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Publication numberUS3890040 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 17, 1975
Filing dateAug 29, 1973
Priority dateDec 27, 1971
Publication numberUS 3890040 A, US 3890040A, US-A-3890040, US3890040 A, US3890040A
InventorsSchmidlin Fred W
Original AssigneeXerox Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Induction imaging apparatus
US 3890040 A
Abstract
A process and apparatus for image reproduction wherein the process comprises the steps of contacting a charge blocking surface on a photoreceptive body with a developer material containing charged toner particles, providing an electric field of predetermined polarity between the photoreceptor and a transfer medium for attracting the toner particles toward the photoreceptor surface, subjecting the photoreceptor to activating radiation in image configuration for inducing an electrostatic charge pattern in image configuration on the photoreceptor near an interface between the blocking layer and the developer material and providing an electric field of opposite polarity between the photoreceptor and the transfer medium for transferring the toner particles in image configuration to the transfer medium. Automated copying apparatus and photographic apparatus in accordance with features of the invention are provided.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1 1 3,890,040 1 June 17, I975 Schmidlin 1 1 INDUCTION IMAGING APPARATUS [75] Inventor: Fred W. Schmidlin, Pittsford, N.Y.

[73] Assignee: Xerox Corporation, Stamford.

Conn.

[22] Filed: Aug. 29, 1973 Appl. No: 392,599

Related US. Application Data Primary Examiner-Richard L. Moses {57] ABSTRACT A process and apparatus for image reproduction wherein the process comprises the steps of contacting a charge blocking surface on a photoreceptive body with a developer material containing charged toner particles, providing an electric field of predetermined polarity between the photoreceptor and a transfer me dium for attracting the toner particles toward the photoreceptor surface, subjecting the photoreceptor to activating radiation in image configuration for inducing an electrostatic charge pattern in image configuration on the photoreceptor near an interface between the blocking layer and the developer material and providing an electric field of opposite polarity between the photoreceptor and the transfer medium for transferring the toner particles in image configuration to the transfer medium. Automated copying apparatus and photographic apparatus in accordance with features of the invention are provided.

4 Claims, 15 Drawing Figures PATENTEDJUN 17 ms SHEET 1 3 8 9O 040 1 INDUCTION IMAGING APPARATUS This is a division of application Ser. No. 212,220, filed Dec. 27, l97l, now abandoned.

This invention relates to electrostatography. The invention relates more particularly to an improved process and apparatus for electrostatography.

In electrostatography an image is reproduced by initially creating an electric charge pattern in image configuration and subsequently utilizing this charge pattern to provide a copy of the image. In one system, the image charge pattern comprises a latent electrostatic charge which is formed on a surface of a photoresyonsive body. The latent image is then developed by co tacting the surface with a developer material and the developed image is subsequently transferred to a record medium. In another known system, an electric charge pattern is established on pigmented particles which particles are then deposited on a record medium.

In the imaging system wherein a latent electrostatic image is formed on the surface of a photoresponsive body and a developer material contacts the image re tention surface, a restriction on processing speed arises as a result of the limited rate at which the developer material can be transported from a source to the sur' face. This is particularly true with the well-known cascade development. Another significant limitation is the relatively weak interaction between the electrostatic latent image and the developer material. This interac tion depends upon several factors which in general dictate the use of a relatively thick and correspondingly non-flexible photoreceptor body for the image retention surface. Additionally, separate charging, exposing and developing steps are performed in this imaging process and the performance of these steps is timeconsuming and requires relatively expensive and complex apparatus.

Various modifications have been proposed in order to overcome several of these limitations. In U.S. Pat. No. 2,892,709 to E. F. Mayer, the surface of a photoconductor is charged in image configuration through a liquid developer layer while the photoconductor is exposed to a light image. The photoconductor accepts charge in the relatively darker areas thereby forming an electrostatic image on the photoconductor. Toner particles in the liquid developer are drawn to, or precipitate on the surface of the photoconductor in the charged areas thereby forming a visible image. This process is ineffective since it requires the attraction of a charge of one polarity for charging the photoconductor and subsequently requires the attraction of a pigment of an opposite polarity. In another arrangement which is disclosed and claimed in copending U.S. Pat. application Ser. No. 104,389 filed on Jan. 6, 1971, and which is assigned to the assignee of this invention, an electrophoretic imaging process is provided wherein a suspension of toner particles in an insulating liquid is positioned between a photoconductive electrode and a second electrode. An electric field is established between the electrodes while the photoconductor is exposed to imagewise radiation thereby resulting in an exchange of charge between the photoconductive electrode and toner particles and causing repulsion of he toner particles from the surface of the photoconduct "e electrode in image configuration. In a further arrangement described in U.S. Pat. No. 2,986,552, to Gundlach which is assigned to the assignee of this invention, particles are deposited on a photoconductive surface and a uniform electrostatic charge is then formed thereon. A transfer medium contacts the charged particles while the particles are exposed through the photoconductive surface in order to provide simultaneous exposure and development.

It is an object of this invention to provide an improved imaging process and apparatus.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved imaging and in-place development process.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved imaging process and apparatus which avoids one or more of the above enumerated disadvantages accompanying prior art devices.

Another object of the invention is to provide an electrostatic reproduction process adapted for utilizing a relatively thin photoconductive body.

Another object of the invention is to provide an electrostatic reproduction process of enhanced sensitivity.

Still another object of the invention is to provide an improved electrostatic process adapted for photographic use.

In accordance with the features of this invention, a process for image reproduction comprises the steps of contacting a charge blocking surface on a photoreceptive body with a developer material containing charged toner particles, providing an electric field of predetermined polarity between the photoreceptor and the transfer medium for uniformly attracting the toner particles toward the photoreceptor surface, subjecting the photoreceptor to activating radiation in image configuration for inducing an electrostatic charge pattern in image configuration on the photoreceptor near an interface between the blocking layer and the developer material and providing an electric field of opposite polarity between the photoreceptor and the transfer medium for transferring the toner particles in image configuration to the transfer medium. Automated apparatus and photographic apparatus in accordance with features of the invention are provided.

These and other objects and features of the invention will become apparent with reference to the following specification and to the drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a side view in section of an imaging assembly constructed in accordance with features of this invention',

FIGS. 2A-2C are diagramatic representations of process steps in accordance with one embodiment of this invention,

FIGS. 3A and 3B are diagramatic representations of process steps in accordance with another embodiment of the invention;

FIGS. 4A and 4B are diagramatic representations of process steps in accordance with another embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 5 is a plan view of a camera constructed in ac cordance with features of this invention;

FIG. 6 is a side view of an alternative imaging assembly modified in accordance with features of this invention for use with the camera of FIG. 3;

FIG. 7 is a schematic view of an automated apparatus for practicing the present invention;

FIG. 8 is an enlarged view of a section of a transfer and developer belt utilized with the apparatus of FIG.

FIG. 9 is a sectional view of an imaging belt taken along lines 9-9 of FIG. 5;

FIG. 10 is a schematic view of an alternative means for cleaning the imaging belt of the apparatus of FIG. and for recording a complementary image; and,

FIG. 11 is a schematic diagram of an alternative arrangement exposing the photoreceptor 5 and for enhancing its sensitivity.

Referring now to FIG. 1, an imaging assembly comprises a film of developing material backed by an image transfer and record medium 12. The transfer and record medium 12 comprises a white paper material for example while the developer film 10 is uniformly coated on the paper 12 to a thickness determined by the maximum optical density desired. While the trans fer and record mediums are provided by the single body 12, the transfer and record mediums may comprise separate bodies as is described hereinafter with respect to FIG. 5. The developer material comprises, for example, a colloidal suspension of a toner material such as charcoal in a liquid of suitable viscosity and having a chemical potential relative to the toner for providing that the toner acquires a charge per particle within a specified range. Various suitable suspensions are known for use in the electrostatographic arts. The developer material 10 faces a body of photoreceptor material 14 which is positioned on a transparent backing 16. The photoreceptor body is formed from a photoresponsive material, as for example, cadmium sulfoselenide particles in a suitable binder. An electric charge transfer blocking layer 18 is established at an interface between the photoreceptor body 14 and the developer material 10. The blocking layer 18 may be integral with the body 14 and be formed by natural or artifically prepared surface electric charge traps or it may be provided by a thin film of electrical insulating material such as Mylar having a thickness of less than l micron. In use, the imaging assembly is positioned between an electrode 20 and a transparent electrode 22 as illustrated in FIG. 2. The electrode 22 is fabricated of a body of glass, for example having a thin film of transparent, electrically conductive material deposited thereon. The conductive transparent film may comprise tin oxide for example. Alternatively, electrode 22 comprises and integral part of the substrate 16 in the form of a transparent conductive layer.

The process steps in accordance with features of this invention are illustrated in FIGS. 2A, 2B and 2C. The imaging assembly of FIG. 1 is positioned between electrodes 20 and 22 as shown in FIG. 2A. A source 24 of adjustable DC. potential is coupled between the electrodes 20 and 22 by suitable wiring and a switch 26. The source of potential and the electrodes provide for the establishment of an electric field gradient across the imaging assembly. A potential is applied to these electrodes by operating the switch 26 as shown in FIG. 2B. Simultaneously, the imaging assembly is exposed to an image on a transparency 28 by a lamp 30 and a lens 32 which focuses the image at the photoreceptor surface.

As indicated hereinbefore, developer material includes toner particles suspended in an insulating liquid. These particles acquire a charge as a result of their chemical potential relative to the insulating liquid in which they are suspended. In the exemplary arrangement of FIG. 23, these particles are shown to have acquired a relatively positive charge. The application of an electric potential between electrodes 20 and 22 hav ing a polarity as indicated in FIG. 2B establishes a force on these positively charged toner particles which causes them to travel through the insulating liquid to the barrier surface 18. The positively charged toner particles are thus uniformly distributed along this barrier surface. Exposure of the photoreceptive material 14 to the image induces an electrostatic image at the surface of the photoreceptor. This image is a negative of the original subject considered to be dark with repect to the background and is represented in FIG. 28 by the accumulation of negative charges near the surface of the photoreceptor. This electrostatic image remains temporarily fixed thereto due to the trapping of the charge by the blocking layer 18. The establishment of this negative charge increases the magnitude of electrostatic force exerted on the positively charged toner particles in those areas conforming to a negative of the image. The polarity of the voltage applied between the electrodes 20 and 22 is then reversed as indicated in FIG. 2C. This reversal in polarity alters the direction of the electric field acting on the toner particles in those areas of the plate corresponding to very little or no light exposure and causes these particles to be drawn toward the record medium 12. By increasing the potential which is applied by the source 24 between the electrodes 20 and 22 as shown in FIG. 2C, the restraining force on the toner particles will be overcome in the unexposed or weakly exposed areas and the toner particles in such areas will be attracted toward the transfer and record medium 20. Thus, a positive of the image to be reproduced is established initially on a record medium while a negative of the same image is established at the surface of the photoreceptor. This process is particularly advantageous in that it provides for direct inplace development accompanying an induced charge in image configuration.

FIGS. 3A and 3B illustrate an alternative embodiment of the imaging process of the invention for forming a positive image on the record medium 12 and a complementary image at the photoreceptor. The polarity of the pigment particles and the polarity of the photoconductor charges are opposite to the polarities employed with respect to the process of FIG. 2. Similarly, the polarity of the applied potentials is also reversed. Suitable photoconductive materials capable of trans porting positive charges are arsenic triselenide or other arsenic selenium alloys and polyvinyl carbazole. Negative pigment particles in carriers are well-known and include photosensitive particles and mixtures as are disclosed in US. Pat. No. 3,384,566.

In addition to forming a negative image on the photoreceptor and a positive image on a record medium with the process thus described, a positive image can be formed on the photoreceptor and a negative image on the record medium. This complementary imaging process is accomplished by initially precharging the surface of the photoreceptor to a uniform relatively large potential having a polarity differing from the polarity of the charge on the pigmented particles. The pigmented particles travel to the interface surface as a result of the electrostatic force exerted on the particles both by this potential provided by the battery 24 which is coupled between electrodes 20 and 22 for increasing the effective electric field forces operating on the pigment particles. FIG. 4A illustrates the alignment of the pigment particles and the percharge on the surface of the photoconductive body. The photoconductor is then subjected to activating radiation in image configuration by the light source 30, the transparency 28 and the focusing lens 32 while the polarity of the potential applied between the electrodes is reversed. Positive photoconductor charges travel through the photoconductor to the blocking surface 18 in exposed areas. The magnitude of the potential derived from the source 24 and applied between electrodes as illustrated in FIG. 4B is selected to be slightly less than that produced by the uniform charge which was initially formed on the surface of the photoconductor 14. This results in a field acting on the pigment particles which forces them to be attracted toward the photoconductor. Supplementa tion of the above field by the field produced by the positive photoconductor charges results in reversal of the net field acting on the charged pigment particles in the exposed areas which are thus drawn to the record medium as is illustrated in FIG. 4B. A positive of the image being reproduced remains on the interface surface 18 while a negative of the image being produced is established on the record medium 12.

Negative imaging as illustrated in FIG. 4 utilizes the establishment of a relatively high electric field which is provided by the establishment of a precharge on the surface of the photoconductor 14. With the use of an ambipolar photoconductor such as selenium, the surface precharge can be established by initially exposing the photoconductor to uniform activating electromagnetic radiation while simultaneously applying a potential between the electrodes which differs in polarity with respect to the potential which is applied thereto during the imaging and transfer step. As illustrated in FIG. 4A, the ambipolar photoconductor will transport negative charge to the interface surface during this charging step. Subsequently, when the polarity of the applied potential is reversed, the photoconductor will transfer positive charge to the interface surface in image configuration. Alternatively, when the photoconductor comprises a material which is not ambipolar such as arsenic triselenide or polyvinyl carbazole, then the precharge is applied directly to the surface of the photoreceptor prior to assembly of the sandwich configuration by means such as corona charging or other suitable charging techniques.

A camera adapted for employing the process of this invention is illustrated in FIG. 5. The camera includes a boxshaped enclosure 40 having upright guides 42 and 44 positioned therein. These guides are secured to side walls of the enclosure and support electrodes 46 and 48 therebetween. The electrodes are spaced apart a distance for receiving a film strip in position therebetween. A potential is coupled to each of the electrodes from a voltage source which is not shown in detail but which is positioned within a battery operated power pack which is mounted to the enclosure 40 and is represented by the rectangular segment 50. The power pack may comprise any of the conventional highvoltage sources and the potential provided by this source is coupled via feed through connectors 52 and 54 as well as lead-in wires to the electrodes 46 and 48 respectively. A switch 58 is provided for applying potentials to the electrodes during the imaging step. A switch 60 is also provided for reversing the polarity of the potential applied to the electrodes during the developing step. A bellows 62 and lens 64 are provided for the camera along with the usual shutter and aperture arrangements which are well known and which for purposes of clarity in the drawings are not illustrated in FIG. 3.

FIG. 6 illustrates an alternative form of the imaging assembly which is particularly useful with the camera of FIG. 5. Those elements of FIG. 1 which are illustrated in FIG. 4 and perform the same functions bear the same reference numerals. Although the imaging arrangement illustrated in FIG. 1 operates satisfactorily for photographic applications. film of higher speed, resolution and image quality can be achieved through the use of conductive coatings on both the developer backing and the photoreceptor substrate. A conductive film 66 and an insulating film 68 are positioned between the record medium 12 and the developer material 10. The conductor film 66 has a thickness on the order of 1 mil or less while the insulating film 70 and a conductive film 72 are positioned between the photoreceptor l4 and transparent electrode 16. The use of the conductive films 66 and 72 provides greater coupling between the electrostatic image at the photoreceptor and the developer. Further, the use of these films increases the sensitivity of the photoreceptor and provides for the use of relatively lower voltages in carrying out both the imaging and developing steps than are required with the imaging assembly described with respect to FIGS. 1 and 2.

An automated apparatus for continuously imaging and developing in accordance with the process of this invention is illustrated in FIG. 7. The apparatus includes an endless belt 81 which is positioned about drum rollers 82 and 84 and is transported in counterclockwise direction by these rollers. The belt 81, as is illustrated in FIG. 9, is formed of Mylar or other transparent support material and includes a film 88 of transparent conductive material deposited on a surface of the support layer 80 and a film 86 of photoreceptor material deposited on the transparent conductive film 88. The conductive film 88 comprises a material which produces an electric charge blocking contact with the photoreceptor. Alternatively, a thin insulating layer between the conductor and photoreceptor is provided. The photoreceptor material comprises for example cadmium sulfoselenide in a suitable binder while the transparent conductive film 88 comprises for example tin oxide. A wiper contact 90 is positioned in contact with the belt 81 and is coupled to ground potential for maintaining the belt at ground potential.

A transfer and developer belt 91 is provided for transporting developer material to imaging and developing stations generally designated 91 and 99, respectively and for transporting a developed image to a transfer station generally designated 101. The belt 91, as illustrated in FIG. 8, is formed of an electrically insulating material 92 and includes a plurality of electrically conductive metal strips 94 which are embedded in the electrically insulating material 92 and extend across the width of the belt. Each segment is spaced longitudinally from an adjacent one and a portion of each conductive segment is exposed at the surface of the belt for contact with an imaging wiper brush 96 and a developing wiper brush 98. The belt 91 is positioned about drum rollers 100 and 102 which rotate and transport the belt in a clockwise direction in contact with the photoreceptor surface 86. Developer material 104 is contained in a reservoir and is deposited on the outer surface of the belt 91 by a conveyor mechanism 106 including a number of buckets positioned on an endless chain which extend in a sump area and convey the material to a location at which it is cascaded over the surface of the belt 91. A negative potential is provided by a voltage source 108 and is applied to the drums 100 and 102 and to the segments 94 through the wiper brush 98 in the vicinity of the developing and coating station for establishing an electrostatic binding force of the belt which causes the developer material to adhere to the outer surface of the belt. A record medium comprising a web or continuous strip of paper 110 is provided and is maintained in contact with the outer surface of the belt 91. The strip is derived from a reel 112 and is fed past a ground roller 113 to a take-up reel 114. The roller is spaced opposite an electrode 115 to which a positive potential is applied from a source 116 for causing electrostatic transfer of the image of the web. During operation, the powdered surface of the developing belt 91 is cleaned by a grounded rotating brush 117 prior to recoating while the photoreceptive surface 86 on the belt 81 is cleaned by rotating brush 118.

ln operation, the belts 81 and 91 are transported in contact through an imaging station 97 and then through a developing station 99. As described previ ously a layer of developer material is applied to the surface of the transfer and developer belt 91 by conveyor mechanism 106 before belt 91 comes into contact with belt 81. At the imaging station 97, the contact brush 96 which is coupled to a source of electrical potential 120 simultaneously contacts a plurality of segments 94 of transfer and developer belt 91 and these segments are thereby maintained at a positive potential. A subject which is to be reproduced from a transparency 122 for example, is positioned at the imaging station and exposure of the photoreceptive film to this transparency is provided by a light source 124, a shutter 126 and a lens 128. The shutter 126 is operated at a rate which pro vides for an exposure of the moving photoreceptor. Alternatively, the transparency may be transported at the same velocity as the photoreceptor. 1n the same manner as was described with respect the FIG. 2 the charged particles progress to the surface of the photoreceptor by virtue of the potential applied thereto and an electric charge in image configuration is established on the photoreceptor surface. The surface of the photoreceptor 86 is adapted to provide sufficient charge traps for retaining the charge in image configuration. The moving belts 81 and 91 progress to the development station at which a potential of opposite polarity derived from the source 108 is applied between the belt 91 and the photoreceptor 86. The toner particles travel toward and adhere to the outer surface of the belt 91 in image configuration. This developed image is transported by the belt 91 to a transfer station 101 at which location the outer surface of the belt 91 contacts the transfer record medium 110 and is electrostatically transferred thereto. The image which is transferred to the medium 110 may be fixed thereto by heat fusing or by other known means.

Subsequent to the transfer, the developer belt 91 is cleaned and retoned at the toning station. The toner is applied to the belt 92 electrostatically in order to control the amount and hence the maximum optical density in the developed image. While the use of a dry form of developing material has been described with respect to FIG. 7, greater control and sensitivity can be accomplished by electrophoretic extraction of toner particles from a liquid bath or mix. A thin layer of insulating fluid then remains on the toner and reduces the nonelectrostatic component of adhesion and thereby increases the sensitivity of the system. A reduced nonelectrostatic adhesion reduces the electrostatic force required for disciminating to which electrode the toner clings to.

The belt 81 is cleaned after exposure, as was indi cated, by the brush 118. An alternative arrangement for cleaning the belt and for simultaneously providing a record of a complementary image is provided by the arrangement illustrated in FIG. 10. Those elements of FIG. 10 which perform the same functions as elements of FIG. 7 bear the same reference numerals. ln FIG. 10, a receiving sheet 132 is provided and is supplied from a roll 134 and is taken up by a roll 138. The sheet 132 is backed at a location intermediate the feed and take-up rolls by a negatively biased roller 136 which is spaced opposite an erase lamp 130. The combination of the erase lamp and the negative biased roller 136 induces a uniform positive charge on the photoreceptor and thereby produces an electrostatic force which causes transfer of pigment from the photoreceptor to receiver sheet 132. This transferred pigment forms a negative of the original image. A grounded electrode 142 is placed opposite the erase lamp and behind the transfer-cleaning station in order to return the surface of the photoreceptor to zero potential. Alternatively, the electrode 142 can be biased to some preferred negative voltage to assist the devel opment process.

The described process and apparatus are particularly advantageous since they provide for the use of relatively thin and hence more flexible photoconductors. The thickness of the latter need only be comparable to the diameter of the toner particles which is typically a few microns. Thus, the photoconductor in accordance with this invention need only be a few microns thick. Photoreceptors capable of secondary conduction or true quantum gain are advantageously used since a counter electrode is present during exposure. This includes utilization of avalanche gain which occurs in two phase or hinder type photoreceptors. Higher sensitivity photoreceptors are also feasible for use in the described process and apparatus since they need only be sensitized during exposure. Image degradation due to breakdown or corona which has been encountered in prior apparatus is avoided since development is accomplished in place before the electrostatic image is subjected to relatively large air gaps. high process speeds are now possible since the relatively slower prior art steps of toning, transfer and fusing can be effectively done in parallel through the use of more extended zones. Additionally, as the toner is extracted from a liquid, the liquid can act as a lubricant for facilitating cleaning and effecting greater wear resistance of the belts.

in a particular example not to be deemed limiting in any manner, an imaging assembly comprising a film of developing material consisting of U1 Lawter Magenta B 2l54/Eicosane is deposited on a recording medium comprising Sterling-Limo paper. The photoconductor comprises a l5 to 20 micron layer of 1]! Monastral Red B/P PE-200 resin deposited on a 2 mil thickness of Mylar. The Mylar is positioned on a NESA body which consists of tin oxide deposited on glass. A blocking layer is formed of a film of styrene-n-butylmethacrylate having a thickness ofless than 1 micron. The assembly is exposed with a potential of 7 kilovolts wherein the Mylar is negatively polarized with respect to the Litho paper during an imaging step and the image is then developed by applying a reverse potential of 500 volts and increasing this potential to L500 volts while the Mylar is maintained positive with respect to the Litho paper. A satisfactory positive image is thereby produced.

While I have illustrated and described particular embodiments of my invention, it will be understood that various modifications may be made therein without de parting from the spirit of the invention and the scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. An imaging apparatus comprising:

a first member including a thin layer of photoconductive material overlying a layer of material which produces an electrical charge blocking contact with said photoconductive material;

first transport means for transporting said first member through imaging and development stations sequentially;

a second member;

second transport means for bringing said second member into contact with said first member, for transporting said second member through imaging and developing stations in contact with said first member and for separating said second member from said first member at a location subsequent to a development station, said second transport means including means to apply a second electrical potential to said second member at a location preceding contact between said first and second member for causing image development material to adhere to the surface of said second member and means to apply said second electrical potential to said second member at a location subsequent to a development station for causing a developed image to adhere to the surface of said second member after separation of said first and second members;

means for depositing an image developing material including charged toner particles on said second member in a location preceding contact between said first and second members;

an imaging station including means for exposing said photoconductive layer of said first member and means for applying a first electrical potential between said first and second members to provide an electrostatic image on the photoconductive surface of said first member;

a development station including means for applying said second electrical potential between said first and second members, said second electrical potential having a polarity opposite to that of said first electrical potential; and

a transfer station including means for transferring a developed image from said second member to a recordingg member.

2. The imaging apparatus as defined in claim 1 wherein said second member comprises an endless belt and a plurality of closely spaced and electrically insu lated conductive segments, each said segment having a longitudinal axis extending in a direction perpendicular to a direction of motion of said second member and having a surface which is substantially coincident with a surface of said belt.

3. The imaging apparatus as defined in claim 1 wherein said first transport means comprises an endless belt of a transparent electrically insulating material and wherein said layer of material of said first member which produces an electrical charge blocking contact with said photoconductive layer is a thin transparent conductive film.

4. The imaging apparatus as defined in claim 1 and further including a first cleaning means for cleaning image developing material from said first member and a second cleaning means for cleaning image developing material from said second member.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3511651 *Aug 22, 1966May 12, 1970Owens Illinois IncPersistent internal polarization imaging system with electrophoretic development
US3703376 *Jun 29, 1970Nov 21, 1972Xerox CorpInduction imaging system
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4649094 *Nov 29, 1982Mar 10, 1987Canon Kabushiki KaishaImage formation method and apparatus in which imaging light and conductive toner are applied to opposite surfaces of a photosensitive member
US4693951 *Jun 1, 1984Sep 15, 1987Canon Kabushiki KaishaImage forming method and image bearing member
US5216466 *Mar 26, 1992Jun 1, 1993Hitachi Koki Co., Ltd.Electrophotographic recording apparatus and system including a dielectric belt and transfer and fixing means
US5237345 *Jun 21, 1991Aug 17, 1993Victor Company Of Japan, Ltd.Charge latent image information forming apparatus and method of transferring charge latent image information from first recording medium to second recording medium
US5276490 *Sep 30, 1992Jan 4, 1994T/R Systems, Inc.Buried electrode drum for an electrophotographic print engine
US5398107 *Nov 15, 1993Mar 14, 1995T/R Systems, Inc.Apparatus for biasing the curvature of an image carrier on a transfer drum
US5428429 *Dec 23, 1991Jun 27, 1995Xerox CorporationResistive intermediate transfer member
US5442429 *Dec 6, 1993Aug 15, 1995Tr Systems IncPrecuring apparatus and method for reducing voltage required to electrostatically material to an arcuate surface
US5966570 *Jan 8, 1998Oct 12, 1999Xerox CorporationImage-wise toner layer charging for image development
Classifications
U.S. Classification399/133, 399/310, 399/353
International ClassificationG03G17/04, G03G15/34, G03G15/00, G03G17/00
Cooperative ClassificationG03G17/04, G03G2217/0091, G03G15/344
European ClassificationG03G15/34S, G03G17/04