal is incapable of producing a complicated envelope of a natural musical tone which, for example, rises abruptly, then falls somewhat rapidly to a certain level and maintains this level for a certain length of time and falls gradually thereafter. The envelope characteristic of the musical tone signal obtained by the above described prior art instrument is at best a rough simulation of that of a natural musical tone. Further, the prior art system is incapable of changing at will the duration of the rise portion of the envelope which is formed immediately after depression of a key (hereinafter referred to as attack") and that of the fall portion which is formed after releasing of the key (hereinafter referred to as decay").
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The electronic musical instrument constructed according to this invention uses a principle which is entirely different from the one used in the above described prior art electronic musical instrument. According to the invention, a key data signal is produced upon depression of a key. A key address code corresponding to this key data signal is stored in key address code memories provided with a plurality of channels and a musical tone waveshape is read out at a frequency corresponding to the stored key address code. Simultaneously, control signals respectively representing depression and release of the key are produced from the key data signals produced by the depression and the release of the key, and the reading of the envelope memory is controlled by these control signals. A plurality of musical tones respectively having predetermined envelopes can be simultaneously produced by multiplying the envelope shape outputs with the musical tone waveshape outputs. In order to enable the inventive electronic musical instrument to reproduce a plurality of musical tones simultaneously, the instrument is constructed as a dynamic logical circuits system wherein the logics, the counters, the memories etc. are used in a time-sharing manner.
It is an object of this invention to provide an electronic musical instrument of a remarkably simplified circuit construction capable of simultaneously producing a plurality of musical tone signals having accurate waveshapes and envelopes.
It is another object of the invention to provide an electronic musical instrument capable of simultaneously reproducing a plurality of musical tone waveshapes by constructing the counters, logical circuits and memories according to a dynamic logic principle so that these counters etc. may be used in a timesharing manner.
It is another object of the invention to provide an electronic musical instrument capable of controlling the entire level of a musical tone in response to the speed of depressing the note identification key for that tone.
It is another object of the invention to provide an electronic musical instrument capable of minimizing wiring required for connecting various units which produce musical tones by virtue of utilization of key data signals representing respective keys in time sequence together with key switches.
It is another object of the invention to provide an electronic musical instrument which successfully eliminates adverse effects of chattering of the key switches.
It is another object of the invention to provide an electronic musical instrument capable of accurately producing a plurality of musical tones corresponding to depressed keys up to a maximum number of tones to be reproduced simultaneously.
It is another object of the invention to provide an electronic musical instrument capable of producing a single pedal tone alone regardless of the number of tones to be reproduced simultaneously by operation of the keys of the manual keyboards.
It is another object of the invention to provide an electronic musical instrument in which frequency information representing the notes of the respective keys is stored beforehand in a storage device, frequency information corresponding to the depressed key is read out, and a musical tone waveshape memory is sampled by a waveshape address code signal which is a cumalative counting output obtained by cumulatively counting this frequency information to produce a desired musical tone waveshape signal.
It is another object of the invention to provide an electronic musical instrument capable of varying the sampling frequency of the musical tone waveshape memory in accordance with the pitch (frequency) of the musical tone.
It is another object of the invention to provide an electronic musical instrument capable of reading out a plurality of complicated envelope shapes in a multiplexed form.
It is another object of the invention to provide an electronic musical instrument capable of producing a plurality of musical tones each of which is of a slightly different pitch from the pitch of the note of the corresponding key.
It is still another object of the invention to provide an electronic musical instrument capable of producing musical tones having frequencies which differ slightly from one another depending upon which of several keyboards is used notwithstanding depression of keys forone and the same note.
Other objects and features of the invention will become apparent from the description made hereinbelow with reference to the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing one preferred embodiment of the electronic musical instrument according to the invention;
FIGS. 2a through 2d are respectively charts showing clock pulses employed in this embodiment of the electronic musical instrument;
FIGS. 3 and 4 are circuit diagrams showing a key data signal generating device employed in the embodiment;
FIG. 5 is a chart showing the correspondence between the key address codes and key switches;
FIGS. 6A and 6B are graphic diagrams illustrative of relations between first and second key data signals and the opening and closing of break and make contacts;
FIGS. 7a and 7b are circuit diagrams showing logical circuits provided for eliminating a chattering effect produced by the key switches;
FIGS. 8a through 8d are graphic diagrams showing key data signals at respective points in the circuit shown in FIGS. 7a and 7b.
FIG. 9 is a circuit diagram showing a detailed logical circuit of a key assigner employed in the embodiment;
FIG. 10 is a block diagram showing fraction and integer counters;
FIG. 11 is a circuit diagram showing one example of a frequency information memory utilizing a (ROM) operated at a low speed;
FIGS. 12a through 121' are charts explanatory of states of signals appearing at certain points of the frequency information memory shown in FIG. 11;
FIG. 13 is a block diagram showing one example of an envelope counter and a truncate counter employed in the inventive electronic musical instrument;
FIGS. 14a and 14b are graphic diagrams illustrating the reading of an envelope waveshape from the enve' lope memory;
FIG. 15 is a block diagram showing one example of a first percussive counter;
FIG. 16 is a graphic diagram showing a waveshape read from a first percussive memory;
FIG. 17 is a block diagram showing one example of a second percussive counter;
FIGS. 18a and 18b are graphic diagrams showing waveshapes read from the second percussive counter;
FIG. 19 is a block diagram showing one example of a touch response counter;
FIGS. 20a through 20s are graphic diagrams explanatory of a touch response operation operation of the touch response counter shown in FIG. 19;
FIG. 21 is a block diagram showing a clock selector;
FIGS. 22a through 22e are graphic diagrams showing waveshapes appearing at certain points in the clock selector shown in FIG. 21; and
FIGS. 23 through 26 are block diagrams respectively showing other embodiments of the electronic musical instrument according to the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring first to FIG. 1 which shows one preferred embodiment of the inventive electronic musical instrument, a keyboard circuit 1 has key switches corresponding to respective keys. Each of the key switches includes a break contact and a make contact. A key data signal generator 2 comprises a key address code generator which produces key address codes indicative of the notes corresponding to the respective keys successively and repeatedly. The key data signal generator 2 also comprises a first key data signal generating unit 2a which produces a first key data signal when the break contact of a key switch corresponding to a depressed key is opened and a key address code corresponding to the depressed key is produced. The key data signal generator 2 further comprises a second key data signal generating unit 2b which produces a second key data signal when the make contact of the key switch is closed and the key address code corresponding to the depressed key is produced. The first and second key data signals are applied to a key assigner 3. The key assigner 3 comprises a key address code generator which operates in synchronization with the above described key address code generator, a key address code memory which is capable of storing key address codes up to the same number as a maximum number of musical tones' to be simultaneously reproduced (e.g. 12 channels as in the present embodiment) and successively and repeatedly outputting these key address codes, a logical circuit which, upon receipt of the first key data signal, applies this first key data signal to the key address code memory for causing it to store the corresponding key address code on the condition that this particular key address code has not been stored in any channel of the memory yet and that one of the channels of the memory is available for storing this key address code, and a logical circuit which generates, upon receipt of the first and second key data signals, a tone response signal TRS, an attack start signal ES, a
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|U.S. Classification||84/605, 84/627, 84/615, 984/392|
|International Classification||G10H7/04, G10H7/02|