Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3890717 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 24, 1975
Filing dateMay 8, 1974
Priority dateMay 8, 1974
Publication numberUS 3890717 A, US 3890717A, US-A-3890717, US3890717 A, US3890717A
InventorsHaun Russell W
Original AssigneeHaun Russell W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Device for setting grading lines
US 3890717 A
Abstract
A gauging tool for use in setting grading lines temporarily holds the line in its precisely determined position until a line-holding stake is adjusted to engage and support the line, whereupon the tool is removed. The tool combines, in a single instrument, a graduated upright for determining the vertical location of the line, a laterally extending line-holding rod for establishing the horizontal location of the line, and a level for trueing the tool during use.
Images(1)
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

O United States Patent 1191 1111 3,890,717 Haun June 24, 1975 DEVICE FOR SETTING GRADING LINES [76] Inventor: Russell W. Haun, 10205 Newton, Primary Examlf'er Rlc h2 1rd Aegerter Kansas City MO. 64134 Assistant Exammer-WllltS Little Attorney, Agent, or FirmSchmidt, Johnson, Hovey & [22] Filed: May 8, 1974 Williams [21] Appl. No.: 467,888

[57] ABSTRACT [52] US. Cl. 33/86; 33/1 LE; 33/174 G A gauging tool for use in setting grading lines tempo- [51] Int. Cl GOlc 15/00 rarily holds the line in its precisely determined posi- [58] Field of Search 33/86, 85, 1 LE, 174 G tion until a line-holding stake is adjusted to engage and support the line, whereupon the tool is removed. [56] References Cited The tool combines, in a single instrument, a graduated UNITED STATES PATENTS upright for determining the vertical location of the line, a laterally extending line-holding rod for estab- 3 iii'ifi 211323 232323111;1:11:13:33131111111111: 33132 lhhhg the horizontal location of the h and h hvel for trueing the tool during use.

FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 311,512 11/1955 Switzerland 33/86 11 Clams 6 Drawmg Flgul'es DEVICE FOR SETTING GRADING LINES This invention relates to a gauging device for use in expeditiously setting grading lines which serve as guides for the sensing mechanisms of grading equipment, curb-laying machines, and road-forming apparatus or the like so that the respective operations may be accurately and rapidly carried out in spite of curves or bends in the preestablished course of the road.

In the preparation of a roadbed, surveyors stakes or hubs are driven into the ground alongside the roadbed at spaced intervals to indicate the course laid out by the surveying crew, and such hubs are provided with the words cut or fill along with numbers indicating the depth of cut or amount of fill needed at the particular hub location. Grading equipment may then cut or fill the soil roughly in accordance with the markings on the hub in order to arrive at approximate true grade conditions. Thereupon, a crew is dispensed to accurately set a string line in place extending parallel to the ground and spaced a distance thereabove for the grading equipment to follow during a second pass along the road course to obtain a more exact grade condition. The string line is then utilized by curb-laying and/or road-forming machines in subsequent operations as the sensing mechanisms of the machines ride along the string to automatically control the steering of the machines.

Accurate setting of the string line is a critical step in the successful construction of a properly dimensioned and located roadway. In this respect the string line must be positioned not only at the exact height above the ground indicated by the markings on the surveyors hub, but also must be precisely located in a transverse direction relative to the roadbed so that the outer margin of the cut or fill, the back of the curb, and the edge of the road slab may be properly located.

In order to hold the string line in its selected horizontal and vertical location, stakes are commonly used which have laterally extending rods slidable along the length of the stakes to the specified height. The rods are often provided with hooks in the outermost ends thereof for the string line and are usually extensible relative to the stakes. Thus, the string line is held outwardly away from the body of the stake so as not to interfere with projecting structure of the machines following the string line.

While the stakes in and of themselves are not particularly difficult to manipulate and to embed in the soil, the line-setting step has heretofore been a timeconsuming, laborious, and frustrating procedure because of the accuracy required in placement of the line and the difficulty in measuring for the line and accounting for inherent inaccuracies in the stakes at the same time. First, the stakes are driven into the ground a short distance behind the surveyors hubs and the linesupporting rods shifted a distance along the stakes approximating the height specified on the hub. Then, utilizing a measuring device, such as a yardstick, and a level, the exact height above the hub is determined, whereupon the rod is shifted to such precise point. The height location thus having been determined, the transverse distance is then cstablished relative to the hub by again using the level and yardstick, whereupon the rod is then shifted transversely of the stake as necessary in order to properly locate the stringholding hook thereof.

However, it is possible, and in fact quite likely, that the stake has not been driven into the ground in a pre cisely vertical condition. Therefore, any transverse shifting of the string-holding rod also has an effect upon the vertical spacing thereof above the hub, hence throwing off the verticaladjustment that has already been carefully completed. Accordingly, it is then necessary to repeat the vertical adjustment of the rod, again using the level and yardstick, keepin, in mind that this second vertical adjustment may also have a detrimental effect upon the transverse location of the hook of the rod. Thus, after many repetitious adjustments and trial-and-error efforts, the hook for the string can finally be accurately positioned, all the while hoping that the stake itself is not accidentally kicked or otherwise shifted to waste the efforts expended in finally reaching accurate placement of the line.

Where the course to be followed is straight, the lineholding stakes may be spaced apart a substantial distance; but when the course is arcuate, the stakes must be more closely spaced together, hence requiring the above line-setting process to be repeated many times over in a relatively short stretch of the roadbed. Thus, the shortcomings of the conventional line-setting technique are clear, and it is the primary object of the present invention to overcome such shortcomings to the economic benefit of all parties concerned.

An important object of the present invention is to provide a single gauging tool which eliminates the frustrating and time-consuming adjustment and readjustment of the lineholding stakes by establishing with precision both the vertical and horizontal coordinates for the line at the same time and temporarily holding the line properly situated for the stake, thus making it necessary only to then move the holding rod of the stake in position to properly support the line when the tool is removed.

A further important object of the present invention is to provide expeditious positioning of the string line both vertically and horizontally with respect to the hub regardless of the fact that the string-supporting stake may be driven into the ground obliquely rather than vertically.

An additional important object of the instant invention is to provide a gauging tool which is conducive to one-man operation.

Yet another important object of this invention is to provide a gauging tool which streamlines the heretofore costly and exasperating line-setting procedures without sacrificing the accuracy required in roadbuilding operations.

IN THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a perspective view illustrating the linesetting tool of the present invention in use with a series of holding stakes and surveyors hubs;

FIG. 2 is an enlarged perspective view of the tool;

FIG. 3 is an enlarged perspective view of the lineholding rod of the tool;

FIG. 4 is an enlarged, fragmentary elevational view of the vertically shiftable indicating and rod-holding block of the tool, the block being partially shown in cross-section to reveal the means for adjusting the lineholding rod laterally of the tool; I

FIG. 5 is an enlarged, fragmentary, horizontal crosssectional view through the tool illustrating the means by which the indicator block is adjustably held on the upright gauge member; and

FIG. 6 is an enlarged, fragmentary elevational view of the tool indicating clearly the gauge markings on the upright gauge member thereof.

The tool 10 consists of four major components, i.e., an elongated, graduated gauging member 12 normally disposed in upright disposition as illustrated in FIGS. I and 2; an indicator block member 14 longitudinally shiftable along upright 12; a line-holding rod member 16 carried by indicator block 14 for vertical movement therewith and projecting laterally outwardly from upright 12 in perpendicular relationship thereto; and a level 18 on rod 16 for trueing tool 10 during use of the latter.

Tool 10 is normally used in conjunction with a surveyors hub 20 driven into the ground and extending a distance thereabove, and for this purposefthe upright 12 is provided with a laterally projecting leg 22 at the lowermost end thereof having a downwardly extending point 24 adapted to fit into a shallow dimple 26 in the top of hub 20. The upright 12 is graduated into increments of l/l6th of an inch on one side, as illustrated in FIG. 6, and preferably is graduated in increments of l/lOth of a foot on the opposite side (not shown).

Upright 12 has a central, longitudinally extending groove 28 therein which receives a tongue 30 (FIG. on a transversely extending retaining pin 32 associated with indicator block 14 for releasably holding the latter in any one of a plurality of selected locations along upright 12. As further shown best in FIG. 5, the retaining pin 32 is threaded at its outer end thereof for receiving a wing nut 34 and is provided with a coil spring 36 between wing nut 34 and indicator block 14 so that the pressure of tongue 30 against the sides of groove 28 may be varied in accordance with the adjusted position of wing nut 34. In this manner, indicator block 14 may be firmly held in a selected position or sufficiently loosened for vertical adjustment along upright 12, depending upon the position of wing nut 34 on retaining pin 32.

The indicator block 14 is preferably hollow so as to present a window 38 for viewing the indicia along upright 12 which are brought into registration with indicator 14 below window 38. In this respect, the retaining pin 32 serves as a crossline to accurately indicate the precise position of block 14 along upright 12.

The opposite side of indicator block 14 carries the line-holding rod 16 by virtue of a transversely extending opening 40. A retaining screw 42 threadably received by indicator block 14 in alignment with rod 16, releasably retains the latter in any one of a number of selected positions relative to indicator block 14. In this manner, rod 16 may be projected laterally outwardly from upright 12 in varying amounts as required.

In addition to the level 18, rod 16 is provided with a pair of longitudinally spaced-apart, string-holding notches or concavities 44 and 46. In normal use, the rod 16 is adjusted so as to position inner notch 44 directly above the hub locating point 24 so that when a string line is inserted into notch 44, the string line will be disposed directly above hub 20 when the tool is placed thereon. The outer notch 46 is preferably spaced 12 inches from inner notch 44 so that, with inner notch 44 vertically aligned with hub 20, a line supported in outer notch 46 is disposed 12 inches laterally from the hub 20.

The manner of using tool 10 may best be seen by viewing FIG. 1. In FIG. 1 is shown a number of surveycating the course which the roadway is to follow. As earlier explained, the hubs 20 are provided with markings thereon which indicate to the operators of the grading equipment and to the string line crew, the amount of cut or fill" to be made at the particular hub location. After the initial grading operation has been completed to bring the grade into its approximately proper condition, the string line crew. sets out a number of stakes 48 closely behind the hubs 20, provided sufficient room is available to do so considering the possible presence of banks of ground closely adjacent hubs 20. Each stake 48 is provided with a vertically slidable component 50 which carries a transversely extending rod 52 similar to holding rod 16 of tool 10. The outermost end of each rod 52 is configured in a hook 54 to present a recess for holding a string line 56 stretched between the stakes 48 after the latter have been properly set up. Normally, the string line crew can approximate the proper vertical, horizontal coordinates for string line 56 in order to temporarily support the latter through stakes 48 before final accurate positioning of string line 56 is accomplished. It is to be noted also that adjusting screws 58 and 60 are provided on each component 50 to accommodate lateral shifting of the rods 52 and to releasably retain the components 50 in a selected vertical disposition along stakes 48.

Once the line 56 has been roughly supported in position by the stakes 48, a crew member then utilizes the gauging tool 10 to complete the final stages of locating line 56. To this end, the crew member shifts indicator block 14 along the upright 12 in accordance with the cut or fill markings on hub 20 until the desired height is reached as indicated by the corresponding indicia on upright 12 coming into registration with cross pin 32 below window 38. Then, depending upon whether the line 56 is to be disposed directly above hub 20 or offset to one side thereof, the line 56 is inserted into inner notch 44 or outer notch 46 while the tool 10 is maintained true by level 18. At this point, therefore, the line 56 is precisely at the location desired.

It is then but necessary to loosen screw 60 on the adjacent stake 48 and to move its holding rod 52 upwardly to the line 56, whereupon screw 60 may be tightened and the tool 10 removed, leaving string line 56 supported solely by the stake 48.

By virtue of this unique method the exact proper location for string line 56 can be determined notwithstanding the fact that stake 48 may have been driven into the ground obliquely with respect to the surface of the ground. Further, such accurate location of string line 56 may be effected regardless of bends, twists, and other deformations in rods 52 and the stakes 48, because the stakes 48 serve only to hold the string line 56 after it has first been precisely located by the gauging tool 10. Hence, inaccuracies inherent in the stakes 48 and their associated parts have no bearing whatsoever upon the proper and exact positioning of string line 56.

Such inherent inaccuracies were, of course, particularly troublesome in conventional string line setting.

techniques as earlier explained, wherein shifting of the rod 52 vertically, for example, could appreciably change the horizontal location of the hook 54, and vice versa. Accordingly, the frustrating and time-consuming process of repeatedly adjusting the rods 52 of stakes 48 until obtaining proper and exact position of their hooks 54 is completely eliminated by the present invention.

Moreover, it will be appreciated thatsetting of string line 56 can now be a one-man operation insteadof requiring a large crew to complete the task as has heretofore been the case. Such is true by virtue of the fact that the string-holding means (rod 16), the measuring means (upright 12 with its graduations), and the leveling means (level 18) are all combined into a single instrument forming tool 10. Therefore, it is no longer necessary to fumble with two or more separate devices including a large level and a long yardstick during the repetitious measurements and settings heretofore required in the line-setting procedure. Once the proper vertical and horizontal positions for rod 16 have been determined and fixed, only one hand is required to hold tool on hub 20 with line 56 inserted into one or the other of notches 44, 46.

The provision of an outer notch 46 in rod 16 is especially beneficial and important where high banks of ground are located closely adjacent the selected positions for hubs 20. In these situations, insufficient space is provided to locate the stakes 48 between hubs 20 and the bank. Accordingly, it is necessary to position stakes 48 inwardly of hubs 20 toward the roadway. At the same time, however, it is still necessary to locate the string line 56 with reference to the hubs 20. Hence, if the rod 16 were not provided, and outer notch 46 were not available to support string line 56, there would be no means for positioning string line 56 laterally inwardly from hubs 20 toward the roadway. In this manner, the difficulties encountered heretofore with high, close banks have also been overcome in the tool 10 of the present invention.

It is important to note that even in the situations where string line 56 is carried by the outermost notches 46, spaced a substantial lateral distance from the hubs 20, accurate positioning of string line 56 is still obtained in contrast to the methods heretofore used wherein such drastic lateral positioning of the string line relative to the hubs 20 caused significant difficulties in obtaining exact positioning of the string line.

Once the string line 56 has been accurately positioned by tool 10 and supported in such position by the stakes 48, string line 56 may be followed by the sensing mechanisms of grading equipment to more closely reach a true grade condition, and by road-forming and curb-laying machines subsequent to the grading equipment. In this manner, a highly accurately positioned and dimensioned road may be constructed.

Having thus described the invention what is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:

1. A gauging device for use in setting grading lines while being positioned completely above the ground, said device comprising:

an elongated, graduated gauge member adapted to be manually held in an upright position while resting atop a hub driven into the ground for establishing the location above said hub at which a grading line is to be supported,

said gauge member being provided with a lower end having a horizontal cross-sectional area at least as large as the horizontal cross-sectional area of the remainder of the gauge member, means secured to said lower end projecting laterally therefrom and point means carried by and projecting dowardly 6 from said laterally projecting means for engaging the top of said hub;

an indicator member shiftable longitudinally on said gauge member for disposition at a predetermined height on the gauge member in registration with a graduation corresponding to said height;

a line holder member carried by said indicator member and projecting laterally outwardly from said gauge member for temporarily supporting the line at said predetermined height and at a predetermined horizontal distance from said hub; and

a level on one of said members for trueing the device.

2. A gauging device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said level is located on said holder member.

3. A gauging device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said holder member includes means defining a concavity for the line.

4. A gauging device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said holder member is provided with means defining a pair of separate concavities spaced apart along the holder member for selectively receiving the line.

5. A gauging device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said holder member is shiftably mounted on said indicator member for adjusting movement transversely of the gauge member to vary the horizontal disposition of the line with respect to the hub.

6. A gauging device as claimed in claim 5, wherein said holder member includes means defining a concavity for the line.

7. A gauging device as claimed in claim 6, wherei said level is located on said holder member.

8. A gauging device for use in setting grading lines comprising:

an elongated, graduated gauge member adapted to be placed in an upright position while resting atop a hub driven into the ground for establishing the location above a hub at which a grading line is to be supported;

an indicator member shiftable longitudinally on said gauge member for disposition at a predetermined height on the gauge member in registration with a graduation corresponding to said height;

a line holder member carried by said indicator member and projecting laterally outwardly from said gauge member for temporarily supporting the line at said predetermined height and at a predetermined horizontal distance from said hub; and

a level on one of said members for trueing the device,

said gauge member being provided at one end thereof with a laterally projecting leg having means for adapting said leg to rest atop said hub,

said holder member projecting from said gauge member in the same lateral direction as said leg whereby the line may be supported directly above the hub without interference from the gauge member.

9. A gauging device as claimed in claim 8, wherein said holder member is shiftably mounted on said indicator member for adjusting movement transversely of the gauge member to vary the horizontal disposition of the line with respect to the hub.

10. A gauging device as claimed in claim 9, wherein said holder member includes means defining a concavity for the line.

11. A method of setting a grading line at a predetermined height and horizontal position relative to a fixed point defined by a hub driven into the ground, said method comprising the steps of:

7 8 placing an adjustable line holder adjacent said hub; adjusting said holder to the line while the latter is pretemporarily supporting said line with a gauging tool cisely supported by said tool; and

precisely at said predetermined position by standremoving said tool to leave the line supported in said ing the tool on top of said hub while the line is supposition by the holder. ported by the tool;

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US854916 *Nov 24, 1906May 28, 1907Sylvan E StonerDitch-leveling device.
US3451136 *Feb 10, 1967Jun 24, 1969Shuttle Anthony J JrMethod of and means for determining line and grade of sewer pipes and the like
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4228588 *Nov 17, 1978Oct 21, 1980Horton Jr Lloyd EGrade checker
US4932134 *Oct 21, 1988Jun 12, 1990Meadows Dexter LUsed with a stake for locating foundation trenches and concrete forms
US5419055 *Oct 28, 1993May 30, 1995Meadows; Dexter L.Construction apparatus
US5492294 *Aug 30, 1993Feb 20, 1996Haeussler; Weston W.Line guide bracket and method of making same
US6202315 *Jan 20, 1999Mar 20, 2001Benchtie L.L.C.Surveying spike for use on vertical surfaces
US6247243 *Jun 21, 1999Jun 19, 2001Joseph M. CheckTurf inspection instrument and method
US6508006Sep 28, 2001Jan 21, 2003Tom BlackApparatus for producing a horizontal foundation for a masonry wall
US6678961 *Aug 29, 2002Jan 20, 2004Abbas PanahiCombined chalk line and articulated level device
US6842992Nov 7, 2003Jan 18, 2005Mark S. GittBuilding wall layout tool
US7000328 *Mar 4, 2004Feb 21, 2006Donald IliffSurveyor's tool
WO2008096161A2 *Feb 11, 2008Aug 14, 2008Daran TownleyAlignment device
Classifications
U.S. Classification33/413, 33/1.0LE, 33/521
International ClassificationG01C15/00
Cooperative ClassificationG01C15/00
European ClassificationG01C15/00