US 388594 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
BLBGTRIC ARG LAMP.
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LEWIS WALCOTT SPENCER, OF HOOSIOK FALLS, AND FREDERICK PO\VERS JAQUITH, OF HOOSICK, NEW YORK.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 388,594, dated August 28, 1888.
Application tiled October 12, 1885. Serial No, 179,6f8. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that we, LEWIS VALeoTT SPENCER and FREDERICK IowEEs JAQUITH, respectively of Hoosick Falls and Hoosick,in
the county of Rensselaer and State of New York, have invented certain Improvements in Electric-Arc Lamps, of which the following description, in connection with the accompanying sheet of drawings,constitutes aspecication. y
This invention relates to special mechanism for automatically regulating the feed of the movable toward the stationary carbon of an arc lamp, and to provisions connected therewith for effecting the primary adjustment of the movable carbon with reference to the fixed carbon.
I have shown in the drawings only the movable or upper carbon in connection with the devices for controlling its adjustment and feed, including the main magnets and the shuntmagnets with an interposed commutator.
The drawings fully illustrate the invention, wherein- Figures l and 2 show, respectively, a side and a front elevation of my apparatus. Fig. 3 exhibits a plan of the same after removal of the upper supporting-plate of the frame structure. Fig. 4t is a partial longitudinal section of the upper portion of the guide-tube in which the carbon-h olderstem works. Fig. 5 is a transverse section through top of guide-tube taken on line 1 2 ot Fig. 4. Fig. 6 is a view of the under side of main magnets, showing` shape of the armature. Fig. 7 shows details of construction ofthe nutand its connections.
In carrying out my invention, for convenience I mount my apparatus between two plates,A and B. Apair of electric coils,C C,is placed in the main circuit, as shown. From the bar spanning the tops of the magnets a pendulum-rod, D, is hung, so as to swing on the hinge-joint E. To the bottom of rod D the armature H is attached. This armature which carries the nut I. This nut is seen in side elevation in Fig. l as pivoted between cheeks aa, and is of elbow form, its upper part being fitted to engage with the thread on the rod J. The cylinder is provided with an annular ratchet, K, with which pawl L works. This pawl is pivoted on an oscillating plate, M, which isjournaled on cylinder b, and has its reciprocating motion imparted to it from the pendulous movement of swinging armature d, connected with the shnntcoils O O. The carbon-holder A is attached to the lower end of stem J, and has a screw-clamp, C', for securing the carbon in place.
The stem .I is provided with a ratchet screwthread, as shown, and nutI is correspondingly threaded to engage therewith. Nut I is held in engagement with the screw by a spring in its hinge-joint, or by other appropriate me- 7o ehanical means. This construction of thread possesses special advantages. Vhen it becomes desirable to insert a new carbon, the carbon-holder may be grasped by the hand and forced up to its proper altitude, the ratchet form of the thread permitting the screw to be slipped along or over the yielding nut I. The ratchet form of thread also facilitates the removal from the various bearings through which it passes of any deposited soot or products of combustion of the carbon, which often interfere with the proper action of delicate regulating mechanism. The nut also acting on only one side of the screw serves as a scraper to clean from the thread any accumulations which may have adhered thereto.
The stem .I is adjusted to work vertically in a tubular chamber, D, erected over the axis of the carbon-holder upon the plate A. It is made of a length to snit the length of carbon to be used in the lamp. Fig. i illustrates its details of internal construction and shows the upper part of the stem of the carbonholder in working position. This tube consists of two longitudinal semi-tubes provided with wings or ears S S', whereby they can be united. Between the semi-sections two longitudinal slides, E E, are inserted, and the combination so formed is held together by screws or bolts through the cars S S".
To the top of stem J is attached a ball or cross-head carrying lateral guides F F', which IOO co-operate with slides E E. These provisions pcrmit the stem J freely but accurately to slide up and down within tube D', and at the same time prevent the screw from turning. They also serve to maintain the burning-point of the carbon in apposition with the point of the under carbon.
The commutator consists of a small cylinder, Z, mounted in frame XV. In the upper surface of the cylinder is inserted a strip of non-conducting material, n, and directly over this the brush X works. Brush X isinsulated, but the current is transmitted by the usual means from the same to the shunt-coils O O. Cylinder Z has a crank-pin, n', at one end, whereby connection by the pitman is made with the pendulum N of the shunt-coils. By these means the oscillation of the pendulum N, by reason of the attraction and repulsion of armature (l, causes cylinder Z to rotate on its bearings, so that the insulating-piece a is rotated out of contact with brush X, and the same is permitted to come into contact with the material of the cylinder Z, thus establishing the circuit directly from the main to the shunt coils.
The shuntcoils O O are similar in construction to the main coils, and are provided with an armature of wedge shape, d, attached tothe end of a pendulum, l hung from the crossbar F". A longitudinally-adjustable connecting-rod is pivoted at one end to the crank-pin e and at the other end to the armature d by a joint connection, g, as seen in Fig. 3. By means of a right-and-left hand screw and nut, N, the length of this connecting rod or pitman maybe adjusted. By these appliances the attraction and repulsion of armature d impart reci p rocating motion to pawl L on arm llLwith which the pitman just described is connected. By the rcciprocation of pawl D,working in engagement with ratchet K, an intermittent progressive rotary movement is imparted to nut I, with which the ratchet K is connected, and thereby the carbon-holder is intermittently lowered.
From the axis of pendulum N a short arm, Q, is erected, which is connected by means of a retractile spring` with a fixed bracket, T, connected with the frame of the lamp. The tension of spring S is adjusted by screw R. The repellent movement of armature d is limited by set-screw S. The normal course of the current is from the dynamo or other source of supply to the .main magnets C G, thence through the structure of the upper carbon holder to the upper carbon, and from that through the lower carbon to the source.
The lamp is equipped and operated as follows: Any suitable or convenient device may be used to hold the lower carbon or electrode, which should be isolated by insulation from the upper-carbon holder. The carbon-holder should be shoved up high enough to insert the carbon in the clamp-socket A', where it is secured by screw C'. It may then be lowered to its approximate adjustment, or until the points ceases of the two carbons are in contact, by throwing nut I out of engagement with the ratchetthread of the stem J, which is easily done by depressing thumb-piece e. Contact between the carbons being established, the current is turned on, whereby the magnet-cores are magnetized and armature H is drawn into contact therewith, whereby the position seen in Fig. 2 is established. rIhis movement. acting through bracket F and stirrup G, which is pivoted to an appurtenance of the carbonholder, produces an elevation of the carbonholder, and consequently a separation of the carbon points whereby the arc is established. This status is maintained until the interval between the carbon points, by reason of the consumption of the ends of the carbons, has become so great and the resistance to the passage of the current by this path so high that it seeks a passage through the commutator, the principle of construction being such that when the resistance offered by the non-conductor n of the commutator is less than that offered by the interval between the points ofthe carbons the current will follow the path of least resistance and pass by the commutator to and through the shunt-coils. As a result of this diversion of the current, t-he shunt-coils become magnets, and, by attracting armature d through the before-described connectingpitmen, cause a movement of ratchet K in the direction to rotate the nut I, so as to let the ratchet screwstem and attached carbon down, and at the same time rotating the commutating-cylinder, so as to throw the resisting-piece n into the circuit, whereby the same, in obedience to the law of following the line of least resistance, seeks its normal path through the carbons, as in the first instance. This opera tion is repeated as often as the preponderance of resistance is transferred from the route through commutator to the interval of the are.
If found necessary or desirable, sectional nuts similar to nut I may be applied at other points about the threaded stem.
Hence we claim- 1. In an electric-arc lamp employing a movable and a stationary carbon, a holder for the movable carbon provided with a screwthreaded stem, a rotating sectional nut with which such stem engages, said nut being in combination with a concentric ratchet, and a pawl actuated by the movement of the armature of a shunt-magnet-,when constructed and arranged to operate substantially in the manner set forth.
2. In an electric-arc lamp, a vertically-movable non rotating carbon holder having a screw-threaded stem, a hollow cylindrical nutcarrier provided with a concentric ratchet, anda sectional nut adapted to engage with the thread of the screw-stem of the carbonholder which passes through the center of said carrier, and about which said carrier revolves, a concentric collar for supporting said carrier, which collar is connected with or attached to the armature of the main magnets, substan- IOO IIO
tially as shown, whereby a rising-and-falling movement may be imparted thereto, in combinatien with a reciprocating or oscillating arm carrying a pawl which actuates said ratchet by means of the vibration of the armature of a shunt-magnet with which said arm is connected, substantially as shown, and for the purposes set forth.
3. The combination of the carbon-holder havingstem lTand guide-lugs F F,with the tuhular gnideway D', having the parallel ribs E E, which co-operate with lugs F F, substantially in the manner described, and for the purposes set forth.
4. In a regulator for are lamps, the combination of the magnets() C, shunt-coilsO O,swing ing pendulum-rods N and D, armatures H and d, stirrnp G, collar H, cylinder b, and nut I, cylinder Z, insulatingpiece n, and brush X, substantially as set forth.
5. In a regulator for are lamps, the combiscribed our names, at Hoosick, this 29th day 3 5 of September, A. D. 1885.
LEWIS WALCOT'I SPENCER. FREDERICK POWERS JAQUI'IH.
In presence of FRANKLIN SCOTT, C. H. HOUGHTON.