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Publication numberUS3885380 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 27, 1975
Filing dateAug 15, 1973
Priority dateAug 15, 1973
Also published asCA1027339A1
Publication numberUS 3885380 A, US 3885380A, US-A-3885380, US3885380 A, US3885380A
InventorsHacker Joseph Michael
Original AssigneeWestern Electric Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Manufacturing filled cable
US 3885380 A
Abstract
A filled telephone service cable which runs from a distribution cable to a subscribers' premises or to a pay station is another link in a buried communications system having a water-resisting capability. A service cable is manufactured to include four individually insulated conductors constructed of a material having at least a predetermined yield strength twisted to form a spiralled quaded core. In order to impart water-resisting capability to the cable, the interstices between the conductors and between the conductors and a subsequently applied jacket are filled with a flame retardant water-resistant composition. The core, including the individually insulated conductors, is advanced into a bath of the waterproofing composition. The configuration of the core is changed as the conductors are advanced through the bath to permit substantially the entire periphery of the conductors to be exposed to the composition. Subsequently, the conductors are permitted to reform into the original core configuration with portions of the composition filling the interstices between the conductors. The reformation is facilitated by the changes in strain produced by the elastic recovery of the conductors. Excess composition is removed from the outwardly facing portions of the core as the core is advanced out of the bath.
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United States Patent Hacker 1451 May 27, 1975 1 1 MANUFACTURING FILLED CABLE [75] lnventor: Joseph Michael Hacker, Fallston,

[73] Assignee: Western Electric Company,

Incorporated, New York, NY.

[22] Filed: Aug. 15, 1973 {21] Appl. No.: 388,694

{52] US. Cl. 57/162; 29/624; 57/7; 57/164; 117/7; 118/44 [51] Int. Cl 002g 3/36 [58] Field of Search 29/624, 461; 57/7, 35, 57/162, 164; 156/48; 117/7, 8, 47 R, 34; 118/33, 44; 264/103 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,251,032 12/1917 Hoover 118/44 1,745,285 l/l930 Whiffen 118/44 2,757,101 7/1956 Elling 118/44 X 2,763,563 9/1956 Clougherty et al. 117/7 3,244,545 4/1966 Marzocchi et al, 1. 117/7 3,443,374 5/1969 Carnevale 1 57/162 X 3,695,027 10 1972 Copp 57/162 3,779,844 12/1973 Dorsch 118/44 UX 3,791,132 2/1974 Schutz et a1. 57/164 Primary Examiner-C. W. Lanham Assistant Examiner.loseph A. Walk-owski Attorney, Agent, or Firm-E. W. Somers [5 7] ABSTRACT A filled telephone service cable which runs from a dis tribution cable to a subscribers premises or to a pay station is another link in a buried communications system having a water-resisting capability. A service cable is manufactured to include four individually insulated conductors constructed of a material having at least a predetermined yield strength twisted to form a spiralled quaded core. in order to impart waterresisting capability to the cable, the interstices be tween the conductors and between the conductors and a subsequently applied jacket are filled with a flame retardant water-resistant compositionv The core, including the individually insulated conductors, is advanced into a bath of the waterproofing composition. The configuration of the core is changed as the conductors are advanced through the bath to permit substantially the entire periphery of the conductors to be exposed to the composition. Subsequently, the conductors are permitted to reform into the original core configuration with portions of the composition filling the interstices between the conductors. The reformation is facilitated by the changes in strain produced by the elastic recovery of the conductors. Excess composition is removed from the outwardly facing portions of the core as the core is advanced out of the bath.

8 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures PATENTEDMAYZ? I975 FIG. 2

MANUFACTURING FILLED CABLE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION l. Field of the Invention This invention relates to methods which may be used for manufacturing filled cable, and more particularly, to manufacturing a spirally quaded cable in which the interstices between the individually insulated conductors and between the conductors and any covering applied thereover is filled with a waterproofing, flameretardant composition.

2. Description of the Prior Art It has been an objective in the telecommunications industry to provide underground transmission media for various reasons. One of these, of course, is the aesthetic appeal ofthe absence of overhead lines. Another is the prevention of discontinuity of service due to fallen trees, windstorms and the like.

Of course, the burial of transmission media poses several problems which must be overcome to make such a system feasible. One of these is the problem of ingress of moisture into the buried cable with accompanying loss of transmission characteristics. In order to overcome this. the cable must be designed to prevent or resist the ingress of moisture.

The last link in a buried loop plant includes a so called service wire or cable which extends from the distribution cable to a subscribers premises or to a pay station. The service cable should be filled with a waterresistant composition and since the service cable extends to subscribers premises, any waterproofing composition must also be flame-retardant A composition which is water-resistant and flame retardant for filling the interstices of a service cable is disclosed and claimed in an application filed of even date herewith in the names of J. M. Hacker and E. S. Sauer, Ser. No. 388,695.

Generally, the service cable is constructed to include four individually insulated conductors. The conductors preferably are twisted together. instead of in pairs, to form what is commonly referred to in the art as a spiralled. star-quad. The conductors are twisted about an imaginary longitudinal axis with the resulting core con figuration including what appears as a star-shaped central opening.

It has been found that the prior art does not adequately include manufacturing methods for filling sub stantially the interstices, and more specifically the central core space, in a quaded cable. The filling of a quaded cable should be substantially complete in order to prevent any moisture which penetrates the service cable from running longitudinally along any core space causing damage to the conductors or diminution of the electrical characteristics thereof at various points along the cable.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention provides methods for manufacturing a filled cable. Specifically, the methods are used to produce a quaded service cable in which there is a substantial filling of the interstices of the cable including the central core space thereof.

A plurality ofelongated members are stranded about a longitudinal center line to form a core with each of the elongated members having at least a predetermined yield strength. The predetermined yield strength is stated in terms of a unit stress to which the elongated member is subjected will return to a certain percent of its original configuration when the load causing the stress is removed. The yield strength may be that of a material from which the conductive element of a single insulated conductor which comprises an elongated member is constructed. Or the yield strength may be a composite of the materials from which a twisted conductor pair is constructed.

The stranded core is advanced through a bath of a composition. Forces are applied to the core to (l) cause the core configuration to be changed to expose portions of the elongated members which in the origi nal configuration of the core are not exposed to the composition, and then (2) permit the elongated members because of the elastic properties associated with the yield strength thereof to be reformed into the stranded core and cause the interstices between the elongated members to be filled substantially with the composition.

Excess composition is removed from the core to form a generally regularly shaped contour of the composition about the core.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The various features of the invention will be more readily understood from the following detailed description when read in conjunction with accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a sectional view ofa service cable which includes four individually insulated conductors and a waterproofing composition for filling the interstices of the core between the conductors and between the core and inner jacket, with the spacing between adjacent ones of the conductors being exaggerated for purposes of illustrating the coating thereof with the composition;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of an apparatus for carry ing out the principles of this invention which may be used to apply the waterproofing composition to the service cable;

FIG. 3 is an elevational view ofa portion of the apparatus of FIG. 2 showing an arrangement of rollers over which the service cable is passed; and

FIGS. 4A-4C are a series of end views of the conductors which comprise the cable core at various stages in the construction and filling process.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring to FIG. 1, there is shown a cable, designated generally by the numeral 10, which includes four polyethylene-insulated conductors ll1l. The four conductors 11-11 are twisted together about a longitudinal axis 12 to form a spirally quaded core, designated generally by the numeral 13 (see FIG. 4A). The conductors 11-11 are arranged about the axis 12 so as to form a central starshaped opening 14 (see FIG. 4A). Because of the shape of the opening 14, this con figuration cable is generally referred to as a starquaded cable.

In the presently used environment, the individual polyethylene-insulated conductors ll-II are enclosed by an innerjacket 16 (see FIG. I) which includes a polyvinyl chloride constituent, a metallic microorganism shield 17 and an outer jacket I8. Prior to the jacketing of the core 13, the service cable 10 must have the interstices thereof, including the central opening 14, filled with a waterproofing composition 19 such as that disclosed and claimed in the above-identified application filed on even date herewith in the names of 1. M. hacker and E S. Sauer.

While the hcreinbcfore identified water-resistant. flame-retardant composition 1) is preferred, it should be understood that methods embodying principles of this invention may be used in conjunction with other compositions for filling the interstices of the service cable 10.

By filling the interstices of the cable 10, protection is afforded against entry of water even if the cable were Sll'TUUl'lilCCl by water and the jacket 18 and the shield 17 punctured by lightning or mechanical means. The shield 17 intercepts and absorbs the lightning but may have holes burned therein. Thus water can penetrate beyond the shield 17 but penetrates radially and longitudinally. limited only by the water-resistant effectiveness of the composition 19 filling the interstices.

Manufacturing methods have not heretofore been available for filling substantially the starquaded cable 10. Most of the difficulties arise in attempting to fill the central opening 14. The twisting of the four conductors with a predetermined lay about the axis 12 causes the cpcning 14 to be scaled almost hermetically. This has ;rc\cntcd the filling of the opening 14 in the past. It is known that at least some manufacturers of this type cable ignore filling the central opening 14. However should the shield be punctured and water penetrate iito the opening 14, the water would have a channel rtong which to fiow This could result in undesirable lasses in transmission characteristics of the cablev (ommonly used conductors are copper. aluminum, ind steel as well as alloys and combinations of these materials. Nloreoier. it is common practice to tin con doctors to aid in making solderjoints and no complications are introduced by this conventional procedure.

In the application ofthe methods of this invention for filling the interstices of the cable 10, it is important that the mater-mi from which the conductors is constructed have at icast a predetermined yield strength which causes the cure to tend to retain its initially formed configuration or to regain that configuration if delorrncd.

Increasing a stress above the elastic limit will cause a specimen of a material to elongate continually. The unit stress at which the elongation of the specimen reaches some arbitrarily specified value is referred to as the yield strength of the material, In other words. the yield strength is the: unit stress at which a material exhibits a definite limiting set. The set is expressed as a unit of deformation and the limiting value is determined by the use of the material.

A yield strength of a material is generally quoted as a unit stress with a specified offset being stated as a percent This physical property of the materia indicates that the material subjected to the specified unit stress returns to only a specified associated percent of its originai configuration when the load causing the stress is removed from the specimen. Annealed copper has a j.ieid strength of llhtititl pounds per square inch at 0.5 percent offset. Hence, a specimen constructed from anncalcd copper will return to within 995 percent of its original configuration when subjected to a stress of ltHltlt) pounds per square inch.

The conductive elements comprising the core 13 and which are regrouped during the filling process must rave at least a predetermined yield strength which has een found to he llLUUll pounds per square inch at 1J5 percent offset. it is important to realize that if the rearrangement of the core 13 is with respect to individual conductors i11 1. as in the case of the quaded cable 10. then the material of the individual conductors must have a yield strength of at least IU UUU pounds per square inch at 0.5 percent offset. lfthe cable 10 is comprised of individually twisted pairs of conductors and the rearrangement occurs as among the different pairs. then each pair must have a predetermined yield strength in excess of 10.000 pounds per square inch at (1.5 percent offset.

The elastic recovery of a given material and hence the spring-back characteristics thereof are proportional to the yield strength. Advantage is taken of the yield strength. to permit the conductors -11 to spring back and reform the core 13 to its initial configuration following the deformation of the core to allow exposure of generally all of the insulated conductor surface area to the waterproofing composition. Of course. care must be exercised during deformation so as not to cause a permanent set to occur in the conductor material.

Each of the conductors 11-11 of the quaded core 13 herein is constructed of a steel core center eiad with copper and then insulated with polyethyiene. It has been found that the composite copper-steel construction has a yield point in excess of 1011011 pounds per square inch at 0.5 percent offset.

The four conductors 11-11 are twisted together about the axis 14 by methods and apparatus well known in the art to have a right or left-hand twist of a predetermined lay. The resulting quaded core 13 has a configuration such as that shown in FIG. 4A.

Referring now to Fl( iv 2 there is shown an apparatus. designated generally by the numeral 20, which may be used to further carry out the principles and methods of this invention. The apparatus 20 includes a tank 21 for containing the composition 19 and having an entrance opening 22. The opening 22 is sized to permit the core 13 of the cable 10 to be advanced therethrough in a direction shown in F10. 2

Interior of the tank 21 are three spaced rollers 26, 27 and 28. The rollers are arranged as shown in FlGS. 2 and 3 and are mounted rotatably on parallel axes within the tank 21. The core 13 of the service eabie 10 is passed under the roller 26, up over and around the roller 27, and then down under the roller 28. From there. the core 13 is advanced through a wiping die 29 and exits from the tank 21.

The construction of the rollers 26, 27 and 28 is im portant in practicing the methods of this invention to produce a filled quaded cable It). Desirably, the rollers 26, 27 and 28 each have a diameter of approximately thrcefourths of an inch. The rollers are constructed with a polished steel surface so as not to damage the insulation of the cont'luctors 1I-11 as the conductors are advanced thcreover.

The arrangement of the rollers 26, 27 and 28 within the tank 21 is also important in order to avoid undue deformation of the conductors 11-11 and to facilitate the changing of the core configuration and the subsequent reforming thereof. The angle which each of the conductors l]-11 makes with the horizontal. i.c. a line parallel to a line joining the centers of the rollers 26 and 27. when being passed from engagement with the roiler 26 into engagement with the roller 27, or from the roller 27 to the roller 28, is defined herein as the angle of attack a, (see FIG. 3).

In order to determine an optimum arrangement, extensive experimentation of the positioning of the rollers with varied line tension was conducted. Advantageously, it has been found that the preferred angle of attack lies within the range of 20 to 70 (see FIG. 3). More specifically, the most preferred angle of attack has been found to be approximately 30. The angle of attack is also important in permitting the inherent spring-back characteristics of the conductors ll-ll to cause the regrouping of the conductors into a core following the coating thereof.

If the angle of attack is greater than 70, the tension forces applied to the conductors 11-11 becomes excessive and may tend to crush the insulation. Also, an unduly high angle of attack may attach some difficulty to the subsequent reforming of the core 13, since the material of the conductors "-11 may undergo a permanent set. If the angle of attack is less than 20, the engagement of the conductors 11-11 with the surface of the roller 27 is less than that desired.

It should be noted that the tension in the manufacturing line is important in order to avoid deforming the conductors as the conductors are advanced over the rollers 26, 27 and 28 in the coating tank 21. It has been found that an acceptable tension in the line is approximately 15 to pounds as applied by a capstan (not shown).

The roller arrangement and coating bath combination may be used to coat successive sections of the conductors 11-11 of the core 13 of the service cable 10 provided that the conductors may be successfully regrouped prior to exiting from the tank 21 from the wiping die 29. In order to accomplish this, the material from which the conductors ll11 is constructed must have at least the predetermined yield strength suffciently high to permit the regrouping.

If the yield strength were not sufficiently high enough, the conductors ll11 would be supple as they are advanced over the rollers. In that situation, the initial configuration of the core 13 could be changed from that at the entrance die 22 to the tank 21. However, the conductors 1l-11 could not then be reformed into the initial configuration (such as that shown in FIG. 4A) prior to the exit die 29.

It should be understood that the term initial configuration" refers to the shape of the core 13 formed by the conductors 11-11 and the positioning of each of the conductors in the core relative to the other conductors. The reformation of the conductors 11-11 into the initial configuration does not necessarily require that the orientation of the cross-section of the core 13 with respect to some coordinate axes system be the same as that when the core was advanced into the tank 21.

The roller arrangement used in practicing the methods of this invention, coupled with the conductors being constructed from a material of sufficient yield strength, allow the conductors 11-11 which have been rearranged from the initial core configuration shown in FIG. 4A to unexpectedly spring back together as the conductors are advanced over the rollers. The roller arrangement, the yield strength of the material, and the permanent cast of the conductors 11-11 which was acquired during the twisting of the quad, facilitates the regrouping of the conductors 11-11 into the initial core configuration adjacent roller 28 prior to exiting from die 29.

The wiping die 29 is constructed so as to have an opening therethrough slightly greater than the outside diameter of the core of the service cable 10. For example, looking at FIG. 1, the distance between outwardly facing surfaces of the insulation of opposed ones of the conductors ll-ll as measured along a line connecting their centers is approximately 0.l45 inches. The size of the opening in the die 29 is approximatelcy 0. inches. This leaves a 2.5 mil thickness of the waterproofing composition 19 around the quaded core 13 as the core is advanced through the wiping die 29.

METHOD OF COATING THE CONDUCTORS In practising the methods of this invention, the core 13 comprising the conductors II-ll is advanced through the entrance die 22 into the tank 21 and then along a torturous path into and then out of engagement with each of the rollers 26, 27 and 28.

The configuration of the core 13 as initially twisted into a spiralled quad is that shown in FIG. 4A. As can be seen from FIG. 4A, it would not be possible to fill the central opening 14 with the compositions 19 by moving the core 13 in that configuration through a bath of the composition. In fact, because of the configuration shown in FIG. 4A, it has been found that even pressure filling techniques with or without vacuum evacuation are not successful in filling the opening 14.

It should also be observed in FIG. 4A that the conductors ll-11 have been designated 11a, 11b, 11c and 11d, in a clockwise direction. This designation will become important in following the reorganization of the conductors 11-11 as they are advanced through the tank 21.

As the core 13 is advanced through the roller 26 and toward engagement with the roller 27, the conductors 11-11 tend to become displaced from the so-called star-quad array of the core 13 being advanced into the tank 21. The conductors 11-11 are displaced into a general side-by-side arrangement as shown in FIG. 4B as the conductors are passed over the roller 27.

It can also be observed from FIG. 45 that the position of the conductor 11a has become displaced angularly as well as laterally from that position occupied in FIG. 4A. This is due to the twist of the quaded core 13 and as the core is advanced through the tank 21, the coroe tends to rotate in the direction of the twist lay.

This behavior is extremely important in applying a coating of the composition to the outer periphery of the conductors 11-11. This constant reording of the conductors 1l11 causes the air therebetween in the opening 14 to be pushed out and composition to be moved in. As disclosed in the above-identified application filed on even date herewith in the names of .I. M. Hacker and E. s. Sauer, the composition 19 tends to cling to the individually insulated conductors 11-11.

Then, as the conductors ll1l are further advanced in the tank 21 into engagement with the roller 28, the conductors tend to spring back into a quaded configuration to reform generally the original core shape (see FIG. 4C).

The reformed core 13 then is advanced through the exit die 29. The exit die 29 wipes excess amounts of the composition 19 from the core 13 with a 2.5 mil coating of the composition remaining about the outside surfaces of the conductors 11-11 (see FIG. 4C). In this way, after the inner jacket 16 is extruded over the core 13, there is a layer of the waterproofing composition 19 between the quaded core and the inner jacket to fur ther insure complete waterproofing of the service cable ill. The wiping die 29 produces a smooth regularly shaped generally circular outer contour of the coating composition 19 compatible with the inner jacket 16 to be extruded thereover.

Referring now to P16. 4C. it can be seen that the conductors ll-ll have been further displaced angularly. For example, the conductor designated llu occupied what may be called a 12 oclock position as the core 13 entered the tank 21 and a so-called 3 o'clock position when passing over the roller 27. The conductor llu oc cupies generally a 9 oclock position as the core exits from the tank 21.

ALTERNATIVE APPLICATIONS OF METHODS While the methods of this invention appear ideally sulted to produce a waterproofed star-quaded service cable 10. it should he realized that other cable may be produced thereby The methods are equally applicable to waterproofing a ten conductor, five twisted pair, service cable (not shown).

The five pair conductor service cable (not shown) includes five twisted pairs of conductors. each conduc tor pair again being constructed ofa material or combi nation of materials having a total yield strength of at least approximately 10,000 pounds per square inch at 0.5 percent offset. This construction cable is generally manufactured with a predetermined lay with the five pairs stranded about the axis 12. This results in an unstable configuration.

It has been found that as the five pair cable is advanced into, through and out of the tank 21, and as the ccnductor pairs thereof are displaced and reformedinto a configuration for jacketing. the lay changes. However, the lay advantageously becomes a random la; along the length of the cable thereby tending to el-minate undesirable capacitance characteristics of the cable.

The use of copper conductors in the five pair cable does not detract from the spring-back feature of this process. Soft copper has a yield strength of approximately 10,000 pounds per square inch, at the lower limit of the specified range for this process. Moreover, the twist in the individual pairs imparts to each pair a certain amount of permanent cast which is of assistance on the regrouping step of the process.

It is to be understood that the above described ar rangements are simply illustrative of the invention. Other arrangements may be devised by those skilled in the art which will embody the principles of the invention to fall within the spirit and scope thereof.

1 claim:

1. A method of making a stranded core having the interstices thereof filled with a composition, which includes the steps of:

stranding a plurality of elongated members about a longitudinal center line to form a core, each of the elongated members having at least a predetermined yield strength;

advancing the stranded core through a bath ofa composition;

applying forces to the core to first cause the configuration of the core to be changed to expose portions of the elongated members which in the original configuration of the core are not exposed to the composition and then to permit the elongated members because of the elastic properties associated with the yield strength thereof to be reformed into a stranded core and cause the interstices between the elongated members to be filled substantially with the composition; and

removing excess composition from the reformed core to form a generally regularly shaped contour of the composition about the core 2. A method of making a cable core having the interstices thereof filled with a composition, which includes the steps of:

stranding a plurality of insulated conductors about a longitudinal center line to form a core, each of the conductors having a conductive element thereof made from a material having at least a predetermined yield strength;

advancing the stranded core through a bath of a composition;

applying forces to the core by directing the core into and out of engagement with a plurality of prearranged surfaces within the bath to first cause the configuration of the core to be changed to expose portions of the conductors which in the original configuration of the core are not exposed to the composition and then to permit the conductors because of the elastic properties associated with the yield strength thereof to be reformed into a stranded core and cause the interstices between the conductors to be filled substantially with the composition; and

removing excess composition from the reformed core to form a generally regularly shaped contour of the composition about the core.

3. A method of making a quaded cable having the in terstices thereof filled with a composition, which includes the steps of:

forming spirally a plurality of insulated conductors about a longitudinal center line, each of the conductors having a conductive element thereof made from a material having at least a predetermined yield strength,

advancing the spirally quaded core through a bath of the composition;

directing the core into and then out of engagement with a plurality of surfaces within the bath to cause the configuration of the quaded core to be changed to expose portions of the conductors which are inaccessible in the original configuration of the quaded core to the composition;

further directing the core into and then out of engagement with at least one other surface such that the elasticity associated with the predetermined yield strength of the material of which the conductors are made causes the conductors to become reformed into the original configuration of the quaded core; and

removing excess composition from the quaded core to form a generally regularly shaped contour of the composition about the core. the reformation of the core and the subsequent removal therefrom of excess amounts of the composition causing the interstices thereof to be filled with the composition.

4. The method of claim 3, wherein the predetermined yield strength is l0,000 pounds per square inch at 0.5 percent offset.

9 l0 5. A method of applying a Waterproofing composiof the core and the subsequent removal therefrom tion to a stranded core comprised of a plurality of elon- 0f the excess amounts of the composition causing gated members which includes the steps of: the interstices thereofto be filled with the composiadvancing the core through a bath of a composition, tion.

which is to fill the interstices of the core and coat 5 6. The method of claim 5, wherein the predetermined the exterior thereof, in a predetermined tortuous value of the yield strength is 10,000 pounds per square path to first cause forces to he applied to the core inch at 0.5 percent offset. to l change sequentially the configuration ofsuc' 7. The method of claim 5, wherein the core is adcessive sections of the core to expose substantially vanced in a path into, and through the bath in the prethe entire periphery of each of the elongated mem- 1r determined tortuous path and then in a path out of the bers to the composition and then (2) to facilitate bath of the composition, the tortuous path including a the reformation of the core because of the yield portion at some predetermined angle to the path into strength of the material from which the members the composition and a portion at some predetermined is made being at least a predetermined value; and angle to the path out of the bath.

removing excess amounts of the composition from :5 8. The method ofelaim 7, wherein the predetermined the reformed core to yield a core having a regularly angle lies in the range of 20 to 70. shaped envelope of composition, the reformation

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Classifications
U.S. Classification57/7, 427/118, 156/48, 174/27, 174/23.00R, 29/868, 118/44, 57/295, 57/223
International ClassificationH01B13/22, H01B11/02
Cooperative ClassificationH01B13/22, H01B11/02
European ClassificationH01B13/22, H01B11/02
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Mar 19, 1984ASAssignment
Owner name: AT & T TECHNOLOGIES, INC.,
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:WESTERN ELECTRIC COMPANY, INCORPORATED;REEL/FRAME:004251/0868
Effective date: 19831229