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Publication numberUS3888216 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 10, 1975
Filing dateOct 2, 1973
Priority dateDec 1, 1972
Publication numberUS 3888216 A, US 3888216A, US-A-3888216, US3888216 A, US3888216A
InventorsMiokovic Stevan
Original AssigneeRenault
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
System for the control of the intake and exhaust valves of internal combustion engines
US 3888216 A
Abstract
A system for the control of the intake and exhaust valves of internal combustion engines which permits the automatic variation in the valve overlap and the respective open angles during engine operation, is characterized by having two camshafts, one of which serves to open a valve while the other of which serves to close the valve, each shaft having mutually adjustable timing angles, and the rocker arms each have two cam followers one of which contacts a first cam upon one shaft and the other of which similarly contacts a cam upon the other shaft.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [191 Miokovic 1 1 SYSTEM FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTAKE AND EXHAUST VALVES OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES [75] Inventor:

[73] Assignees: Regie Nationale des Usines Renault;

Societe dite: Automobiles Peugot, France I Stevan Miokovic, Paris, France [22] Filed: Oct. 2, I973 [21] Appl. No.: 402,917

{30} Foreign Application Priority Data Dec. 1, 1972 France r. 72.42860 [52] US. Cl. 123/9015; 123/9017; 123/9025; 123/9027 [51] Int Cl. F011 1/34 [581 Field of Search 123/9015, 90.17, 90.16, 123/9022, 9024, 9025, 90126, 9027, 90.44

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 852,272 4/1907 Hennig 123/9025 2,057,354 10/1936 Withers 2 19l,459 2/1940 Duncan..... 2,506,566 5/1950 Boyer 3,004,410 10/1961 Pierce 123/9015 as 'l/I/IAYI/Il/IA 1 1 June 10, 1975 3,144,013 8/1964 Peras r. 123/9027 3,313,280 4/1967 Arutunoff 66 123/9025 3,430,614 3/1969 Meacham 123/9024 3.463.131 3/1969 Dolby 123/9025 3,628,513 12/1971 Grosseau 123/9027 3,714,932 2/1973 Meacham 123/9015 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 818,531 8/1959 United Kingdom 123/9025 343,688 2/1931 United Kingdom r, 123/9025 Primary Examiner-Manuel A. Antonakas Assistant Examiner-Daniel J. OConnor Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Oblon, Fisher, Spivak, McClelland & Maier [57] ABSTRACT A system for the control of the intake and exhaust valves of internal combustion engines which permits the automatic variation in the valve overlap and the respective open angles during engine operation, is characterized by having two camshafts, one of which serves to open a valve while the other of which serves to close the valve, each shaft having mutually adjustable timing angles, and the rocker arms each have two cam followers one of which contacts a first cam upon one shaft and the other of which similarly contacts a cam upon the other shaft.

4 Claims, 11 Drawing Figures III/IIII/I/I/II/ A PATENTEDJUN I 0 ms FIG 2 FIG. 1

PATENTEDJUH 1 0 1915 3,888,216

III/IIIIIII/fl IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII/ l FIG.

PATENTEDJUHIO I975 3,888,218

SHEET 4 FIG) FIG. 8

SYSTEM FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTAKE AND EXHAUST VALVES OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates generally to the intake and exhaust systems of internal combustion engines and more particularly to an arrangement for the control of the intake and exhaust valves so as to permit the automatic variation, during engine operation. of the valve overlap. the angles at which the valves open. and the cyclic periods throughout which the valves remain open.

2. Description of the Prior Art As is well-known, in internal combustion engines the durations of the intake and exhaust periods. which normally should be limited to the time necessary for the piston to traverse the corresponding strokes. are regularly prolonged so that each valve opens before the piston reaches dead-center and closes after the piston reaches the next dead-center. This prolongation of the intake and exhaust phases is required for several reasons. such as for example. compensation for the losses and recharging of the cylinders due to the passage of the gases around the valves. or the reduction in atmospheric pollution by decreasing the proportion of unburned gas.

Thus. in order to maximize motor efficiency at all speeds and loads it is necessary to vary the intake and exhaust periods which are of course longer. with large advance periods and delay times in valve opening and closing. respectively, for higher engine speeds. Arrangements have in fact already been proposed for varying the advance periods and delay times in the intake and exhaust phases in internal combustion engines as a function of motor speed and load.

One known mechanism provides for the control of the intake and exhaust valves of the internal combustion engine through means of a rotating control shaft which includes means for converting the rotary motion of the control shaft into an oscillatory motion ofa cam whose profile includes a lobe disposed upon a circular base. as well as means for varying the width of the cam lobe so as to control the valves as a function of motor speed and load.

Another known timing mechanism for an automobile internal combustion engine. each cylinder of which has intake and exhaust valves actuated by means of a cam shaft which is driven by means of the motor crankshaft. includes a system wherein the camshaft is able to slide within its bearings. integral with the block whereupon the camshaft includes a pair of axially separated cam lobes for actuation of the respective rocker arms of each of the exhaust valves. one lobe being wider than the other. and also includes a piston disposed at one end thereof which tends to be reciprocated within a cylinder integral with the block in one direction by means of a return spring compressed against the camshaft bearing. the piston being actuated in the other direction through means of the admission offluid. at variable pressure. into the cylinders so as to bring one or the other cam lobe into contact with the respective rocker arm according to engine speed.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly. it is an object of the present invention to provide a mechanism for the control of the intake and exhaust valves of an internal combustion engine which permits the continuous and automatic variation during engine operation. of the overlap and cyclic periods of the valves as a function of engine speed and load.

The foregoing and other objects are achieved accoording to the present invention through the provision of two Camshafts. one of which is utilized to raise the valve while the other is utilized to close the valve and which have mutually adjustable timing cycles. a pair of rocker arms. each of which have two cam followers for respectively contacting a cam upon one of the cam shafts and a cam upon the other of the Camshafts. and means to vary the mutal timing cycle of the camshafts.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Various other objects, features. and attendant advantages of the present invention will be more fully appreciated as the same becomes better understood from the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings. in which like reference characters designate like or corresponding parts throughout the several views, and wherein:

FIG. 1 is an end view. partly in section. ofa valve assembly constructed according to the present invention and its cooperative parts, including the two camshafts. the rocker arms having two cam followers and the drive shaft. the control mechanism having been removed;

FIG. 2 is a partial plan view of the assembly shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is an end view of the control mechanism of the present invention;

FIG. 4 is a plan view of the control mechanism shown in FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a longitudinal cross-section view taken along a central vertical plane through the control assembly shown in FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is a cross-section view of the control mechanism taken along line A-A of FIG. 5;

FIG. 7 is a view of the drive mechanism taken along the line F of FIG. 5;

FIG. 8 and 9 are schematic views showing the profiles of the cams for opening and closing the valves and showing the minimum and maximum angular configurations utilized for which the valves can open;

FIG. 10 is a graph showing the angles at which the valves can open as a function of the relative positions of the two cams; and

FIG. I] is a view similar to that of FIG. I, showing however another embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to the drawings. and more particularly to FIG. thereof. there is shown a rocker arm casing I8 within which are disposed two sets of rocker arms 19 and 20 which are engaged with the intake and exhaust valves 21 and 22. The rocker arms I9 and 20 may oscillate about the respective shafts 23 and 24, and also include a pair of cam followers 19' and 19''. and 20' and 20", respectively. cam follower 19' of rocker arm 19 being in contact with an upper cam shaft 4, while the other follower I9" is in contact with a lower camshaft 5. Similarly. the cam follower 20' of rocker arm 20 is also in contact with camshaft 4 while follower 20" is in contact with camshaft 5. Camshafts 4 and 5 rotate in opposite directions and are driven by means of cngine drive shaft 1, through appropriate gearing, which is of course driven by means of the automobile internal combustion engine, although it should be noted that shaft I is not indispensable since the camshafts can be driven directly by means of the engine. However,, as depicted, the use of shaft 1 permits minimum modification of existing engines.

Referring now to FIGS. 5, 6 and 7, the drive shaft 1 which is driven by means of the engine, transmits the rotary motion to gear-type bushings 2 and 3 which are intermeshed with one another. Bushings 2 and 3 rotate within bearings 6 and 7' and serve to support the end bearings 6 and 7 of camshafts 4 and which of course permit rotation of the shafts within the bushings. The right end portions of the bushings 2 and 3, as seen in FIG. 5, include partially cut portions which define diametrically opposed tongues 8 and 9. Upon these tongues are mounted annular gears 10 and 11 which, by means of keyways, are permitted to slide therealong and relative thereto but will be caused to rotate there with, the sliding gears also engaging the camshafts 4 and 5 which are furnished with spiral fins 12. When the sliding gears 10 and II, which are driven by means of the vehicle engine, are shifted along the tongues 8 and 9 of bushings 2 and 3 so as to mesh with the Camshafts, the latter are rotated in opposite directions, and consequently, the timing of the valves with respect to the particular times at which the valves open as well as the duration of the valve overlap may be varied.

The control mechanism will now be described with particular reference being made to FIGS. 3, 4 and 5. Drive shaft 1 has associated therewith a centrifugal reg ulator, now shown, and as the engine speed changes, the regulator by means of rod 13, moves spool valve 14 so as to direct oil into a piston-type actuator 15 in accordance with the engine oil pressure. The actuator 15 is provided with a fork 16 which serves to move the sliding gears 10 and 11 by means of an actuating plate 17 which is secured between flanged members, not numbered, of gears 10 and I].

As noted heretofore. rocker arms 19 and 20 each have two cam followers for respectively contacting the lifting or opening camshaft and the lowering or closing camshaft. The camshafts rotate in opposite directions, the lower shaft 5 rotating in a clockwise direction, while the upper camshaft rotates in a counterclockwise direction. As seen in FIG. 1, before rocker arm 19 loses contact with the lifting cam upon lower shaft 5, it is affected by means of the closing cam upon shaft 4, which will then be at a position noted by the phantom lines.

According to one feature of the present invention, in order to prevent the occurrence of any shocks when the rocker arm cam followers shift contact from the lifting cam to the closing cam, the crests of the cams may have the form of a circular arc the center of which lies upon the cam axis. FIGS. 8 and 9 show the cams having profiles exhibiting the minimum and maximum angular configurations for opening the valves, it being noted that for ease of comprehension the two cams are shown as being superimposed.

It should be noted further in conjunction with the desire to prevent the occurrence of shocks when the cam followers are transferred from one cam to another, that the configurations of the lifting and closing cams may be such that the descending slope of the lifting cam is prolonged so as to intersect that of the closing cam. The intersection is such that passage from one slope to that of the other does not produce abrupt changes in motion. whereby the attendant accelerations remain within acceptable limits. The lifting function of the valves, that is, the angles at which the valve can open. which is dependent upon the relative positions of the cams as well as the profile configurations thereof, is shown in FIG. 10, curve illustrating the descending curve for the lifting cam while curves 41, 42 and 43 illustrate the descending curves for the closing cam when disposed at three different angular positions. Curve 41 gives the maximum open angle which is derived from the descending curves of the two cams which intersect at point 44, while point 45 illustrates the maximum open angle which is derived from the descending curves of the two cams which intersect when the closing cam is disposed at a position representative of curve 42. When the closing cam is disposed at a position represented by curve 43, valve closure is accomplished entirely upon the descending slope of the closing cam.

Referring now to FIG. 11, another embodiment of the present invention may be used in which only the overlap of the intake and exhaust valves. and not their open angles, is made to vary automatically. Two camshafts 2S and 26, which are respectively provided for initiating intake and exhaust, are driven by means of the engine drive shaft 27. The rocker arms 28 and 29 for intake and exhaust, respectively, each have a single cam follower in contact with their respective cams, and the angular displacement of one camshaft with respect to the other shaft, which thereby varies the valve overlap, is done automatically by means of a mechanism similar to that discussed heretofore in connection with the embodiment of FIG. I.

Obviously, many variations and modifications of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings. It is to be understood therefore that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described herein.

What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. A system for the control of the intake and exhaust valves of internal combustion engines which permits the automatic variation, during engine operation, of valve overlap and the respective open angles thereof comprising, in conjunction with engine intake and exhaust valves:

two camshaft means for respectively lifting and closing said engine intake and exhaust vauves;

said camshafts having mutually adjustable timing means for adjusting the timing angles of said valves; and

a pair of rocker arms operated by said Camshafts, and

each of said rocker arms having two cam follower means thereon for respectively contacting cam means upon each of said camshafts.

2. A system as set forth in claim I, wherein said means for adjusting the timing of said valves during engine operation comprises:

two bushings intermeshed with one another and within which said camshafts respectively rotate; the end portions of said bushings defining diametrically opposed tongue members;

gear means disposed upon said tongue members for longitudinal movement thereto;

4. A system set forth in claim I, wherein:

said lifting cam has prolonged descending slope configuration which is compatible with the slope of said closing cam,

whereby at the points of intersection of said two cams no abrupt changes in movement occur so as to thereby maintain accelerations within acceptable limits and to prevent the occurrence of any shocks during passage of said rocker arms from said lifting cam to said closing cam.

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3945221 *Jan 16, 1975Mar 23, 1976Regie Nationale Des Usines RenaultShaft coupling with variable timing
US4302985 *Dec 21, 1979Dec 1, 1981Ford Motor CompanyPhase controlling system for two rotatable shafts
US4350129 *Apr 5, 1978Sep 21, 1982Nissan Motor Company, LimitedWith two spark plugs in each combustion chamber
US4364341 *Jun 8, 1981Dec 21, 1982Teodoro HoltmannValve control device for an internal combustion engine
US5178105 *Aug 22, 1991Jan 12, 1993Ricardo Consulting Engineers LimitedValve gear for internal combustion engines
US5555860 *Apr 24, 1992Sep 17, 1996Wride; Donald C.Valve control mechanism
US5586527 *Dec 22, 1993Dec 24, 1996Meta Motoren-Und Energie-Technik GmbhDevice for the variable control of the valves of internal combustion engines, more particularly for the throttle-free load control of 4-stroke engines
US5588411 *Jan 18, 1996Dec 31, 1996Meta Motoren- Und Energie-Technik GmbhMethod for controlling an internal combustion engine with external ignition system and with a fuel injection system
US5642692 *Oct 23, 1995Jul 1, 1997Wride; Donald CharlesValve control mechanism
US6953012Oct 19, 2004Oct 11, 2005Honda Motor Co., Ltd.Forced opening and closing type valve operating system
US6997153 *Dec 19, 2002Feb 14, 2006Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V.Device for variably actuating the gas exchange valves in reciprocating engines
US7228829Nov 23, 2005Jun 12, 2007George LouieContinuously variable valve timing device
CN100580228CDec 19, 2002Jan 13, 2010弗劳恩霍夫促进应用研究协会Device for variably actuating the gas exchange valves in reciprocating piston engines
DE4244551A1 *Dec 30, 1992Jul 7, 1994Meta Motoren EnergietechVariable control system for combustion engine valves
EP1526256A1 *Oct 14, 2004Apr 27, 2005HONDA MOTOR CO., Ltd.Variable desmodromic valve operating system
Classifications
U.S. Classification123/90.15, 123/90.25, 123/90.17, 123/90.27
International ClassificationF01L1/00, F01L1/30
Cooperative ClassificationF01L1/30
European ClassificationF01L1/30