|Publication number||US3887346 A|
|Publication date||Jun 3, 1975|
|Filing date||Feb 11, 1974|
|Priority date||Sep 7, 1971|
|Publication number||US 3887346 A, US 3887346A, US-A-3887346, US3887346 A, US3887346A|
|Inventors||Erdman Lynn Ellynn|
|Original Assignee||Erdman Lynn Ellynn|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (23), Classifications (18)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 3, 1975 United States Patent [1 1 Erdman  HE HE PACKAGE WITH 3,342,324 9/1967 206/219 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS THREE SEPARATE CHAMBERS  Inventor:
224,090 l/l959 Australia.................................. 62/4 Lynn Ellynn Erdman, P.O. Box
30182, Cleveland, Ohio 44130 Feb. 11, 1974 Primary ExaminerA Louis Monacell Assistant ExaminerFrank Sever  Filed:
Attorney, Agent, or FirmMack D. Cook, II
Appl. No: 441,243
7 403 N02 L 6W w 9 S mnwl "22 1 UF/ 7 6 a n 00 0" & u; D MM 2 n 0 6 .wN m". m I "m m w m m P WW M m mm S W. um d m U m "mm d 4 e n "3 t 0 e hfim "S M M L :1 m G m .M 0% MR C1 UIF 1]] 3 2 8 6 555 i [ll  References Cited tant and an inner container. The inner container holds UNITED STATES PATENTS a predetermined amount of an activating liquid for the chemical reactant. An end of the inner container is 128/403 A positioned at one end of the second container by a lateral seam on the second container.
206/223 1 Claim, 10 Drawing Figures Bowen "H uu r mm WNW Wbb oo SRR 2590 5556 9999 HUN 50002 00439 277 33 5475 9 02 ,9 2222 CHEMICAL THERMAL PACKAGE WITH THREE SEPARATE CHAMBERS CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This application is a continuation-in-part of applicants prior application Ser. No. 178,071, filed Sept. 7, 1971, and is filed prior to express abandonment of said prior application.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates to a chemical thermal package.
The invention further relates to a package for a chemical reactant and an activating liquid which is simple in construction, permits of easy activation, is safe in its operation and use, and which will not be accidentally activated.
The prior art has many teachings of chemical thermal packages, including U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,925,719, patented August, 1950, and 3,342,324, patented September, 1967.
The two-compartment package of U.S. Pat. No. 2,925,719 has a sealed inner envelope 22 holding an activating liquid [water] randomly placed and floating within an outer envelope 20 containing a chemical reactant 24.
The teaching of U.S. Pat. No. 3,342,324 is to improve the two-compartment packaging art by the provision of the heat seal means 26 or 56 or 74 or 93,94 on the inner pouch 13, which is also randomly located and floating within the outer pouch 12, for localizing the transmitted forces to a particular portion of the inner pouch whereby the inner pouch will rupture at the particular portion under the influence of transmitted forces while the outer pouch remains whole. [co]. 1, 11. 56-60] It has been found that these and other twocompartment packages have the disadvantages of either a complex construction [the heat seal means of U.S. Pat. No. 3,343,324] or a requirement for complex assembly equipment as shown in U.S. Pat. No. 2,925,719. Further, activation of these twocompartment packages requires the user to locate and position the inner container, without rupture of the outer container. Also, a two-compartment package according to the prior art is very susceptible to accidental activation when boxed for shipment or stored prior to use.
It has now been found that these and other disadvantages of the prior two-compartment packaging art are not present in a chemical thermal package according to the invention.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the invention to provide an improved chemical thermal package.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a package for a chemical reactant and an activating liquid which is simple in construction. permits of easy activation, is safe in its operation and use, and which will not be accidentally activated when boxed for shipment or stored prior to use.
These and other objects of the invention, and the advantages thereof, will be apparent in view of the de scription of a preferred embodiment, as set forth below.
In general, a chemical thermal package for at least one chemical reactant and an activating liquid comprises three generally rectangular containers. Each of the containers is constructed from a thin flexible material with continuous sealed sidewalls and ends sealed by lateral seams. The outer of the three containers is a protective cover enveloping a second container holding a predetermined amount of a chemical reactant. The inner of the three containers holds a predetermined amount of an activating liquid for the chemical reactant. An end of the inner container is positioned at one end of the second container by a lateral seam on the second container.
Still further according to the invention, the end of the inner container positioned at the end of the second container by a lateral seam on the second container is closed after filling with the activating liquid by another lateral seam spaced at a distance from the liquid so as to provide room for expansion thereof.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a perspective view of the chemical thermal package of the subject invention which has portions thereof removed for ease of illustration;
FIG. 2 is an exploded view of the individual thin walled containers which are employed at making up the package shown in FIG. 1;
FIGS. 39 are schematic views showing the technique of assembly of the subject chemical thermal package; and
FIG. 10 is an enlarged view of the seam areas included in the package as shown in FIG. 5.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The drawings show a chemical thermal package A comprised of a first inner container B, a second inner container C and a protective or outer container D.
More specifically and with particular reference to FIG. 2, first inner container B, prior to assembly of a package A, comprises an envelope-like container 20 constructed from a thin flexible material. In the preferred embodiment, this material is a polyethylene plastic having a thickness of 0.002 of an inch. The container 20 has continuous sidewalls 22, an open top end 24 and a closed bottom end 26. The bottom end 26 is closed by means of a conventional thermal impulse sealed in order to obtain a true hermetically sealed lateral seam 28.
Second inner container C, prior to assembly of a package A, comprises a sleeve-like element 30 constructed from a thin flexible material. In the preferred embodiment, this material is a polyethylene plastic having a thickness of 0.002 inch. The element 30 has continuous sidewalls 32, an open top end 34 and an open bottom end 36.
Protective or outer container D, prior to assembly of a package A, comprises an envelope-like container 40 constructed from a thin plastic material. In the preferred embodiment, this material is an olefin-based plastic which is both opaque and non-permeable and having a thickness of 0.003 inch. The container 40 has continuous sidewalls 42, an open top end 44 and a closed bottom end 46. The bottom end 46 is closed by means of a conventional thermal impulse sealer in order to obtain a true hermetically sealed lateral seam 48.
As shown, container 20 is of smaller length and of slightly smaller width than element 30 and element 30 is of slightly smaller length and width than container 40. Specifically, each container which is disposed inside of another container or element is approximately one-fourth inch less in the width dimension than its associated container or element in order to assure that the containers and elements will be desirably received one within the other in a neat package.
A chemical thermal package A may be assembled as shown in FIGS. 3-10.
In FIG. 3, a container 20 is filled with a predetermined amount of an activating liquid or hydrous chemical reactant 60 through open end 24 by means of a spout or supply source 62. An activating liquid 60 may be any of a number of hydrous reactants associated with practical exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions. It is intended that the entire container 20 not be filled with activating liquid 60 in order to provide an area for thermal expansion of the activating liquid should the chemical thermal package A itself be exposed to varied temperatures.
FIG. 4 shows the removal of excess air from within the container 20, in the direction a, by merely squeezing the container sidewalls 22 toward each other and then sealing the open top end 24 closed at a predetermined location spaced above the upper level 64 of the activating liquid 60 and below the top end 24.
The open end 24 of a container 20 is closed by means of a conventional thermal impulse sealer in order to obtain a true hermetically sealed lateral seam 66. In the preferred embodiment, seam 66 is disposed at least /2 to A of an inch above the upper level 64 of the activating liquid 60. This location provides for and assures an area for thermal expansion of the activating liquid 60 and prevents accidental activation of the package A when boxed for shipment or stored prior to use.
As shown in FIG. 5, the seam 66 on container 20 is also located at least of an inch below the open end 24, so that the open end 24 extends at least /2 of an inch outwardly beyond the open end 34 of the element 30 when a container 20 is positioned within element 30. Thereafter, the open end of container 20 is again closed and also sealed to the element 30 adjacent the open end 34 by means of a conventional thermal impulse sealer in order to obtain a true hermetically sealed lateral seam 70.
FIG. is an enlarged view showing the relative positions of these seams with seam 66 being advantageously disposed inside element 30 from seam 70. A primary reason for having seams 66,70 spaced apart from each other is for safety precautions. That is, should seam 66 be broken or, for some reason faulty, activating liquid 60 will not be permitted to flow from its container since container 20 is closed at a second place by means of scam 70.
After the seam 70 has been made, container is inverted as shown in FIG. 6. The container 30 is filled with a predetermined amount of a dry chemical reactant 72 through open end 36 by means of a spout or supply source 74. A chemical reactant 72 may be any of a number of dry chemical reactants associated with practical exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions. Ammonium nitrate has been previously used to obtain an endothermic chemical reaction and calcium iodide has been used to obtainan exothermic chemical reaction, when either was mixed with an activating liquid 60 such as water.
Referring to FIG. 7, after the desired amount of chemical reactant 72 is placed in the second container 30, excess air therein is removed therefrom. in the direction b, by merely squeezing the sidewalls 32 toward each other and then sealing the open end 36 closed, as by a thermal impulse bar 68, so as to form a true hermetically sealed lateral seam 76.
After the seam 76 has been made, the container 30 is again inverted and placed inside the protective outer container D as shown in FIG. 8.
FIG. 9 shows the removal of excess air from within the container 40, in the direction c, by merely squeezing the sidewalls 42 toward each other and then sealing the open end 44 closed, as by a thermal impulse bar 68, so as to form a true hermetically sealed lateral seam 78. The seam 78 provides for and assures that the inner container 20 holding the activating liquid 60 and the second container 30 holding the chemical reactant 72 will not float within the outer container 40, so that the chemical thermal package A may be easily activated.
The seam 78, together with the dual lateral seams 66 and 70, provides additional assurance that should a seam be broken off, or for some reason faulty, activating liquid 60 will not be permitted to flow from a container 40.
The chemical thermal package A may be used with chemical reactants providing either an exothermic or endothermic chemical reaction, the specific chemical reactants employed being determinative of the final reaction itself. In order to activate the package A, it is merely necessary to grip the package adjacent the top end thereof generally at the area including seams 78, 70 and 76 and squeeze inwardly on the package to force activating liquid 60 against seam 28 until the seam bursts to thus permit the activating liquid 60 to enter the second container 30 and intermix with the chemical reactant 72. Once seam 28 bursts, it is then advantageous to shake the entire package A for a few seconds in order that the reactants will thoroughly intermix with each other to provide the complete exothermic or endothermic reaction.
Because the inner container 20 is affixed to the outer container 40, there is no difficulty in locating the inner container 20 in the event the material of the outer container is opaque. Because the inner container 20 will always be disposed in the same position, it is therefore possible to burst the inner container at seam 28 without the need for chasing inner container 20 throughout the other two containers. Likewise, as room for expansion of the activating liquid 60 is provided, the package A will not be self activating in the event of exposure to elevated temperatures prior to use. The outer container 40 also assures the elimination of skin trauma so that the package A may be used in areas of the body where skin sensitivity exists due to injury or where therapeutic surgery has been performed. The outer container 40 also assures that, should there be any leaks such as a pin hole leak which sometimes may develop in extruding polyethylene sheets, the contents of the containers 20 and 30 will not be permitted to escape and cause chemical damage to person or property.
Referring to FIG. 1, tie bands 100,102 may be attached to the upper end of a chemical thermal package A. The tie bands may be constructed from a thin plastic material of suitable length whereby the chemical thermal package A may be affixed to, for example, a body limb to retain the package in a desired position. The tie bands may be conveniently affixed to the outside of protective or outer container D when it is closed along lateral seam 78.
COMPARATIVE TEST DATA Subsequent to filing of applicants prior application Ser. No. 178,071, the applicant caused comparative testing to be done to determine whether the advantages achieved relative to use of a chemical thermal package A could be substantiated and verified.
It has been found that a chemical thermal package A according to the invention will withstand a pressure in excess of seven atmospheres. It has further been found that a chemical thermal package A did not rupture or leak through 40,000 unpressurized feet, it being noted that at this simulated altitude the temperature would be approximately 67 Fahrenheit and the liquid reactant 60 would freeze.
It has further been determined that in normal shipping by truck or rail, extreme pressures may be encountered by loading heavy articles on top of shipping cartons. Although the shipping cartons were crushed to half the original size, none of the packages was activated accidentally, and no slow leaks developed even after thirty days of such compression.
With reference to one commercially available form of two-compartment package, it was found that 18 percent were accidentally activated during normal shipment, without damage to the shipping carton, and that 12 percent developed leaks immediately upon activation. In addition, the packages failed to withstand standard atmospheric and temperature tests without accidental activation.
With reference to another commercially available form of two-compartment package, it was found that approximately 40 percent of the packages were accidentally activated during shipment, that approximately 60 percent have a tendency to leak upon activation, and that the packages cannot withstand standard freezing and atmospheric testing.
What is claimed is:
l. A chemical package A containing at least one chemical reactant (72) and an activating liquid (60) and comprising three generally rectangular outer. second and inner containers,
each of said containers being constructed from a thin flexible material and having a continuous sidewall with the ends thereof hermetically sealed by lateral seams, the outer container being a protective cover enveloping the second container, the second container containing a predetermined amount of a chemical reactant and enveloping the inner container, the inner container containing a predetermined amount of the activating liquid,
one end of said inner container being closed after filling with the activating liquid by a lateral seam (66) spaced at a distance from said liquid so as to provide room for expansion thereof,
said one end of said inner container being positioned at one end of said second container by a lateral seam (70) on said second container, said dual lateral seams assuring that the activating liquid will not flow from the inner container in the event one of said dual lateral seams should be broken,
said inner and second containers being positioned at one end of said outer container by a lateral seam (78) assuring that said inner container holding said activating liquid and said second container holding said chemical reactant will not float within said outer container, and further assuring that the activating liquid will not flow from the inner container in the event both of said dual lateral seams should be broken.
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|International Classification||B65D81/32, F25D5/00, B65B29/00, B65D81/34, F25D5/02, F24J1/00, B65B29/10|
|Cooperative Classification||B65D81/3272, F25D5/02, F24J1/00, B65D81/3484, B65B29/10|
|European Classification||B65B29/10, B65D81/32H2, B65D81/34S, F25D5/02, F24J1/00|