|Publication number||US3882855 A|
|Publication date||May 13, 1975|
|Filing date||Nov 12, 1973|
|Priority date||Nov 12, 1973|
|Publication number||US 3882855 A, US 3882855A, US-A-3882855, US3882855 A, US3882855A|
|Inventors||Portnoy Harold D, Schulte Rudolf R|
|Original Assignee||Heyer Schulte Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (119), Classifications (15)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1 Schulte et al.
[ RETRACTOR FOR SOFT TISSUE FOR EXAMPLE BRAIN TISSUE  Inventors: Rudolf R. Schulte, Goleta, Calif;
Harold D. Portnoy, Bloomfield Hills, Mich.
 Assignee: Heyer-Schulte Corporation, Goleta,
 Filed: Nov. 12, 1973  Appl. No.: 414,909
 U.S. Cl. 128/20  Int. Cl A61b 17/02  Field of Search 128/20  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,944,009 l/l934 Homer 128/20 Garland [4 1 May 13, 1975 Primary Examiner-Richard A. Gaudet Assistant Examiner-Henry S. Laylon Attorney, Agent, or FirmDona1d D. Mon
 ABSTRACT A retractor for tissue comprising a deformable metal blade having a pair of opposite faces and a peripheral edge bounding and interconnecting the faces. A sheath comprising a flexible material which is nonadherent to brain tissue, such as silicon elastomer, includes a cover portion that covers at least part of the blade, having an exposed bearing face for bearing against soft tissue, such as brain tissue, and a flexible' skirt portion extending from the said cover portion and projecting beyond the peripheral edge. The sheath may be reinforced by a mesh and have an irregular surface, if desired.
12 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures PATENTED HAY I 3|975 3.882.855
I RETRACTGR FUR SOFT TISSUE FOR EXAWLE BRAIN TISSUE This invention relates to a retractor for tissue. Among other uses, it is useful in the process of dissecting the brain during surgery on the brain.
The usual method of protecting the brain when using brain retractors is by padding the area with cottonoid paddies. The use of such cottonoids poses significant problems. Among these is their tendency to adhere to the brain tissue and cause bruising of the underlying brain. Also, because cottonoids do not slide, it is necessary to use numerous of them during a dissection, thereby forming a wad beneath the retractor which can obscure the area which must be visualized. Moving a retractor under these circumstances is complicated by the necessity of concurrently readjusting the position of these paddies. It is not infrequent that the edge of a cottonoid paddy used to protect the leading edge of the retractor may obscure the surgeon s vision, particularly when working in a small area, and this is a hazardous situation. Additionally, cottonoid paddies constitute a substantial hazard when the surgeon is working with a drill, because they tend to adhere to its rotating tip, and can then be whipped about, damaging the surrounding tissues.
The foregoing problems and objections have been overcome by this invention. This invention utilizes a deformable metal blade with a sheath enveloping at least the part of it which contacts the tissue. The sheath is made of a flexible material which is not adherent to brain tissue. A flexible skirt portion of the sheath projects beyond the peripheral edge of the metal blade. Silicone elastomer, Kel-F, teflon, mylar, and polyethylene are examples. When suitably wetted, a retractor covered with any of these materials can readily be moved along the surface of brain tissue without damaging it. Similarly, when a drill is used adjacent to such materials, the materials will not adhere to the whirling tip of the drill and will not be moved in such a manner as to damage surrounding tissue.
The invention will be fully understood from the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is an edge view, partly in cutaway crosssection, of the presently preferred embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a top view of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a top view of an alternate embodiment of the invention with part of one of its cover portions and skirt portion removed for purposes of illustration; and
FIG. 4 is an enlarged view of a portion of FIG. 1.
The presently preferred embodiment of the invention is shown in FIG. 1 wherein a retractor for brain tissue is shown which includes a deformable metal plate 11 having a pair of opposite faces 12, 13 and a peripheral edge 14 which bounds and interconnects faces 12 and 13. By deformable" is meant an inherently shaperetaining metal blade which is sufficiently malleable that it can be bent to any shape desired by the surgeon. An annealed iron plate is an example.
A sheath envelops at least that part of the blade which is intended to make contact with brain tissue. In most practical embodiments, the entire plate will be enveloped. The sheath includes a cover portion 21 which is defined as that portion of the sheath which makes contact with the parts of the opposite faces of the plate which are covered by the sheath. The cover portion provides exposed bearing faces 22, 23. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, as schematically shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 by surface shading, the entire bearing surfaces are irregular in surface contour. The irregularities may be formed by depressions such as pits 24 in a regular pattern.
The sheath also includes a flexible skirt portion 30 which extends from the cover portion. The skirt portion and cover portion are preferably integral. The skirt portion projects beyond the peripheral edge of the plate. As best shown in FIG. 4, it is thicker adjacent to the peripheral edge than it is at its free edge 31. It may be said to be feathered at its edge.
While the sheath may be formed by dipping the metal plate into an uncured silicone elastomer, and then curing it to the illustrated shape, with or without using a mold, it may more readily be constructed from a pair of sheets 35, 36, comprising a material such as silicone elastomer, within which there are embedded respective reinforced mesh reinforcements 37, 38, preferably of woven dacron thread. The shape of this weave will cause the-pits in the bearing surface already described when the coating of the silicone elastomer over the mesh is suitably thin. The mesh reinforcement is optional. Sheets of material without reinforcement may be used instead.
The sheets include extensions 39, 40 which project beyond the peripheral edge. They are joined beyond the peripheral edge by adhesives or the like to form the skirt portion. Sheet 36 projects farther from the peripheral edge than sheet 35. By this means, the thickness of the skirt portion is greater adjacent to the peripheral edge than it is at the free edge 31 of the skirt, at least by the difference of thickness of one of the sheets.
The sheets are shown tapered at their edges, which accentuates the difference in thickness, and makes the edges more flexible. Instead of a tapered edge as illustrated, the edges may be cut square as by a shear. The objective of flexibility will still be attained. In the draw ings, especially in FIG. 4, thethickness of the sheath has been exaggerated compared to the thickness of the metal plate. In practice, the metal plate may be on the order of 0.020 inch thick, while the sheets 35 and 36 may each be on the order of approximately 0.005 inch. The free edge of sheet 36 may project approximately 3mm beyond the peripheral edge, and the free edge of sheet 35 approximately 1.5mm beyond the peripheral edge. The thickness of the sheath adjacent to the peripheral edge will therefore be about 0.010 inch, and at the free edge about 0.005 inch (and less if tapered as shown).
The material of the sheath must be non-adherent to brain tissue, and in thin sections sufficiently flexible as not to cut or tear soft tissue, such as brain tissue, and to bend to spread the force exerted by the surgeon over a substantial area. This, of course, excludes unyielding metal surfaces which do not deflect to spread the applied force. Many materials have the property of nonadherence and inherent flexibility. An elastomer seems to provide this property better than most other substances, and the preferred elastomer is medical grade silicone elastomer. The hardness of the elastomer is selected relative to the dimensions of the skirt portion so the skirt portion is unlikely to damage the brain tissue. Generally, it will be sufficiently rigid to tend to return to its original shape, but not so unyielding as to bruise or to cut the tissue. The dacron mesh reinforcement resists tearing of the sheath and provides the surface irregularity already mentioned.
In addition to elastomers, other sterilizable materials may also be used which are non-adherent to brain tissue, and flexible in the dimensions used, and will not bruise or cut the tissue. Other suitable materials are the fluorinated hydrocarbons known as teflon, mylar and Kel-F, and polyethylene. Therefore, the material may advantageously be one selected from the group consisting of silicone elastomer, polyethylene, mylar, teflon and Kel-F.
FIG. 3 shows an attachment rod 45 attached to the metal plate 46 of retractor 47, and projecting beyond its sheath 48. This rod is attached to the plate by weld 49. In use, it can be attached to a mounting means to hold the retractor in place. The retractor of FIG. 1 is intended to be hand-held, and the retractor of FIG. 3 is intended to be held by an implement. The invention is suited for use in both ways. The retractor of FIG. 3 is identical to that of FIG. 1, except for the attachment rod. Part of one of the sheets has been removed in FIG. 3 to illustrate the attachment of the rod to the plate. It is, of course, provided in the complete device.
In use, the padded retractor is wetted and used with a thin strip of material which will not adhere to brain tissue, such as silicone elastomer. A wetted strip of this material is placed as far forward as possible toward the area to be exposed, and the retractor of the invention is then used to elevate the brain, after which tension may be released and the retractor slid forwardly, using the strip as a fulcrum. When the desired dissection has been completed, a retractor provided with means such as shown in FIG. 3 may be substituted for the hand-held retractor to hold it in place during the remainder of the operation.
Of major importance to this invention is the fact that the material of the sheath does not include fibrous portions which can adhere to and abrade tissue of the brain, nor will it adhere to or be grabbed by a rotating driill tip. It is readily sterilizable. The flexible skirt portion enables the retractor readily to be moved into restricted areas, and to bend to avoid bruising the brain tissue. The metal blade provides adequate support for the sheath.
The size of the metal blade is variable. In an example such as FIG. 3, a blade /2 inch wide by 2% inches long is suitable, while in a device according to FIG. 2, one as long as 7 inches and approximately /8 inch wide may be utilized. The material may be soft malleable iron, or any other suitably deformable metal.
This invention is not to be limited by the embodiments shown in the drawings and described in the description, which are given by way of example and not of limitation, but only in accordance with the scope of the appended claims.
1. A retractor for tissue comprising: a deformable metal blade having a pair of opposite faces and a peripheral edge bounding and interconnecting said faces; and a sheath enveloping at least a part of said blade, said sheath comprising a cover portion covering at least said part of both faces of said blade and having an exposed bearing face for bearing against brain tissue, and a skirt portion extending from said cover portion and projecting to a free edge beyond said peripheral edge, said portions comprising a material which is nonadherent to brain tissue the skirt being thinner adjacent to its free edge than it is adjacent to the peripheral edge of the blade and being sufficiently flexible as to bend upon contact with soft tissue such as brain tissue without cutting, tearing, or bruising said tissue.
2. A retractor according to claim 1 in which the bearing face is irregular in surface contour.
3. A retractor according to claim 1 in which the material is one selected from the group consisting of silicone elastomer, polyethylene, mylar, teflon and Kel-F.
4. A retractor according to claim 1 in which the material is silicone elastomer.
5. A retractor according to claim 4 in which the cover portion includes a mesh reinforcement which is contained within said silicone elastomer.
6. A retractor according to claim 5 in which the mesh is dacron.
7. A retractor according to claim 1 in which the sheath comprises a pair of sheets of silicone elastomer, each overlaying a said part of a respective face, and including an extension that projects beyond said peripheral edge, said extensions being joined together to form said skirt portion.
8. A retractor according to claim 7 in which the extension of one layer projects farther beyond the peripheral edge than the extension of the other layer, whereby the skirt is thicker adjacent to the peripheral edge than at the free edge of the skirt.
9. A retractor according to claim 8 in which the bearing face is irregular in surface contour.
10. A retractor according to claim 7 in which the cover portion includes a mesh reinforcement which is contained within said silicone elastomer.
11. A retractor according to claim 10 in which the mesh reinforcement extends into the skirt portion.
12. A retractor according to claim 11 in which the bearing face is irregular in surface contour.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1944009 *||Jun 14, 1932||Jan 16, 1934||Ralph W Homer||Intra-abdominal retractor|
|US3288131 *||Jan 10, 1964||Nov 29, 1966||Garland Edgar A||Surgical retractor|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4226228 *||Nov 2, 1978||Oct 7, 1980||Shin Hee J||Multiple joint retractor with light|
|US4263900 *||Apr 20, 1979||Apr 28, 1981||Codman And Shurtleff, Inc.||Pressure-responsive surgical tool assembly|
|US4340060 *||Jun 16, 1980||Jul 20, 1982||Joseph J. Berke||Flexible craniotome footplate|
|US4421107 *||Oct 15, 1980||Dec 20, 1983||Estes Roger Q||Surgical retractor elements and assembly|
|US5651762 *||Mar 16, 1995||Jul 29, 1997||Bridges; Doye R.||Apparatus for holding intestines out of an operative field|
|US5709646 *||May 15, 1996||Jan 20, 1998||Lange; Nancy Erin||Surgical retractor covers|
|US5795290 *||Dec 11, 1996||Aug 18, 1998||Bioplexus Corporation||Apparatus for holding intestines out of an operative field|
|US5891018 *||Sep 19, 1997||Apr 6, 1999||Genzyme Corporation||Ball joint retractor|
|US5904650 *||Oct 9, 1998||May 18, 1999||Genzyme Corporation||Ball joint retractor|
|US5976078 *||Aug 17, 1998||Nov 2, 1999||Bioenterics Corporation||Apparatus and method for holding intestines out of an operative field|
|US6063025 *||Jun 4, 1999||May 16, 2000||Bioenterics Corporation||Apparatus for holding intestines out of an operative field|
|US6071235 *||Jul 24, 1997||Jun 6, 2000||Genzyme Corporation||Coronary stabilizing retractor with occluding means|
|US6090043 *||May 17, 1999||Jul 18, 2000||Applied Medical Technology, Inc.||Tissue retractor retention band|
|US6093145 *||Aug 4, 1999||Jul 25, 2000||Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg||Brain spatula|
|US6152874 *||Sep 25, 1997||Nov 28, 2000||Genzyme Corporation||Adjustable multi-purpose coronary stabilizing retractor|
|US6199556||May 1, 1998||Mar 13, 2001||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Xyphoid access for cardiac surgical procedures|
|US6231506||May 4, 1999||May 15, 2001||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Method and apparatus for creating a working opening through an incision|
|US6254535||Jan 31, 1997||Jul 3, 2001||Genzyme Corporation||Ball and socket coronary stabilizer|
|US6283912 *||May 4, 1999||Sep 4, 2001||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Surgical retractor platform blade apparatus|
|US6315717||Apr 17, 2000||Nov 13, 2001||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Surgical instruments for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery|
|US6331158||May 4, 1999||Dec 18, 2001||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Surgical retractor apparatus for operating on the heart through an incision|
|US6348036||Jul 1, 1999||Feb 19, 2002||Genzyme Corporation||Surgical retractor and tissue stabilization device|
|US6394951||Mar 13, 2000||May 28, 2002||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery|
|US6406424||Sep 16, 1999||Jun 18, 2002||Williamson, Iv Warren P.||Tissue stabilizer having an articulating lift element|
|US6428472||Aug 8, 2000||Aug 6, 2002||Kent Haas||Surgical retractor having a malleable support|
|US6511416||Aug 3, 1999||Jan 28, 2003||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Tissue stabilizer and methods of use|
|US6626830||Dec 1, 1999||Sep 30, 2003||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Methods and devices for improved tissue stabilization|
|US6652454||Jan 10, 2001||Nov 25, 2003||Lawrence W. Hu||Method and apparatus for creating a working opening through an incision|
|US6656113||May 25, 2001||Dec 2, 2003||Cardiothoracic System, Inc.||Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing a localized portion of a beating heart|
|US6673013||Apr 9, 2001||Jan 6, 2004||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery|
|US6685632||May 4, 2000||Feb 3, 2004||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Surgical instruments for accessing and stabilizing a localized portion of a beating heart|
|US6701930||Nov 6, 2001||Mar 9, 2004||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery|
|US6705988||Dec 28, 2001||Mar 16, 2004||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US6719766||Aug 24, 2000||Apr 13, 2004||Novare Surgical Systems, Inc.||Surgical clamp pads having surface overlay|
|US6730022||Mar 26, 2002||May 4, 2004||Thomas E. Martin||Surgical retractor and tissue stabilization device having an adjustable sled member|
|US6733442||Oct 21, 2002||May 11, 2004||Seacoast Technologies, Inc.||Accessory for surgical instrument|
|US6736774||Jan 8, 2001||May 18, 2004||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Xyphoid access for cardiac surgical procedures|
|US6740029||Sep 5, 2002||May 25, 2004||Chase Medical, L.P.||Device and method for isolating a surface of a beating heart during surgery|
|US6743169||Oct 10, 2001||Jun 1, 2004||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.|
|US6743170||Sep 18, 2001||Jun 1, 2004||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US6758808||Jan 24, 2001||Jul 6, 2004||Cardiothoracic System, Inc.||Surgical instruments for stabilizing a localized portion of a beating heart|
|US6849044 *||Jan 15, 2002||Feb 1, 2005||Larry Voss||Organ stabilizer and method|
|US6852075||Nov 15, 1999||Feb 8, 2005||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize cardiac tissue during surgery|
|US6893391||Dec 14, 2001||May 17, 2005||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize cardiac tissue during surgery|
|US6969349||Mar 31, 2003||Nov 29, 2005||Origin Medsystem, Inc.||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US7056287||Mar 14, 2002||Jun 6, 2006||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.|
|US7153279||Dec 21, 2004||Dec 26, 2006||George Washington University||Brain retraction sensor|
|US7179224||Dec 30, 2003||Feb 20, 2007||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Organ manipulator and positioner and methods of using the same|
|US7195591||Feb 23, 2005||Mar 27, 2007||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US7219671||Jan 7, 2003||May 22, 2007||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Method for coronary artery bypass|
|US7220228||Jul 6, 2001||May 22, 2007||Cardiothoracic System, Inc.||Surgical retractor blade and system|
|US7238155||Sep 23, 2003||Jul 3, 2007||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Method and apparatus for creating a working opening through an incision|
|US7326177||Apr 30, 2002||Feb 5, 2008||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Tissue stabilizer having an articulating lift element|
|US7335158||Aug 8, 2002||Feb 26, 2008||Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.||Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize the cardiac tissue during surgery|
|US7377895||Oct 31, 2003||May 27, 2008||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US7404792||Dec 24, 2003||Jul 29, 2008||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US7476196||Jun 8, 2004||Jan 13, 2009||Maquet Cardiovascular, Llc||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US7476199||Mar 24, 2003||Jan 13, 2009||Maquet Cardiovascular, Llc.||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US7479104||Jul 8, 2003||Jan 20, 2009||Maquet Cardiovascular, Llc||Organ manipulator apparatus|
|US7485090||Sep 21, 2004||Feb 3, 2009||Maquet Cardiovascular Llc||Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize cardiac tissue during surgery|
|US7497824||Sep 16, 2004||Mar 3, 2009||Maquet Cardiovasculer, Llc||Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize cardiac tissue during surgery|
|US7503891||Oct 15, 2002||Mar 17, 2009||Maquet Cardiovascular, Llc||Tissue stabilizer and methods of use|
|US7585277||Feb 1, 2006||Sep 8, 2009||Maquet Cardiovascular Llc|
|US7736307||Dec 12, 2003||Jun 15, 2010||Maquet Cardiovascular Llc||Surgical instruments for accessing and stabilizing a localized portion of a beating heart|
|US7931590||Oct 29, 2002||Apr 26, 2011||Maquet Cardiovascular Llc||Tissue stabilizer and methods of using the same|
|US8083664||May 25, 2005||Dec 27, 2011||Maquet Cardiovascular Llc||Surgical stabilizers and methods for use in reduced-access surgical sites|
|US8162817||Dec 10, 2008||Apr 24, 2012||Maquet Cardiovascular Llc||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US8277476||Oct 14, 2003||Oct 2, 2012||Maguet Cardiovascular LLC||Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft|
|US8308638||May 18, 2009||Nov 13, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Internal tissue retractor|
|US8313430||Jan 11, 2007||Nov 20, 2012||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8317695||Dec 16, 2008||Nov 27, 2012||Maquet Cardiovascular Llc||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US8360970||Jun 22, 2006||Jan 29, 2013||Vycor Medical, Inc.||Surgical access instruments for use with spinal or orthopedic surgery|
|US8382654||Mar 23, 2011||Feb 26, 2013||Maquet Cardiovascular Llc||Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize the cardiac tissue during surgery|
|US8409083||Aug 21, 2009||Apr 2, 2013||Vycor Medical, Inc.||Surgical access methods for use with delicate tissues|
|US8469883||Jul 21, 2010||Jun 25, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access device comprising internal retractor|
|US8608650||Aug 21, 2009||Dec 17, 2013||Vycor Medical, Llc||Surgical access instruments for use with delicate tissues|
|US8641598||Dec 18, 2008||Feb 4, 2014||Maquet Cardiovascular Llc||Organ manipulator apparatus|
|US8641609 *||Oct 23, 2007||Feb 4, 2014||Zimmer Spine, Inc.||Surgical access system and method of using the same|
|US8753266||Feb 7, 2007||Jun 17, 2014||Maquet Cardiovascular Llc||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US8827900||Nov 20, 2012||Sep 9, 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8852091 *||Apr 4, 2012||Oct 7, 2014||Alcon Research, Ltd.||Devices, systems, and methods for pupil expansion|
|US9022998||Feb 26, 2010||May 5, 2015||Maquet Cardiovascular Llc||Blower instrument, apparatus and methods of using|
|US9131938||Feb 7, 2013||Sep 15, 2015||Nobles Medical Technologies, Inc.||Suturing devices and methods for closing a patent foramen ovale|
|US20020004628 *||Jul 6, 2001||Jan 10, 2002||Hu Lawrence W.||Surgical retractor platform blade apparatus|
|US20020065451 *||Dec 28, 2001||May 30, 2002||Spence Paul A.||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US20040087834 *||Oct 29, 2003||May 6, 2004||Benetti Federico J.|
|US20040092798 *||Oct 31, 2003||May 13, 2004||Spence Paul A.||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US20040092799 *||Sep 23, 2003||May 13, 2004||Hu Lawrence W.||Method and apparatus for creating a working opening through an incision|
|US20040138533 *||Dec 24, 2003||Jul 15, 2004||Spence Paul A.||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US20040143166 *||Jan 9, 2004||Jul 22, 2004||Seacoast Technologies, Inc.||Accessory for surgical instrument|
|US20040143168 *||Dec 12, 2003||Jul 22, 2004||Hu Lawrence W.||Surgical instruments for accessing and stabilizing a localized portion of a beating heart|
|US20040167552 *||Feb 19, 2004||Aug 26, 2004||Novare Surgical Systems, Inc.||Surgical clamp pads having surface overlay|
|US20040225195 *||Jun 8, 2004||Nov 11, 2004||Spence Paul A.||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US20040230099 *||Oct 14, 2003||Nov 18, 2004||Taylor Charles S.|
|US20050010197 *||Jul 8, 2003||Jan 13, 2005||Liming Lau||Organ manipulator apparatus|
|US20050038316 *||Sep 21, 2004||Feb 17, 2005||Taylor Charles S.||Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize cardiac tissue during surgery|
|US20050148822 *||Dec 30, 2003||Jul 7, 2005||Willis Geoffrey H.||Organ manipulator and positioner and methods of using the same|
|US20050148824 *||Dec 30, 2003||Jul 7, 2005||Morejohn Dwight P.||Transabdominal surgery system|
|US20050148825 *||Feb 23, 2005||Jul 7, 2005||Spence Paul A.||Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery|
|US20050192605 *||Feb 6, 2004||Sep 1, 2005||Hart Charles C.||Surgical instruments with improved traction|
|US20050228315 *||Dec 21, 2004||Oct 13, 2005||George Washington University||Brain retraction sensor|
|US20060052669 *||Jan 20, 2004||Mar 9, 2006||Hart Charles C||Internal tissue retractor|
|US20060287583 *||Jun 17, 2005||Dec 21, 2006||Pool Cover Corporation||Surgical access instruments for use with delicate tissues|
|US20070055108 *||Feb 1, 2006||Mar 8, 2007||Taylor Charles S|
|US20090105546 *||Oct 23, 2007||Apr 23, 2009||Zimmer Spine, Inc.||Surgical access system and method of using the same|
|US20130267988 *||Apr 4, 2012||Oct 10, 2013||Glenn R. Sussman||Devices, Systems, and Methods For Pupil Expansion|
|US20140046137 *||Aug 8, 2012||Feb 13, 2014||Ronda Duke Brown||Retractor Cover Apparatus and Associated Methods|
|DE19704997A1 *||Feb 10, 1997||Aug 27, 1998||Aesculap Ag & Co Kg||Hirnspatel|
|DE19704997C2 *||Feb 10, 1997||Jan 28, 1999||Aesculap Ag & Co Kg||Hirnspatel|
|DE102011117413A1||Nov 2, 2011||May 2, 2013||Aesculap Ag||Atraumatische Sternumsplatte|
|EP0018209A2 *||Apr 17, 1980||Oct 29, 1980||CODMAN & SHURTLEFF, INC.||Pressure-responsive surgical tool assembly|
|EP1011462A1 *||Feb 3, 1998||Jun 28, 2000||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical instruments with improved traction|
|EP1547528A1 *||Feb 3, 1998||Jun 29, 2005||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical instruments with improved traction|
|EP1787599A1 *||Nov 18, 2005||May 23, 2007||BVBA Este||Cover for wrapping a surgical instrument|
|WO1997040738A1 *||Apr 25, 1997||Nov 6, 1997||Genzyme Corp||Coronary stabilizing retractor|
|WO1998034544A1 *||Jan 31, 1998||Aug 13, 1998||Aesculap Ag & Co Kg||Brain spatula|
|WO2000078234A1 *||Jun 8, 2000||Dec 28, 2000||Novare Surgical Systems Inc||Surgical clamp pads with elastomer impregnated mesh|
|WO2004037092A1||Jul 21, 2003||May 6, 2004||Larnard Donald J||Accessory for surgical instrument|
|WO2013064354A1||Oct 12, 2012||May 10, 2013||Aesculap Ag||Atraumatic sternal plate|
|U.S. Classification||600/206, 600/203, 600/210|
|International Classification||A61L31/12, A61L31/06, A61L31/04, A61B17/02|
|Cooperative Classification||A61L31/048, A61L31/125, A61B17/02, A61L31/06|
|European Classification||A61L31/04H, A61B17/02, A61L31/12D, A61L31/06|