US 3888641 A
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United States Patent 1191 lto [ METHOD OF ERASING SMOKE  Inventor: Shoji Ito, Tokyo, Japan  Assignee: Nittan Limited Company,
Tokyo, Japan  Filed: July 17, 1973  Appl. No.: 380,086
 Foreign Application Priority Data July 24, 1972 Japan 47-73470  US. Cl 55/84; 169/43  Int. Cl B0ld 47/06 [58} Field of Search 169/] R, l A, l B, 2, 5,
5110K: [Ms/m; ,6? r: w Para/v7- 1 June 10, 1975 2,928,498 3/1960 Nisoli et a1 55/87 3,115,158 12/1963 Sheppard 1 169/14 x 3,186,943 6/1965 Barthauer. 169/1 R 3,266,973 8/1966 Crowley 210/24 X 3,306,008 2/1967 Silverman 55/178 3,338,984 8/1967 Keckler et al. 260/679 3,353,335 11/1967 Caballero 55/94 3,579,446 5/1971 Kroke et a1 .1 252/3 3,609,074 9/1971 Rainaldi .1 252/307 3,634,233 1/1972 Hiltz 252/805 3,647,001 3/1972 Livingston 169/1 A 3,667,191 6/1972 Prince et al 55/84 X 3,684,018 8/1972 Rainaldi et a1 .1 252/307 X 3,712,041 l/1973 Sailers 3,733,788 5/1973 Crow1ey....
3,760,567 9/1973 Stalker 55/222 Primary Examiner-Bernard Nozick  ABSTRACT The method of removal of smoke particularly in confined areas by spraying an aqueous solution of a surfactant into the smoke.
1 Claim, 1 Drawing Figure 57/64 Y 77/145 //v M/M/ 7'5 METHOD OF ERASING SMOKE This invention relates to a novel and improved method of erasing smoke and more specifically smoke produced by a fire.
When a fire breaks out in a building, large quantities of smoke is produced which not only hampers escape of occupants but also obstructs fire fighting and rescue activities. Therefore, it is an important and essential that smoke be erased or removed from the area of the fire. Although a large-scaled smoke exhausting device is sometimes used, it must be brought to the area of the fire provided that it is not too late.
Therefore, an object of this invention is to provide a novel and improved method of erasing smoke easily without use of any special device.
According to this invention, an aqueous solution of a surfactant is sprayed into the smoke to settle the smoke particles.
The surfactants usable for this purpose are, for example, dialkyl sulfosuccinates, alkyl sulfates, alkyl benzenesulfonates, ricinolic ester sulfates, alkyl esters, of oz-sulfofatty acid, monosodium a-phosphonofatty acid esters, dialkyl phosphates and polyoxyethylenealkyl sulfates (degree of polymerization: 2-20) as anion surfactants, and polyoxyethylenealkyl phenols (degree of polymerization: 2-20), polyoxyethylenealkyl ethers (degree of polymerization: 2-20) and tripolyoxyethylenealkyl phosphates (degree of polymerization: 2-20) as nonion surfactants.
This invention will be described in detail hereinunder with reference to the accompanying drawing and in conjunction with some examples.
tration of smoke was measured with respect to time by a method of extinction using a silicon blue cell and the smoke erasing rate was calculated. The smoke erasing rate in this example is given by Curve 1 of the drawing with respect to the spray time.
EXAMPLE 2 The test was carried out under the same conditions as that of Example I, except that l% aqueous solution of the surfactant was used in place of the 0.5% solution.
The smoke erasing rate was measured as shown by Curve 2 of the drawing and it was 68% after 30 seconds and 77% after 60 seconds and indicated clearly an increase in the smoke erasing effect over Example I.
EXAMPLE 3 This test was carried out for the purpose of comparison under the same conditions as that of Example 1, except that the same amount of water was used in place of the surfactant solution. The smoke erasing rate was measured as shown by Curve 3 of the drawing. More specifically, it was 20% after seconds and 36% after 60 seconds and clearly indicated the effect of surfactant in comparison with the above examples.
EXAMPLE 4-l5 SMOKE ERASING RATE EXAMPLE SURFACTANTS 30 SEC. SEC.
4 Sodium di-n-hexyl sulfosuccinate 62 74 5 Sodium di-isobutyl 3-methylhutyl sulfosuccinate 77 6 Sodium di-l-methyl 4-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate 68 79 7 Sodium lauryl sulfate 63 73 8 Sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonute 65 78 9 Ricinolic benzyl sodium sulfate 63 10 Sodium butyl a-sulfolaurate 6] 74 l I Sodium amyl a-phosphonocaprute 60 74 ll Poly-methylene lauryl sodium sulfate [degree of polymerization: 6) 62 74 t3 Poly-oxyethylene nonylphenol ether (degree of polymerization: I0) 63 73 l4 Poly-oxyethylenc luuryl ether (degree of polymerization: 6) 63 75 I5 Tri-holyoxyethylcne nonyl phosphate (degree of polymerization: I0) 65 78 The single drawing is a diagram representing smoke erasing rates of three examples.
EXAMPLE l It should be noted that the method of this invention can not only erase smoke but also remove poisoning gases. This effect will be described in conjunction with the following examples.
60 EXAMPLE l6 500 grams of polyvinyl chloride resin board and 5 killograms of Japanese sedar wood were smoked and the smoke was fed into the chamber of Example I. l% aqueous solution of sodium di-Z-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate was sprayed in the chamber and the concentration of hydrogen chloride gas was measured by gas chromatography. It was found that the concentration of hydrogen chloride was reduced from 28,000 p.p.m. to 20 p.p.m. within three minutes.
EXAMPLE l7 One killogram of nylon and killograms of Japanese sedar wood were smoked and the smoke was fed into the chamber of Example 1. 1% aqueous solution of sodium di-Z-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate was sprayed in the chamber and the concentrations of hydrogen cyanate and ammonia were measured by gas chromatography. It was found that the concentration of hydrogen cyanate was reduced from 1,000 p.p.m. to p.p.m. and the concentration was reduced from 4,600 p.p.m. to 30 p.p.m. within three minutes respectively.
As described above, according to the method of this invention, smoke and poisonous gases produced by a fire can be easily and effectively removed. While the surfactant solution may be sprayed from the outside of the building by a chemical fire engine for example, it
is advantageous for it to be stored in the building for automatic spray from sprinklers installed on the ceilings.
I. In the method of removing smoke in a building wherein smoke is produced by fire forming a smoke filled area, the improvement comprising the steps of forming a aqueous solution containing up to about l% of a surfactant wherein said surfactant constitutes at least one substance selected from the group consisting of dialkyl sulfosuccinates, alkyl suflates, alkyl benzenesulfonates, recinolic ester sulfates, alkyl esters of a-sulfofatty acid, monosodium a-phosphonofatty acid es ters, dialkyl phosphates. polyoxyethylenealkyl sulfates, poiyethylenealkyl phenols, polyoxyethylenealkyl ethers and tripolyoxyethylenealkyl phosphates and then spraying said solution into the smoke filled area to settle the smoke particles.