US 3885298 A
At least two methods of swaging one vertical smaller tubular member internally of a larger tubular member are disclosed. One device for practicing the method comprises a cylindrical swage block for loosely fitting in the large tubular member and resting on the upper edge of the inner smaller tubular member. A plurality (preferably six) pistons and cylinders are suspended from the swage block a precise distance below the upper edge and actuatable radially from the longitudinal axis of the smaller tubular member for deforming the upper edge portion thereof against the larger tubular member for providing more working space internally of the tubular members. A modification comprises a plurality as seven axially spaced apart, parallel layers of swaging pistons and cylinders suspended from the swage block.
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1191 Pogonowski 1 1 METHOD OF SEALING TWO TELESCOPIC PIPES TOGETHER  Inventor: Ivo C. Pogonowski, Houston, Tex.
 Assignee: Texaco lnc., New York, NY
 Filed: Sept. 28, 1973  Appl. No.: 401,742
Related U.S. Application Data  Division of Ser. No. 247,584, April 26, 1972, Pat
Primary ExaminerCharlie T. Moon Attorney, Agent, or FirmT. H. Whaley', C, G. Ries; Theron H. Nichols 1 May 27, 1975 1 1 ABSTRACT At least two methods ofswaging one vertical smaller tubular member internally of a larger tubular member are disclosed. One device for practicing the method comprises a cylindrical swage block for loosely fitting in the large tubular member and resting on the upper edge of the inner smaller tubular member. A plurality (preferably six) pistons and cylinders are suspended from the swage block a precise distance below the upper edge and actuatable radially from the longitudinal axis of the smaller tubular member for deforming the upper edge portion thereof against the larger tubular member for providing more working space internally of the tubular members. A modification comprises a plurality as seven axially spaced apart, parallel layers of swaging pistons and cylinders suspended from the swage block,
Other new devices utilizing the multiple piston and cylinder swage are a mechanisms for cold-work connecting two telescopic pipe ends together, and a mechanism for making a new pile with anchor knobs for increased load carrying capacity and pullout resistance.
4 Claims, 13 Drawing Figures PATENYEU EH2 71575 SHEEF UlUF 6 PATENTEU W2 '1' I975 SHEET CQUF 6 PATENTEB iiAYZT I975 SHEETEEOF b, 1 Q g 5 & g 3 Q Q; g T Q METHOD OF SEALING TWO TELESCOPIC PIPES TOGETHER This is a division. of application Ser. No. 247.584. filed Apr. 26. i972. now US. Pat. No. 3.795.035.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION In the swage joining of two oil well casings by hydraulic expanding devices. a permanent deformation often results in two overlapping casings. depending on the type ofjoint formed. Where six hydraulic swaging rams are utilized in joining a smaller upper end of one casing to a larger bottom end of an upper casing. as by dim pling as illustrated in my US. Pat. No. 3.555.831, the free upper edge of the smaller inner casing end often distorts into a hexagonal shape with six straight sides spaced from the wall of the larger upper casing. These straight sides accordingly leave less working space in the casings for drill bits. drill stems. etc.. for example.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION Accordingly. it is a primary object of this invention to provide at least one method for eliminating protuberances internally of tubular joints for producing more operating space therein.
Another primary object of this invention is to provide at least two embodiments for carrying out or practicing the disclosed method.
Another object of this invention is to provide a device for swaging or deforming one tubular member inside of another which is easy to operate, is of simple configuration, is economical to build and assemble, and is of greater efficiency for providing more working space internally of the tubular members.
Another object of this invention is to provide a method for joining two horizontal telescopic pipe ends together.
A further object of this invention is to provide a swaging mechanism for carrying out the method of joining two horizontal pipes together.
A still further object of this invention is to provide an insert for water immersed pipes for preventing cracking thereof.
Another object of this invention is to provide a method and mechanism for increasing the load capacity and pull-out resistance of piling driven in the ground.
Other objects and various advantages of the disclosed method and devices for swaging one tubular member inside another tubular member will be apparent from the following detailed description, together with accompanying drawings, submitted for purposes of illustration only and not intended to define the scope of the invention, reference being had for that purpose to the subjoined claims.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The drawings diagrammatically illustrate by way of exam ple, not by way of limitation, two forms or mechanisms for carrying out the method of the invention wherein like reference numerals have been employed to indicate similar parts in the several views in which:
FIG. I is a schematic plan view of one embodiment of the new tubular swaging device;
FIG. 2 is a section of 22 on FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a section at 3-3 on FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a schematic section at 4-4 on FIG. I;
FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view of another modification of the embodiment of FIG. 1;
FIG. 6 is a schematic sectional view of another modified swaging device for joining two tubes together illustrating the deforming tips in retracted position;
FIG. 7 is a section at 77 on FIG. 6;
FIG. 8 is a section of the truck and swage of FIG. 6 with the deforming tips illustrated in extended position for swaging the two tubes together;
FIG. 8a is a detailed sectional view ofthe depressions of FIG. 8;
FIG. 9 is a schematic sectional view of a composite steel-concrete pile immersed in freezing water with an insert therein;
FIG. [0 is a section at 10-10 on FIG. 9;
FIG. 11 is a section at l]-II on FIG. l0; and
FIG. 12 is a graph illustrating the increased load carrying capacity and pull-out resistance added to the pile by the anchor knobs.
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The invention disclosed herein. the scope of which being defined in the appended claims. is not limited in its application to the details of construction and arrangement of parts shown and described for carrying out the disclosed method. since the invention is capable of other embodiments for carrying out other methods and of being practiced out in various other ways. Also, it is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and not oflimitation. Further. many modifications and variations of the invention as hereinbefore set forth will occur to those skilled in the art. Therefore, all such modifications and variations which are within the spirit and scope of the invention herein are included and only such limitations should be imposed as are indicated in the appended claims.
DESCRIPTION OF THE METHODS This invention comprises a few methods for eliminating the shelf formed on the inner surface of a well casing larger end by a non-round upper end portion of a well casing smaller end secured therein comprising the steps of,
I. swaging the non-round portions of the upper edge of the inner well casing outwardly firmly against the larger well casing inner surface. and
2. simultaneously swaging the non-round portions spaced below the upper edge of the smaller well casing firmly against the larger well casing inner surface.
A second method comprises.
1. positioning a plurality of pistons and cylinders in a horizontal plane and a precise distance below the upper edge of the smaller well casing. and
2. deforming the upper edge of the well casing smaller end firmly against the well casing larger end surface by simultaneous actuation of at least two pistons and cylinders l directly opposite from each other for providing more operating room internally of the well casings.
Another method for deforming a smaller end of a 5 first pipe internally of a larger end of a second pipe gitudinal axis of the first pipe at a precise distance from the first pipe smaller end, and
2. deforming the first pipe smaller end against the second pipe larger end by actuation of all pistons and cylinders outwardly in a radial direction opposite from each other for providing more operating room internally of the pipes.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DEFORMING DEVICES Two embodiments are disclosed in FIGS. 1 4 and FIG. 5, respectively, for practicing or carrying out the above methods of the invention.
FIG. 1, a plan view of a swage 10, illustrates hydraulic oil lines for supplying pressure fluid to swaging actuators disclosed hereinafter.
FIG. 2, a schematic sectional view taken at 2-2 on FIG. 1 of one of the swaging devices for carrying out at least one of the methods of the invention comprises a cylindrical swage block 11 supporting a deforming means 12, such as a plurality of pistons and cylinders, pistons 12a, 12d and their respective cylinders 13a, 13d being illustrated in this figure.
As illustrated in FIG. 2, the cylindrical swage block 11 is small enough to loosely fit internally of the enlarged lower end of a tube, as a well casing 14, and large enough to rest on the upper deformed edge a of the upper end of a second well casing 15. While the latter casing is secured to the upper well casing 14 a little below the illustrated section of FIG. 2, the upper deformed edge 15a has straight portions which extend inwardly from the inner wall or are spaced from the inner wall of the casing 14 to accordingly form a shelf on which all items being lowered in the well tend to hang up on.
FIG. 3, a sectional view at 3-3 on FIG. 2, with parts in section illustrates a swage comprising six pistons and cylinders for swedging or defoming into the cylindrical casing wall 14, FIG. 2, any section of the cylindrical casing wall 15 spaced from the wall of casing 14, as straight sections particularly. In FIG. 3, cylinders 13b to 13f are illustrated with their pistons 12b to 12f removed for clarity of disclosure, as well as cylinders 13a and 13d on FIG. 2. These straight sections occur when an inner casing or tube is attached to an outer casing or tube by riveting or swaging as by the forming of dimples through the walls of both tubes, as shown in my above-mentioned U.S. Pat. No. 3,555,83l. When an inner tube or casing is thus secured, the result is sometimes inward flaring or warping of the upper free edge of the inner casing. Thus when equally spaced dimples are utilized, the upper edge 15a of casing 15 forms a rough hexagon in plan view and accordingly six pistons and cylinders are required to reshape the hexagon back into its original cylindrical shape. If eight dimples are utilized as illustrated in inventorss above identified patent, to secure an inner casing upper end to an outer casing lower end, then an octagon shaped free upper edge is formed immediately above the dimples on the inner casing upper end.
FIG. 4, a sectional view at 4-4 on FIG. 1, illustrates more details of the supply and return hydraulic ducts for the pistons and cylinders shown in FIG. 3. Piston and cylinder, 12a, 13a, respectively, are typical. Actuating fluid under high pressure from a high pressure source (not shown) on top of the cylinder block 11, FIGS. 1 and 4, is supplied through passages 16 and 17 to a central reservoir 18. The high pressure fluid from central reservoir I8 passes to cylinder 13a, FIG. 3, for example. and behind piston 12a through duct a of FIG. 2 and also directly to the inner end I9, FIG. 3, of piston rod 20 for actuating piston 12a radially outwardly.
Piston 12a, FIG. 3, has a case-hardened deforming or coldworking tip 21 secured thereto with screws 22 for swaging or deforming inner casing IS, FIG. 2, against casing 14. End 19, FIG. 3, of the piston rod 20 is enlarged to form a return stroke piston. The return stroke of piston 12a is accomplished by depressurizing conduits l6 and 17, FIG. 4, and pressurizing conduits 23, 24a, and 25a leading to conduit 26, FIG. 3, and to small cylinder 17 to actuate return stroke piston 19 radially inwardly to the position illustrated. Three vertical ducts 25a, 25b, and 256 are utilized, each duct supplying piston-return-movement-pressure fluid for a pair of pistons. With inward return movement of piston I9, re verse flow occurs in reservoir 18, FIG. 4, and conduits l7 and 16. Pistons 12b 12f, FIG. 3, are actuated similarly and simultaneously with piston 12a in their respective cylinders to deform the casing edge 150, FIG. 2, against outer casing 14.
MODIFICATION I FIG. 5 illustrates schematically, in a vertical section, another embodiment for practicing the aforementioned method of the invention. This swage comprises a swage block 11a supporting seven rows of pistons 28 34, each row being similar to the row of the first modification of FIG. 3, with six equally spaced pistons in each row operable in their respective seven rows of cylinders 28 41. Similarly, reservoir 18a supplies high pressure fluid to the pistons through their respective ducts 70 for actuating all pistons for deforming inner casing 15 against outer casing l4.'Likewise, this swage includes return stroke pistons and their accompanying pressure conduits similar to those of the first embodiment for retracting the pistons within the swage after the swaging or deforming operation.
The swage of each of the above disclosed embodiments have either a self-contained unit mounted thereon including a pump and reservoir of hydraulic fluid with control cables running up the swage support wire, or they have long pressure hoses extending up the swage support wire to the pumps and reservoirs.
MODIFICATION II A method is disclosed for sealing together two telescopic pipe ends comprising the steps of,
l. positioning a sheet of elastic material or cementing the material which requires an undisturbed curing period, i.e., 2 hours, between the two telescopic pipe ends,
2. deforming a circular first row of dimples through both pipes in a plane normal to the pipe longitudinal axis, and
3. deforming a plurality of rows of dimples simulta neously and parallel to the first row of dimples for forming an efficient, quick, and high strength pipe joint.
FIGS. 6, 7, and 8 disclose a swage cold working pipe connector for practicing one of the methods described above for permanently connecting or sealing two telescopic horizontal pipes together, as for cargo pipe lines, particularly, in addition to air cargo lines (air in the pipe being the vehicle), oil lines. gas lines, and water lines.
FIG. 6 is a schematic view, with parts in section, of a swaging mechanism b for joining together two horizontal external and internal pipe ends, 14!) and b, respectively. Here, the truck 50 supporting the swage 10b centrally of the pipes is rolled internally of the pipes by expanding of telescopic arm 51 from a hydraulic actua tor as tractor 52 having hydraulic fluid hose 53.
FIG. 7, a sectional view at 77 on FIG. 6, illustrates centering wheels 55a, 55b, and 550 for supporting truck 50 for longitudinal movement internally of the pipes.
FIG. 8, a sectional view at 8-8 on FIG. 7, illustrates the case-hardened tips 21b of the pistons (not shown) of the swage 10b being extended for deforming and dimpling the pipe ends 140 and 15b. The actuating mechanism comprising the pistons for operating in cylinders of this modified swage 10b are very similar to those illustrated in FIG. 3 of swage 10. All dimples or deformations are swaged beyond the yield point to prevent springback.
FIG. 8A illustrates the flow of the elastic material between the two telescopic pipes in the area of the dimples through the walls of the two pipes.
FIG. 6 illustrates the sealing swage 10b for sealing the two horizontal (or vertical like well casing) pipes together comprising a swage block 11b having five parallel rows of six pistons and cylinders each for forming five rows of dimples or depressions in the two joining ends of the horizontal cargo pipes. While the outer and inner pipes, 14b and 15b, respectively, are shown as alternating slightly smaller and larger diameter pipes, they may all be formed alike with one enlarged end each to slide over the smaller end, if so required and desired for providing constant inside diameter for laminar flow. An annular lining 54 of rubber-like material, such as but not limited to silicon rubber having a working temperature resistance range of l 30F. to +500F. circumscribes the inner end 15b prior to swaging or cold working in the dimples.
This swage 10b is used to form rows of continuous dimples almost touching each other. To accomplish this extraordinary seal, the swage is actuated by first moving outwardly all pistons from their respective hydraulic cylinders to form with their casehardened tips parallel rows of six evenly spaced deep dimples 60 apart around the internal peripheral pipe surface. The pistons are retracted, the telescopic rod 51 and when using a sleeve gasket or lining 54, the swedge 10b are rotated 12 degrees about the longitudinal axis of the rod, and the pistons are actuated outwardly again to form a second set of dimples adjacent to the first. This process is repeated by the swage four times after the initial actuation to provide another set of six dimples spaced radially by 12". This radial spacing may be de creased to 6 with nine additional actuations by the swage, the greater the pipe diameter, the greater the number of swage operations is preferred.
Quick field connections may be made on an oil or gas line with the above swage deformations for providing a very good fluid-tight seal or joint without time taking, slow, expensive welding.
Use of the insulating fluid-tight gasket 54 provides a pipe line cathodic corrosive protection system. This cold working process generates less tendency and susceptibility of the pile to galvantic corrosion than does the welding process, as the latter process results in uninterrupted electrical conductivity throughout the length of the pipe line, thereby enhancing the corrosion damage and increasing the cost of preventative measures. Accordingly a more economical and faster pipe connection results, particularly in areas inaccessible to welding.
Particularly, this cold-working pipe connection provides quick field assembly in a hostile environment. Further, a constant internal diameter pipeline may be constructed without field welding using prefabrication, prepositioned seal, and cold working by the hydraulic swage.
MODIFICATION III FIG. 9, a schematic sectional view of a water immersed composite concrete and steel pile 60 with the new insert 61 protruding therein deeper than the freezing depth of the water around and inside the pile for preventing cracking due to the water freezing internally of the pile. Insert 61 is a long flexible, soft, and resilient element. It is formed of a soft plastic material as silicon foam rubber. for example. While the cylindrical shape filled with air is preferred, it may also comprise instead, a multiplicity of interconnected spheres, if so desired and required.
Insert 61 is weighted at the bottom with a suitable inert weight 62, such as but not limited to the resistant mineral barite, it also may be concrete. Thus the insert would be squeezed and contracted as the water freezes internally of the pile and cracking thereof is obviated for the full length of formation of the resultant ice block in the pile.
MODIFICATION IV A new method for increasing the load carrying capacity and pull out resistance of a hollow pile comprises the steps of,
1. driving a pile having a malleable steel lower end portion into the ground to the desired and required depth, and
2. forming protrusions or anchor bumps outwardly on the pile external surface.
A method step intermediate the above steps l) and (2) may include:
la. evacuating any earth inside the pile.
Also, in greater detail, the second step may comprise swaging recesses outwardly from internally of the pile to form the anchor bumps on the pile external surface.
FIGS. 10 and 11 disclose at least one new pile for carrying out or practicing the above method. This pile 60, which has greatly increased load capacity and pull-out resistance, is disclosed in FIG. 10, a section at 10l0 on FIG. 9 and in FIG. I], a section at llll of FIG. 10.
This composite pile 60 comprises a 54 inch outside diameter concrete pipe portion 63 joined to a 3 foot outside diameter metal pipe portion 64, the latter pipe portion having metal gussets 65 joined to the former pipe portion with grout 66.
The lower end of the metal pipe portion 64 has deformations or anchor bumps 67 formed therein by a swage like 10b, FIGS. 6-8, to protrude outwardly a distance of at least the thickness of the pile wall after the pile is driven in the marsh, tundra, lake, or ocean bottom, for example.
These anchor bumps 67 greatly increase the load carrying capacity and pull-out resistance of the pile (it) as evidenced by the graph of PK}. 12 from inventors re port Test of Skin Friction With and Without Swaging Comparison of Smooth Pipe vs. Anchor Pattern by Hydraulic Swage." Here the test specimen had a 7 inch ll). 7% inch OD, and 9 inch length imbedded to a depth of 7 inches in a container of lead having an I 1 inch ll), llVz inch OD. and a ll) inch height.
Accordingly, from FlG, 12, with a total force required to pull out the smooth test pile being less than 30,000 pounds and a total force required to pull out the test pile with 36 indentations being greater than loU OUtl pounds. the increase in pull-out resistance was over five times greater with the disclosed anchor bumps.
Thus an efficient. high strength, elongated pile is disclosed having increased load carrying capacity and pull-out resistance which is especially critical in sandy soils.
Accordingly, it will be seen that the disclosed methods and swages for practicing the methods for produc ing more working space internally of two interconnected tubes for connecting two telescopic pipes together, and for increasing the load carrying capability and pull-out resistance of piles operate in a manner which meets each of the objects set forth hcreinbefore by the use of various combinations of the disclosed multiple piston and cylinder swage.
While a few methods of the invention and two swages for carrying out the methods have been disclosed, it will be evident that various other methods and modifications are possible in the arrangement and construction of the disclosed methods and swages without departing from the scope of the invention and it is accordingly desired to comprehend within the purview of this invention such modifications as may be considered to fall within the scope of the appended claims.
l. A method for sealing together two telescopic pipes comprising the steps of 8 a. rolling a swaging mechanism centrally along the inside of the pipes to adjacent an end of one of the pipes, b. deforming a circular first row of dimples through both pipes in a plane normal to the pipe longitudinal axis in a direction radially outwardly of the pipes and c. deforming a plurality of rows of dimples through both pipes simultaneously and parallel to the first row of dimples in a direction radially outwardly of the pipes for quickly forming an efficient high strength joint between the two pipes.
2. A method as recited in claim I wherein the first step comprises,
positioning a sheet of elastic material between the telescopic pipes.
3. A method as recited in claim deforming step includes,
av deforming five rows of dimples through both pipes simultaneously and parallel to the first row of dimples in a direction radially outwardly of the pipes for quickly forming an efficient, high strength joint between the two pipes.
4. A method for sealing together two telescopic pipes comprising the steps of,
a. rolling a swaging mechanism centrally along the inside of the pipes to adjacent an end of one of the pipes.
b. positioning a sheet of elastic material between the telescopic pipes,
c. deforming a circular first row of dimples through both pipes and the sheet of material in a plane normal to the pipe longitudinal axis in a direction radi ally outwardly of the pipes, and
1 wherein the second d. deforming five rows of dimples through both pipes and the sheet of elastic material simultaneously and parallel to the first row of dimples in a direction ra dially outwardly of the pipes for quickly forming an 4 efficient, high strength joint between the two pipes.