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Publication numberUS3886407 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 27, 1975
Filing dateJun 21, 1973
Priority dateJun 21, 1973
Publication numberUS 3886407 A, US 3886407A, US-A-3886407, US3886407 A, US3886407A
InventorsLester Hans Anderson
Original AssigneeLester Hans Anderson
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Refuse compactor system
US 3886407 A
Abstract
This invention is a refuse compactor comprising a press apparatus operating in combination with a refuse container which is removably connected to the press apparatus in tandem relation. The exit opening and the entrance opening of the press and container respectively when connected together are in registration. The refuse material is deposited in the press apparatus having therein a press platen which is reciprocally driven by mechanical link means to convey the waste into the container and is compacted therein by the continued pushing of the waste therein by the reciprocating operation of the press. A crush gate is provided for placement at the exit opening of the press apparatus to serve as an anvil against which the press platen may crush hollow containers such as bottles, cans and boxes. The crush gate is adapted to be removable therefrom at the completion of the crushing operation and the crushed material may then be conveyed into the container. When the compacting operation is completed, the entrance opening of the refuse container is closed, the container and press apparatus are disconnected and the container removed for disposing the compacted contents. A drive motor control is provided to complete the cycle of operation and is responsive to a preselected maximum amount of drive motor torque. This provides for different degrees of compaction required for different refuse materials.
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United States Patent 1 Anderson REFUSE COMPACTOR SYSTEM {76] Inventor: Lester Hans Anderson, 385 Cottage Ave, Glen Ellyn, 111. 60137 [22] Filed: June 21, 1973 [21] App]. No.: 372,252

[52] US. Cl 317/13 R; 317/48; 317/54; 318/207 R [51] Int. Cl. H02h 4/085 [58] Field of Search 318/207 R; 317/48, 13 R, 317/54 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,688,046 8/1954 Norton et a1 318/207 R 3,419,755 12/1968 Kussy 317/48 X Primary Examiner-James D. Trammell Attorney. Agent, or FirmWalter Leuca [57] ABSTRACT This invention is a refuse compactor comprising a press apparatus operating in combination with a refuse container which is removably connected to the press 1451 May 27, 1975 apparatus in tandem relation. The exit opening and the entrance opening of the press and container respectively when connected together are in registration. The refuse material is deposited in the press apparatus having therein a press platen which is reciprocally driven by mechanical link means to convey the waste into the container and is compacted therein by the continued pushing of the waste therein by the reciprocating operation of the press. A crush gate is provided for placement at the exit opening of the press apparatus to serve as an anvil against which the press platen may crush hollow containers such as bottles, cans and boxes. The crush gate is adapted to be removable therefrom at the completion of the crushing operation and the crushed material may then be conveyed into the container. When the compacting operation is completed, the entrance opening of the refuse container is closed, the container and press apparatus are disconnected and the container removed for disposing the compacted contents. A drive motor control is provided to complete the cycle of operation and is responsive to a preselected maximum amount of drive motor torque. This provides for different degrees of compaction required for different refuse materials.

3 Claims, 14 Drawing Figures LID-L PATENTEDHAY 27 ms SHEET LID- REFUSE COMPACTOR SYSTEM BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates to presses in general and more particularly to refuse compactors.

2. Description of the Prior Art The prior art that I am aware of does contain numerous refuse compactors most of which, especially the more recent art, utilize a hydraulic drive means for the compacting operation. The disadvantage thereof being excessive cost in manufacturing and susceptible to disrepair. The hydraulic system also suffers from the disadvantage of uneven compacting force since the power is supplied to the area of greater resistance, resulting in binding of cylinder shafts and accessive wear of seals. In mechanical drive devices of the prior art, the controls are not responsive to the torque of the drive motor. The prior art that I am aware of also provides special type containers which are custom built to accommodate each press apparatus.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, an important feature of my invention is the utilization of conventional waste containers slightly modified to accommodate the press apparatus of my invention. This greatly reduces the costs of the entire system of my invention. Generally the press apparatus of my invention operates in co-operation with a refuse container removably connected to the press apparatus in tandem relation. The exit opening and the entrance opening of the press and container respectively when connected thereto are in registration and the press apparatus serves to convey the waste into the container and is compacted therein by the conveying operation of the press. When the compacting operation is complcted, the entrance opening of the refuse container is closed, the connecting links holding the container to the press apparatus are released and the container with the compacted material is removed for dumping into a mobile unit for transportation to a refuse dump area or other such location.

I further provide a drive motor control which is responsive to the torque of the motor. The point of responsivity is adjustably selected so that various degrees of compaction may be obtained and thereby making my invention applicable to different types of refuse material.

Specific objects and advantages will appear to one versed in the art to which this invention pertains after reading the following detailed description with reference to the accompanying drawings which illustrate a preferred embodiment of this invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a front end elevation of the press apparatus of my invention as viewed from the refuse exit end thereof;

FIG. 2 is a side elevation of the press apparatus as viewed from the right side of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a side elevation of the refuse container of my invention;

FIG. 4 is an end elevation of the refuse container as viewed from the refuse entrance end thereof;

FIG. 5 is a side elevation in fragment, of the refuse exit end of the press apparatus and the refuse entrance end of the container connected together and showing the vertical support guide members for lift gate in fragment;

FIG. 6 is an end elevation of the press apparatus as viewed from the opposite end of FIG. 1 omitting the lift gate structure;

FIG. 7 is a side view of the press apparatus and container of my invention shown in operative relationship, parts thereof being broken away to illustrate the refuse conveying operation of the combination;

FIG. 8 is a detail section of the press plate shown in fragment illustrating one of the keeper rods in end section, in operation therewith;

FIG. 9 is a pictorial view of the refuse container showing the open-end closure in set-off relation;

FIG. 10 is a detail end section broken at the center showing the closure connected to the open end of the refuse container and pinned for locking in place;

FIG. 11 is another detail view sectioned along lines ll11 of FIG. 10;

FIG. 12 is an end view of the press plate device taken along lines l2l2 of FIG. 7;

FIG. 13 is a broken section of the side of the press apparatus with parts thereof fragmented to show the forward chain sprocket; and

FIG. 14 is a schematic of the electrical circuit which controls the drive motor.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring now to the drawings, numeral 10 as shown in FIG. 7, designates generally my invention which constitutes the press apparatus 12, and refuse container 14. As further illustrated in FIGS. 2, 6 and 7, the press apparatus 12 comprises a rectangular box preferably fabricated from steel sheets having sides, bottom, ends and a top. End 16 is fabricated to form the exit opening 18 through which the refuse passes to the container 14. As more clearly shown in FIG. 7, a substantial portion of the top of the box adjacent open end 16 is open as at 20 and serves as a hopper through which the refuse is deposited in the press apparatus 12 in preparation to the compacting operation. Each of sides 22 and 24 of press apparatus 12 are formed by fabricating two longitudinal sections 26 and 28 vertically spaced apart to provide a longitudinal space 30 substantially the length thereof. Of course, the entire box structure is conventionally reinforced with structural bar members as shown in the drawings on the bottom side, around exit opening 18 and on sides 22 and 24 above and below longitudinal space 30 which also serves as side rails to support and guide the press plate support arms 32 and 34 which extend horizontally through longitudinal space 30 of each of sides 22 and 24 as more fully described hereinafter. Press apparatus 12 is mounted on swivel wheels 36 for purposes of mobility.

As illustrated more clearly in FIGS. 7, 8 and 12, press plate 38 is a vertically disposed plate structure interior of the box of press apparatus 12 and bears a perpendicular relationship to the sides, bottom and top of the box structure of the press apparatus. Formed integral with press plate 38 is a top plate 40 extending horizontally rearward, and side plates 42 which are adjacent each side 22 and 24 of the box structure of press apparatus 12. Horizontal channel members 44 are welded on the advancing side of press plate 38 and are positioned thereon vertically spaced apart to provide horizontal recesses 46. As more clearly shown in FIG. 8, each of channel members 44 is provided with a hinged plate 48 which extends across recess 46 to overlap the recess when press plate 38 advances in motion, and may swing away to uncover recess 46 when press plate 38 recedes in motion. Side plates 42 (FIGS. 7 and 12) are connected, as by weldment, to a horizontally disposed plate member 50, which for purposes of rigidity and strength can be a unitary member, the opposite ends of which, hereinbefore referred to as press plate support arms 32 and 34, extend through longitudinal spaces 30 in sides 22 and 24 of the box structure of press apparatus 12 and slide to and fro between the top and bottom edges of side plates 26 and 28 defining the slot-like lonngitudinal spaces 30.

Angle bar 51 (FIG. 2) is connected to each side plate 28 forming the bottom edge of slots 30 for reinforcement and to provide a larger support sliding area than that presented by the edges of side plates 28. I prefer to provide a channel bar 52 for connection to each of said plates 26, on both sides 22 aand 24, of the box structure of press apparatus 12 for the same purpose, that is to serve as a strengthener for plates 26 and to provide a larger sliding area for press plate arms 32 and 34, so that the other flange of channel bar 52 may be used to support cover plates 54 (FIG. 1) for the moving parts which if left exposed would be a safety hazard. Referring now again to FIG. 2, endless chain 56 encircles drive sprockets 58 mounted exterior of side plates 28 toward the back end thereof on each side 22 and 24 of press apparatus 12. Drive sprockets 58 are keyed to drive shaft 60 which, as more clearly shown in FIG. 6, extend from side to side of the press apparatus 12 mounted in bearings 62 which are connected to sides 22 and 24. Drive shaft 60 is driven by means of pulley drive 64 from speed reducer drive unit 66 which in turn is driven by means of pulley drive 68 connected to an electric motor 70, all of which are housed in the rear of press apparatus 12. Forward sprocket wheels 72 are mounted on support shafts 74 which are fixed to the forward end of each of sides 22 and 24 and sufficiently reinforced by bar 75, for example, to maintain a rigid cantilever position. Shafts 74 are vertically aligned rel ative to longitudinal space 30 so that the top length of drive chains 56 move in approximately the same line with press plate arms 32 and 34. The ends of chains 56 are connected to press plate arms 32 and 34 by bolts 76 so that press plate unit 38 is reciprocally moved in the box structure of press apparatus 12 by the forward and reverse rotation of drive sprocket 58. The interior plate member 78 (FIG. 7) of top plate 80 of the box structure of press apparatus 12 is angled downwardly as at 82 to a position immediately adjacent the top plate 40 of press plate device 38 and co-acts therewith to Prevent refuse deposited in the hopper-like opening of the press apparatus from falling behind press plate device 38. It also functions to form a hopper in the space above top plate 40 of press plate device 38 as the press plate device advances, so that deposit of refuse may be made therein even as the press plate device 38 advances in motion since when press plate device 38 recedes in motion, the refuse deposited in this hopper section will fall into the forward end of the box of the press apparatus 12 by the wiping action of downwardly angled part 82.

The press apparatus 12 above described operated in combination with refuse container 14. In most respects, refuse container 14 is conventional in structure with the exception that I provide opening 84 in one end thereof located and formed to register with exit opening 18 of press apparatus 12 when connected in tandem therewith so that the refuse deposited in hopper opening 20 of the box of press apparatus 12 is moved unobstructedly by the press plate device 38 into refuse container 14. As more readily seen in FIGS. 2, 3, 4 and 6, a rectangular frame structure 86 is fabricated around the exit opening 18 of press apparatus 12, and a rectangular frame structure 88 is fabricated around the entrance opening 84 of refuse container 14, with, for example, angle bars and channel bars. The channel bar structure of the open ends spaces the abutting units apart to provide clearance therebetween to prevent interference of operation by any overhanging members such as clamp bar 90, which secures the top doors 92 of refuse container 14 closed, and lift spindles 94 by which means a refuse truck lifts refuse container 14 for dumping operation. As shown in FIGS. 3 and 5, connected on each side of refuse container 14 adjacent the open end thereof is socket plate 96 located on both sides of container 14 at a vertical elevation aligned with cantilever sprocket support shafts 74 mounted on both sides of press apparatus 12. Refuse container 14 and press apparatus 12 are abuttingly connected together in tandem relation by releasably link means 98 provided on both sides of container 14 and press apparatus 12, as shown more clearly in FIG. 5. Releasably link means 98 comprises a hook member 100 connected by chain links 102 to lever link 104. pivotally connected to lever link 104 is cam lever arm 106 formed with cam jaw 108 which is adapted to fit over the end of cantilever sprocket support shafts 74 and tightened thereon by the wedging action of cam jaw 108 and locks in place when pivot pin 109 moves past the center of shaft 74. As more clearly shown in FIGS. 3, 4, 9 and 11, the vertically disposed channel bars 110 forming the rectangular frame structure 88 of container 14 are provided with vertically spaced holes 112 which are laterally aligned, through which pin bars 114 are run through when container 14 is filled with refuse to retain the refuse in a compacted state while press plate 38 is withdrawn, and also during the time press apparatus 12 is disconnected from container 14 by releasing link means 98 on both sides of my invention 10. As more clearly shown in FIGS. 9 to 11, an end closure 116 formed with sides 118 is provided to close the opening 84 of container 14. Closure 116 is constructed to slide over channel members 110 of frame structure 88 while top side 120 of end closure 116 is adapted to rest on top channel member 122 thereof when end closure 116 covers opening 18 of container 14. Any means such as pin 124 may be used to temporarily fasten end closure 116 to rectangular frame structure 88 to prevent end closure 116 from sliding off while container 14 is being handled to remove the refuse therefrom. After closure 1 16 is secured to rectangular frame 88 of container 14, pin bars 114 may then be removed from holes 112.

In viewing FIG. 8, the function of hinge plates 48 overlapping recesses 46 formed on press plate 38, will now become more apparent. In compacting the last load into container 14, press plate 38 advances to a position extending partially into rectangular frame structure 88 of container 14 so that vertically spaced holes in vertically disposed channel bars 110 forming the sides of frame structure 88 are positioned to be aligned with recesses 46 formed by the spacing of channel beams 44 on press plate 38. Hinge plates 48 overlap recesses 46 thereby keeping recesses 46 clear of refuse during the compacting motion. When press plate 38 reaches its most advanced point, the motion of press plate is stopped allowing the insertion through holes 112 of pin bars 114. By activating the motion of press plate 38 rearward, hinge plates 48 are made to pivot by the stationary pin bars 114 as press plate 38 recedes in motion.

I have found that though my invention as above described succeeds in compacting refuse material to a high degree of compaction, such as from 5 to l 1 times the original volume, refuse material such as metal cans and glass bottles do not compact or crush under compressive forces transmitted through ordinary refuse such as paper, garbage or cardboard and refuse of that nature or when such hollow items are distantly removed from the press plate such as when these articles are in refuse container 14. Accordingly, I include a retractable crush gate device 126 to the press apparatus 12 of my invention at the forward end thereof, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 of the drawings. Upright channel bars 128 are provided along side of opening 18 of press apparatus 12 extending upwardly, the ends of which are connected by cross bar 130 and reinforced with gusset members 132. Crush gate 134 is fitted for sliding movement in the ways of upright channel bars 128 and is rectangularly dimensioned to overlap exit opening 18 of press apparatus 12 when it is in its lowered position. Connected to the uppdr mid section of crush gate 134 is pulley lift means 136 which together with pulleys 138 and 140 mounted on cross bar 130 are connected by pulley rope 142 assembled to form a differential pulley lift. Ratchet crank pulley wheel 144 is connected to one of side bars 128 by which means crush gate 134 may be lifted and lowered manually as desired. When crush gate 134 is in its manually lowered position covering the exit opening 18 of press apparatus 12, refuse articles such as cans and bottles may then be deposited in the hopper opening and press plate device 38 put into operation. The advancing press plate 38 acting on the cans and bottle refuse against crush gate 132 now serving as an anvil will effectively crush these articles. Therefore, a recommended procedure is to segregate the bottles and cans for a separate crushing operation when crush gate 134 may be lowered to accomplish the crushing operation. When this operation is accomplished and crush gate 134 lifted to its raised position, the press plate device 38 may be operated again to push the crushed items into refuse container 14 to be compacted with the rest of the refuse.

FIG. 2 shows side upright channel bars 128 comprising the crush gate frame sectioned in two so that upon removal of one of fasteners 146 which connect the two sections of each upright bars 128, the top section of crush gate device 126 may be pivoted to a horizontal position as shown in dotted lines. The purpose of this preferred construction is convenience in storage and for transportation.

Drive motor 70 is controlled in its operation by the circuit of my invention shown in FIG. 14. This control provides for cyclic operation of the press apparatus. It also is responsive to the torque of the drive motor. The responsivity is adjustably set so that the degree of compaction is controlled and thereby providing for the most efficient compacting for different types of refuse material.

FIG. 14 shows diagrammatically the electrical circuit designed to control the operation of the press apparatus 12 of my invention. Motor is supplied with three phase power through contactors for forward drive and reverse drive. Power is applied to terminals 210, 212 and 214. When manual disconnect 216 is closed, power is then applied through fuses 218 to normally open contacts 220, 222 and 224 of the forward contactor and normally open contacts 226, 228 and 230 of the reverse contactor. When coil 254 of the forward contactor is energized, contacts 220, 222 and 224 will close and three phase power is applied through current sensitive coils of overload relays 232, 234 and 236 to the terminal of motor 70. When coil 258 of the reverse contactor is energized, contacts 226, 228 and 230 will close and three phase power is applied through integral thermal overloads 238 of the reverse contactor to the terminals of motor 70 for reverse drive. Phases of lines 210 and 214 are reversed between the forward and reverse contactors and are electrically interlocked so that only one may be energized at any one given time. Phase of lines 210 and 214 are utilized for control circuit purposes. Phase of line 210 is applied to forward limit switch 240 and reverse limit switch 242. The static condition of press plate 38 is in the extreme rearward position. In the static condition, forward limit switch 240 is closed and reverse limit switch 242 is open and the press apparatus of my invention is idle. Phase of line 210 of the control circuit is provided with a normally closed stop switch 244, and a normally open start switch 246 is provided in the circuit of forward limit switch 240. Also provided is normally open circuit interlock contact 248 bridging the start switch 246, normally closed reverse contactor auxiliary contact 250, normally closed contacts 252 of overload relays 232, 234 and 236, and coil 254 of the forward contactor. When start switch 246 is closed, power from line 210 is applied through forward limit switch 240 through start switch 246, through normally closed reverse contactor auxiliary contact 250, through normally closed contacts 252 of overload relays 232, 234 and 236, and to coil 254 of the forward contactor device. The forward contactor device having power phase of line 214 applied to the other terminal of coil 254 will energize the coil causing contacts 220, 222 and 224 to close. Also closed by the energization of coil 254 will be nor mally oepn contact 248 to lock the circuit of start switch 246 when start switch 246 is opened by its release. Power will now be applied to motor 70 causing it to drive press plate 38 in the forward direction. The circuits of forward contactor device and reverse contactor device are interlocked by reverse contactor auxiliary contacts 250 in the circuit of forward contactor device and by forward contactor auxiliary contacts 256 in the circuit of reverse contactor device both of which operate to open its circuit upon energization of either contactor coil 258 or 254. Press plate 38 will continue to move forward until press plate arm 32 moves lever rod 260 of limit switch 240. Forward movement of press plate 38 can also be stopped by overloading the current sensitive coils of overload relays 232, 234 and 236. The amperage load of overload relays 232, 234 and 236 is adjustable and the relays can be set to open at any selected amperage load developed by motor 70 as it responds to the resistance offered by the compaction of the refuse material against the pressure plate. Should either limit switch 240 or overload relay contacts 252 open, the press plate will stop its forward movement and reverse to its static position. The reversal in movement of pressure plate 38 is accomplished by the fact that reverse limit swith 242 is closed, having closed when pressure plate 38 moved from its rearward position, and forward contactor auxiliary contacts 256 in the circuit of reverse limit switch 242 having closed because coil 254 de-energized, and on-off switch 262 used for pinning the compacted load is on the on position which means that the switch is closed. Pressure plate 38 will now move in the reverse direction since the contactor coil 258 will be energized causing the closing of contacts 226, 228 and 230. Reverse movement of press plate 38 will continue until it reaches its rearmost position moving lever rod 264 thereby opening limit switch 242. Pin switch 262 is used to stop the pressureplate 38 in its maximum forward position by interrupting the circuit of reverse contactor coil 258. if pin switch 262 is in the off position, press plate 38 will stay in its maximum forward position when forward limit switch 240 is opened or when contacts 252 are opened by overload relays 232, 234 and 236. The operative function of pin switch 262 is to stop pressure plate 38 at its maximum forward position to retain the compacted load in the refuse container until the load is pinned by inserting bars 114 through holes 112 in the frame of opening 110 of container 14.

What is claimed is:

l. A control circuit for a compactor drive motor provided with forward and reverse power circuits, for a cycle operation, comprising:

contactor switch means in said forward and reverse power circuits;

an adjustable current sensitive relay means in said forward power circuit;

a line of said control circuit having a mechanically operable normally closed switch means when said motor is in its forward and rearward drive cycle, and open when said motor has completed its forward drive cycle, and contactor coil means for operatin g said contactor switch means in said forward power circuit;

another line of said control circuit having a mechanically operable normally closed switch means when said motor is in its forward and reverse drive cycle, and open when said motor has completed its reverse cycle, and contactor coil means for operating said contactor switch means in said reverse power circuit;

said line of said first contactor coil means having a normally closed (contact) switch means operable by said second contactor coil means, and the line of said second contactor coil means having a normally closed (contact) switch means operable by said first contactor coil means;

a second normally closed switch means in said first (mentioned) line operable to open by said current sensitive relay means in said power circuit for forward drive and) to abort said forward drive cycle and initiate said reverse drive cycle to completion;

said normally closed switch means in said line of first contactor coil means operable to open by said second contactor coil means when said mechanically operable switch means in said another line is closed and said first mentioned mechanically operable switch means is opened; and

manually operable switch means in said (lines) line of said (first and) second contactor coil means(.) operable to open during said forward drive to stop said motor at its maximum forward drive.

2. A control circuit for a compactor drive motor provided with forward and reverse power circuits, for a cycle operation, comprising:

switch means in said forward and reverse power circuits;

an adjustably set current sensitive means in said forward power circuit;

a line of said control circuit having means for operating said switch means in said forward power circuit, and mechanically operable switch means normally closed when said motor is in its forward and rearward drive cycle; (mechanically operable switch means and means for operating said switch means in said forward power circuit;)

another line of said control circuit having (mechanically operable switch means and) means for operating said switch means in said reverse power circuit and mechanically operable switch means normally closed when said motor is in its forward and reverse drive cycle;

said first line (of said first switch operating means) having switch means operable by said second switch operating means, and the said another line (of said second switch operating means) having switch means operable by said first switch operating means;

a second (another) switch means in said first mentioned line operable by said current sensitive means in said power circuit for forward drive; and

manually operable switch means in said lines of said first and second switch operating means.

3. The control circuit of claim 2 wherein said manually operable switch means in said line of said second contactor coil means is further characterized as being operable during the forward drive cycle to arrest the cycle at the completion of the forward drive cycle.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4048662 *Apr 15, 1976Sep 13, 1977Automobiles PeugeotDevice for avoiding accidents when closing a movable panel, for example the panel of an electrically controlled sliding roof
US4243920 *Jul 27, 1978Jan 6, 1981Emil BrehmControl device for monitoring machines driving revolving devices and method for operating the device
US4644238 *Oct 3, 1984Feb 17, 1987Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki KaishaAirflow control apparatus
US4772808 *Jan 16, 1987Sep 20, 1988Vial Jean LucControl device for electrical appliances
US5155570 *Jan 25, 1991Oct 13, 1992Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd.Semiconductor integrated circuit having a pattern layout applicable to various custom ICs
US5819645 *Sep 18, 1997Oct 13, 1998Load King Manufacturing Co., Inc.Baler feed gate safety sequencing circuit
Classifications
U.S. Classification361/23, 361/110, 318/754, 100/229.00A, 361/114, 318/739
International ClassificationB30B9/30, H02H7/085
Cooperative ClassificationH02H7/0853, B30B9/3042, B30B9/3007
European ClassificationH02H7/085D, B30B9/30C2, B30B9/30D