|Publication number||US3885741 A|
|Publication date||May 27, 1975|
|Filing date||Jun 18, 1973|
|Priority date||Oct 27, 1971|
|Publication number||US 3885741 A, US 3885741A, US-A-3885741, US3885741 A, US3885741A|
|Inventors||Jansch Frantisek, Wagener Elmar|
|Original Assignee||Demag Ag|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (8), Classifications (13)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent Wagener et al.
APPARATUS FOR COOLING METAL WEBS Inventors: Elmar Wagener, Neukirchen-Vluyn, Germany; Frantisek Jansch, Prague, Czechoslovakia Assignee: Demag A.G., Germany Filed: June 18, 1973 Appl. No.: 370,914
Related US. Application Data Division of Ser. No. 192,885, Oct. 27, 1971, Pat. No. 3,753,793.
US. Cl. 239/268; 239/543; 239/550; 239/568; 164/283 S Int. Cl B05b 13/02 Field of Search 239/550, 551, 557, 568, 239/587, 268, 557, 543; 164/283 S, 283 MS References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 6/1929 Lentini 239/587 X [451 May 27, 1975 1,730,348 10/1929 Anstiss 239/587 2,341,859 2/1944 Edwards 239/543 2,406,941 9/1946 Brooks 239/587 X 3,258,207 6/1966 Cody 239/543 X 3,270,966 9/1966 Ackley 239/550 3,468,362 9/1969 Burkhardt et al. 164/283 S 3,583,474 6/1971 Properzi 164/283 MS Primary ExaminerLloyd L. King Assistant ExaminerJohn J. Love Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Mandeville & Schweitzer  ABSTRACT The disclosure relates to a method and to an apparatus for cooling continuously cast webs of .metal. Several coolant jets are produced continuously and at least two jets are projected to a hotter, slowly cooling zone of the surface of the webs.
2 Claims, 12 Drawing Figures PATENTED W27i975 7 .,885J4l SHEET APPARATUS FOR COOLING METAL WEBS CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION This application is a divisional application of copending application Ser. No. 192,885, filed Oct. 27, 1971 now US. Pat. No. 3,753,793.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION An important problem in extruding metals is the cooling process. Ordinarily the molten metal is directed through a die having an aperture determinative of the cross-section of the web or continuous casting. This socalled continuous casting die is cooled at its walls so that the heat of the molten metal is transferred to its shell walls and discharged through the cooling water circulating in the continuous shell. However, only a relatively small portion of the amount of heat present in the molten metal can be removed in the continuous shell. The amount of heat removed only suffices to form an outer solidified layer of the web. Particularly with the casting of steel whose low heat conductivity is further reduced due to alloy components, it has been impossible to remove adequately the heat in sufficient amount to allow high speed casting operations. Thus webs cast from metal with a high heat content are subjected to a second cooling process which takes place more or less in the ambient atmostphere outside the continuous die shell. The coolant used typically consists of water and optional appropriate additives to increase the heat absorption capacity and accommodate an elevation of the evaporation point of the coolant.
According to a method of prior art, water is sprayed from atomizer nozzles in selective zones upon the surface of the continuous casting. The coolant impact areas are approximately elliptical in cross-sectionai shape. The cross-sectional shape of the continuous casting, which is rectangular in most cases, requires a particular cooling behavior. Internal core sections of the rectangular web located centrally thereof, of course, cool more slowly than exterior peripheral surfaces. In order to reinforce the cooling effect, it is known to arrange coolant impact areas in rows over the width of the web so closely together that lateral overlappings of the atomizing jets occur. Overlapping of the atomizing jets causes a reduction of the jet energy. Consequently, it is necessary to find for each of the zones to be impacted, the proper positioning and spacing of the nozzles in relation to the surface of the continuous casting to develop the largest possible effect of the coolant. In order to influence further the cooling intensity, other measures are available, including changing the angle of projection of the coolant, changing the characteristic of the projection of the coolant, and changing the shape of the impacted surface so sprayed.
It has been discovered that a plurality of metals, among them steel, can be cooled morerapidly with more powerful spray cooling conditions without causing fissures in the material. Nevertheless, the cooling intensity must be adjusted with respect to the relationship between the characteristics of the extrusion system and to the material to be cast.
According to prior art the cooling intensity could be amplified only by increasing the pressure of the coolant jet and/or by enlarging the cross-section of the jet. However, a reciprocal influencing of the atomized jets causes losses of kinetic energy of about ten to twenty per cent. Moreover, the increase of pressure as a factor for boosting the cooling intensity may possibly lead to undesirable side effects at the nozzles. The boost in pressure thus remains only one measure within a number of factors influencing the effect of the atomized jet. The thickness of the atomized jet is also restricted by the gap distance of the supporting members, such as supporting rollers.
An effective, zonewise amplified cooling of a cast metal web heretofore has presented an unsolved problem. The present invention is directed to a solution of the problem i.e., to improving the cooling effect according to the cooling behavior of continuous castings of predetermined cross-section in order that the casting process may be accomplished faster thereby increasing the yield of extruded metal in a given period.
SUMMARY OF THE PRESENT INVENTION According to the present invention, a new method is proposed wherein coolant is delivered at one or several discharge apertures in a jet or jets which cover the entire surface of the web, which travelsin an approximately uniformly thick layer. Advantageously, at least two jets of different planes are intersected prior to their impact of which at least one plane deviates from a perpendicular plane through the web surface zone being cooled. Several advantages are connected with the generation of a coolant stream over the full width of the web. Each zone of the web surface passes through a cooling zone, within which the cooling effect is synchronized with the amount of heat yielded locally. The formation of the cooling jet thus can be accomplished at different longitudinal points of the continuous casting for a differential cooling effect. The intersecting of the jets on the other hand, causes a substantial increase of the width of the flat coolant jet pattern even at higher pressures. The kinetic energy can be utilized better than heretofore for the building up of the spray characteristic, that is for the distribution of the pressure over the width of the casting surface moving below the cooling jet. One particular effect is obtained by intersecting two jet planes (or fans) by converting the kinetic energy into pressure energy thus leading to a broadening of the relatively narrow fan thickness of the cooling jets. The high kinetic energy ahead of the point of intersection, after conversion into pressure energy beyond the point of intersection, leads to an increase of the volume of the jet.-
It is particularly advantageous to merge three flat fan jets approximately in a point of intersection proximal to the surface of the casting. The coolant used upon the surface strip of the web to be cooled, after the point of intersection, expands the prismatic volume of the jet to a very large extent. When the intersection is located relatively close to the web surface, the confinement of the coolant into particularly narrow gaps may be effected. Such narrow gap may be present as a result of the required web supporting means, such as supporting rollers. Therefore, the proposed cooling method may improve the available cooling effect by appropriate limitation of the impact surfaces available as dictated by the peculiarity of mechanical guidance means.
Expediently the web or casting is surrounded by fan jets which substantially extend transversely to the longitudinal direction of movement of the casting. That way the amount of heat to be removed remains constant per longitudinal web increment.
An especially uniform cooling over the width of the web takes place in particular when the coolant is so processed that the jet planes produce a generally stripeshaped to oblong oval pattern of projected spray on the web. Compared to the known, approximately elliptical spray patterns, there tends to be a more uniform removal of heat with the new patterns. As the separation of web and the point of intersection increases, the distribution of the coolant spreads to a progressively larger surface than the narrow stripe-shaped projection surface obtained by a close spacing of the intersection point to the web.
The intensity .of the cooling can be regulated advantageously by jets of different jet fans, whereby they are directed against the surface of the casting from different distances.
It also is possible for the angles of the jet planes to be modified in relation to each other and/or to the surface of the web or casting, commensurate with the corresponding cooling intensity. The corresponding angle setting is a measure for increasing or decreasing the width of the cooling stripe on the web surface. Finally, by changing the quantity of the output of the jets, the coolant may be directed in individual planes in desired directions. This offers at the same time, the possibility of further controlling the cooling performance per unit of web surface.
A particularly advantageous apparatus for practicing the method of the invention, includes a multiple nozzle arrangement with the central axis of each issued jet fan disposed in separate planes. Each nozzle is connected to a supply conduit for coolants and may be fixed at a setting which is angularly adjustable in relation to the other nozzles and the issuing jet sprays. It is advantageous to provide a single nozzle with several discharge apertures for each jet fan.
Each nozzle is pivoted by itself for the desired angular adjustment and it is pivoted to arrange the abovedescribed intersection. The jet stream characteristics located ahead of the point of. intersection thereby do not change at a renewed angle adjustment, providing pressures and discharge apertures remain unmodified,
The apparatus now may be constructed with all the nozzles of all the jet sprays accommodated in a unitary housing. The nozzles thus are adjustable in rows.
According to an additional feature of the invention the nozzles for each cooling stripe are adjustable in the housing in distance and angularity, in relation to the casting surface. Therefore, the entire housing may be adjustable in distance and angularity.
DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a moving casting web supported by rollers and being cooled with three intersecting jet fans;
FIG. 2 illustrates a single jet fan; FIG. 3 shows the impact pattern'of the jet fan of FIG.
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of the distribution of the quantities of water across the width of the web;
FIG. 5 illustrates two intersecting jet fans;
FIG. 6 illustrates the projection planes of separate jet fans depicted without the effects of their intersection;
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The cooling method of the invention is applied to a slab casting or web 1 of steel, (FIG. 1). It should be understood that the applicability of the invention is not particularly limited to wide webs. Billet webs also may be cooled just as easily; thus neither the thickness nor the width of the web are critical limitations over the utility of the invention. The advantages of the invention may be derived in cooling castings with a large ratio of cross-section width to thickness, such as, slabs or panels.
The cross-section 2 of the continuous casting 1 is generally rectangular. The steel is still molten, pasty,
and of a higher temperature than the marginal ranges FIG. 7 illustrates another embodiment with three in- I tersecting jets;
in the central crosssection area 3. The marginal ranges have chilled into a shell 4 which is increasingly hardened on the basis of the outer cooling, which is effected by the amount and spacing of molten I core material from the continuously hardening shell. The cooling also is a function of thebasic structure of an extrusion system. For the cooling, the parameters including shape of cross-section, dimensions, material-dependent heat conductivity, and casting speed are of essential importance. Moreover, external influences such as sharp bendingiof the web, or the pressing effect of the elements for guiding the casting must be taken into consideration. With the latter, overstressmay occur on a metal web not sufficiently cooled, causing fissures on the inside or outside of the web.
Spraying cooling water at the outer surface of the continuous shell 4 is used for a rapid increase of the thickness of the same. Regions at larger distances from the continuous shell, i.e., the central core, of the casting ought to be so chilled at a rate. that the materialdependent cooling curve is uniform at all points of the cross-section of the web 2. In all areas of the length of the casting or web the method according to the invention may be adjusted with particular facility to local conditions. Thereby, in accordance with the invention, a cooling intensity is provided over the width 5 of the casting web 1, which intensity isproportional to the quantities of heat to be removed per unit of time and per volume of the web.
A cooling zone 8 is defined between two guiding rolls a 6 and 7. In the direction of movement of the web the cooling zone 8 is limited by the guide rolls which either pump or aspirate the cooling water ahead of them. Pipes 10, constantly supplying coolant, for example cooling water of controlled temperature and purity, ex-
the pipes 10 in relation to the surface of the casting web 9 is variable. For small amounts of coolant a single pipe will suffice, as shown in the drawing..Nozzle bodies 11, 12 and 13 are fastened to the pipe 10. A plurality 'of discharge openings of round or oblong shape are formed in said bodies and, as shown,.nozzle bodies 11, l2, l3, generate spray fans 14, 15, 16. The lateral edges 17 of each of the fans are generally parallel or slightly divergent. Approximately equally thick jet sprays or fans 14, 15, 16 are established by the'nozzle openings to stabilize the flow of coolant in each of the nozzle bodies 11, 12, 13 and to stabilize correspondingly the pressures of the coolant and/or corresponding flow rates in each nozzle. Theoretically the jet spray fans impact with their central planes 18 transverse to the direction of movement of the web surface 9. In case of particularly narrow webs, several jet fans also may be placed parallel to the direction of movement of the web. The distribution of the amount of water within the length of the jet spray (in longitudinal direction of the web) is then maintained almost constant.
In each of the illustrated embodiments of FIGS. 5, 7, and 9, the fan jets 14, and 16 meet and intersect at intersection 19. Before the intersection 19, the jet fans 14, 15, 16 are completely separated, but beyond the intersection, they emanate as ajoint, unitary spray. Thus, the web may be covered uniformly with coolant over a considerably wide surface. A single fan jet 15, as shown in FIG. 2, produces only a narrow impact surface pattern 20, although it is possible thereby, according to FIG. 3,.to achieve a stripe-shaped impact surface pattern extending over the entire Width 5 of the web. The individual fan jet 15 establishes over the width 5 a weighted coolant distribution, as shown in FIG. 4. Thus, the quantity of water is greatest in the center 21 of the web, commensurate with the large quantity of heat to be removed therefrom and pursuant to the invention.
With two intersecting jet fans l4, 16 (FIG. 5), the distribution or pattern of the coolant on the surface of the web 9 is determined by the distribution of forces in the individual jets. If jet spray fan 14 is preponderant, the coolant is urged in the direction of the roller 7. With the jet spray fan 16 acting with greater force, thegap area 22 proximate the roller 6 will be favored. The illustration of spray impingement in FIG. 6 represents a momentarily prevailing condition of coolant distribution which, of course, is variable periodically by pressure fluctuations. It is particularly advantageous to employ alternating pressure variations in the jet sprays 14 and 16, when only two jets are used to create a large cooling zone 8, to work on a large portion of web surface 9.
The intersecting of several fans 14 and 16 also is advantageous to accommodate variations in spacing and diameters of pairs of supporting rollers 6 and 7 over the length of the course of the casting. More narrow support roller gaps may be filled more easily with coolant. Desirably, the coolant produces as large a cooling zone as possible, which zone may be composed in part of the casting surface 9 between rollers and the facing circumferential surfaces of the rollers themselves.
A considerably increased distribution of cooling effect for the coolant, in comparison with the two jet method, is shown in FIG. 7, which in addition is shown in perspective in FIG. 1. Three fans 14, 15 and 16 are directed at the intersection 19. A particularly favorable spacing is selected between intersection l9 and casting surface 9, which corresponds to approximately half the diameter of the supporting roller. The resultant coolant spray 23.impacting upon the casting surface 9 establishes a cooling zone 8 of the width 20 which is markedly enlargeida's shown in FIG. 8 in comparison to FIG. 3, for example. The coolant of jet portion 23 possesses a width a high specific density.
The resultant coolant jet spray portion 23 may consist not only of the three spray fans 14, 15 and 16, but may also be generated from a plurality of fans contacting at the intersection 19, mixing with each other and- /or deflecting therefrom. When three independent jet fans 14, 15 and 16 are generated,'the characteristics and the influences of the individual layer jets on the resultant jet 23 may be varied, as shown in FIG. 9. In addition to increased or decreased pressure, variations may be developed by the spacings of the nozzle bodies 11 and 13 at different distances from the casting than the spacing of the symmetrically disposed nozzle body 12. The spraying width of the jet fan 15 is greater than 14 or 16 because of its proximity to the sprayed surface and the combination as shown in FIG. 10 (diagram for the distribution of the water quantity) in the center area of the casting width 5, produces a hump 24 in the diagram. Moreover, as in FIG. 4 a parabolic distribution of the amount of water 25 across casting width 5 takes place as a matter of principle, in order to take into account the lower cooling requirements at the marginal edges of the casting web 1.
The nozzle bodies 11, 12 and 13 are disposed in special housings 26 (FIG. 1), which may be universally, angularly oriented with respect to the web and pipes 27. Transport of the coolant from the main pipes 10 is effected through the pipes 27, as shown. The nozzle bodies 11, 12 and 13 also may be individually angularly adjustable with the housings 26, themselves. The pivotability and adjustability of the individual nozzle bodies 11, 12, 13 and/or of the housings 26 is provided for the adjustment of the spray planes in relation to the casting surface and to one another for controlling the distribution of water across the web.
Referring now to FIGS. 11 and 12, a detailed showing of one form of arrangement of the cooling fan jets is shown. A pipe joint 27 is welded onto supply line 10. Cooperating in sliding engagement on pipe joint 27 is pipe joint 28. The entire jet spray mounting may be adjusted toward and away from web surface 1 by loosening set screw 29, as will be understood.
Welded to pipe joint 28 is a manifold 30 having a cover plate 31 holding in swivel engagement three jets 11, 12 and 13. The innermost portions 32 ofjets 11, 12 and 13 are rounded and cooperate in swivel engagement with curved socket surfaces 37 in manifold cover plate 31 and jet connecting plates 36 around swivel axes 34. Connecting screws 35 may be loosened to make this swivel adjustment, depending upon the direction desired for the jets. As can be seen in FIG. 12, each jet 11, 12 and 13 has a wide entrance slot 33 in portions 32 thereof, to accommodate the fan-shaped spray desired.
1. In apparatus for cooling a hot continuously moving metal web, and having a cooling zone, and a source of cooling liquid, the combination which comprises roller means for moving said web through said cooling zone, said roller means defining the longitudinal extent of said zone, a plurality of fan jet nozzles in said zone and spaced from the surface of said moving web; means providing flow communication between said source of said nozzles; said nozzles being fan-shaped to provide longitudinally extending slit-like orifices with said orifices being parallel to each other and positioned transverse to the longitudinal axis of said moving web; adjustable connecting means in said flow communication means for adjusting the spacing between said nozzles and said moving web and for maintaining the longitudinal axes of said nozzle orifices parallel to each other but spaced apart along said longitudinal axis of said moving web, allowing angular adjustment of each of said nozzles to provide a fan jet of cooling liquid issuing therefrom in a plurality of planes for impinging the surface of said moving web in said zone, and said fan jets impinge each other at a point spaced from the moving surface of said web in said zone, whereby the prismatic volume of said intersecting jets is expanded for impinging said web. a
2. Apparatus as recited in claim 1, in which said adjustable connecting means includes means for adjusting the volume of said cooling liquid from said source to individual ones of said nozzlesto adjust the configuration of impinging contact on said websurface in said zone.
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|U.S. Classification||239/268, 72/201, 239/568, 164/444, 239/550, 239/543, 72/43|
|International Classification||B22D11/124, B05B13/02|
|Cooperative Classification||B05B13/0207, B22D11/124|
|European Classification||B05B13/02A, B22D11/124|