|Publication number||US3890747 A|
|Publication date||Jun 24, 1975|
|Filing date||Feb 28, 1973|
|Priority date||Feb 28, 1972|
|Also published as||CA1010624A, CA1010624A1, CA1010625A, CA1010625A1, DE2309459A1, DE2309481A1, DE2309482A1, DE2309513A1, DE2309555A1, DE2309556A1, DE2309566A1, US4000588|
|Publication number||US 3890747 A, US 3890747A, US-A-3890747, US3890747 A, US3890747A|
|Inventors||Van Der Lely Cornelis|
|Original Assignee||Lely Cornelis V D|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (23), Classifications (23)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 11 1 Van Der Lely  Inventor: Cornelis Van Der Lely, 7,
Bruschenrain, Zug, Switzerland  Filed: Feb. 28, 1973 [211 Appl. No.: 336,732
 Foreign Application Priority Data Feb. 28, 1972 Switzerland 2541/72  US. Cl. 52/64; 52/71', 52/79  Int. Cl E04b 1/344 1581 Field of Search 52/79, 71, 64, 68, 69, 52/66, 641, 9 D
1561 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 420.223 l/l890 Brook 52/69 2,115,615 4/1938 Brunner 52/71 3,348,344 10/1967 Tatevossian 52) X 3,470,660 10/1969 van der Lely et al 52/79 3500595 3/1970 Bennett 52/79 3500596 3/1970 Anderson 52/79 3.605.355 9/1971 Solesbee 52/641 X 3.653.165 4/1972 West 52/71 X PREFABRICATED, SPACE-BOUNDING BUILDING SECTIONS AND A BUILDING MADE FROM SAID SECTIONS 111 3,890,747 June 24, 1975 Powell 52/71 Chapman 52/79 X  ABSTRACT An elongated prefabricated parallelepiped section with a plurality of similar sections which form a building. Each section includes a pair of roof portions to form a gabled roof structure in the completed building, the roof portions each being carried flat on top of its sections for transport. One end of a roof portion is hinged to the end of the section and the other roof portion is guided so it can slide when the roof portion ends which are centrally disposed are raised to their position in the completed building. The adjoining ends of the roof portions may be hinged. For sections at the sides of the building, gable portions are provided, one depending from each roof portion so as to be movable and positionable adjacent and parallel to the sections side for transport. The gables form right-angled triangles which may be each provided with a frame of beams. The roof portions may be movable laterally to position the gable portions in alignment with the sections side after being raised.
45 Claims, 42 Drawing Figures SHEET PATENTEDJUN24 1915 PATENTEDJUN 24 I975 SHEET PATENTED JUN 24 I975 SHEET PATENTEI] JUN 2 4 ms SHEET 1 PREFABRICATED, SPACE-BOUNDING BUILDING SECTIONS AND A BUILDING MADE FROM SAID SECTIONS SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to prefabricated. spacebounding building sections for forming buildings or parts of buildings; and methods of erecting buildings from such sections.
It is known to manufacture prefabricated building sections in a factory and to transport them subsequently to a building site. Buildings constructed in this manner have, in general. flat roofs. If it is desired to have slanting roofs on the buildings, they are often fabricated on the building site.
According to one aspect ofthe invention there is provided a prefabricated. space-bounding building section, for forming a building or part of a building. having a roof or a roof portion arranged thereon so as to be displaceable in a manner such that, particularly during transport of the section from its place of prefabrication to a building site. it may be located near one of the boundary faces of the section, and such that in its final position in the erected building it can be fastened so that it is, at least locally. at a greater distance from the section and a slanting roof is formed.
Such a construction provides the possibility of erecting a slanting roof on the building site in a minimum of time. Moreover. the erection of the roof on the building site does not require specialized skilled labor. and no heavy hoisting gear is necessary.
According to another aspect of the present invention there is provided a method of erecting a building from one or more box-shaped sections prefabricated in a factory. wherein the roof of the building is also prefabricated either in portions or not in portions. after which the roof or the roof portions are transported together with the section with which they have to be united in the building to the building site. the roof or the roof portions being arranged along one of the boundary faces of the associated section so that the overall size of the roof or roof portions corresponds at least mainly with that of the section. after which on the building site the roof or the roof portion is displaced in a direction of height with respect to the section and fastened in the final position in the building.
Where reference is made herein to the fact that the roof or part of the roof extends along one of the boundary surfaces of the associated section. this is to denote that the roof or the part thereof is located near one of the mathematical boundary planes of the section, that is to say, the top face, the bottom face or the lateral faces. The roof may be spaced apart by a given distance from such a boundary plane. This distance should be so small that the section with the roof or part thereof can still be transported in a simple manner along the road, while the circumference is materially smaller than is the ease in which the roof is in its definite position on the section.
In a further form of the method of erecting a building from space-bounding sections the latter are secured to each other from the top face. after they have been transported to the building site and disposed one along side the other. It is thus not necessary to make local openings in the ceiling on the building site. For the securing from the top face there can be provided openings in the floor of the story located above the section.
Shutting these openings in the floor requires less time than closing a ceiling, while the fastening members can be more readily arranged between the sections and the operations can be carried out more easily.
For a better understanding of the invention and to show how the same may be carried into effect, reference will now be made, by way of example, to the accompanying drawings, many of which are schematic and in which:
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a perspective view of a bungalow formed of prefabricated building sections.
FIG. 2 is an elevation of the bungalow taken in the direction of the arrow II in FIG. 1,
FIG. 3 is an elevation corresponding with that of FIG. 2, the roof portion and part of the facade wall being shown tilted down,
FIG. 4 is a schematic elevation of a prefabricated building section, a roof portion being shown tilted upwards and a further roof portion being shown located on the top face of the section.
FIG. 5 is a schematic sectional view of the building section of FIG. 4 taken on the line VV in FIG. 4,
FIG. 6 is a schematic sectional view of the section of FIG. 4 taken on the line VI-VI in FIG. 4,
FIG. 7 shows on an enlarged scale a detail of the posi tion occupied by the roof portions shown in FIGS. 4 to 6 during mounting operations on the building site,
FIG. 8 is an enlarged sectional view of the adjoining edges of the roof portions of FIG. 7 in the mounted Siam,
FIG. 9 is a vertical sectional view of a hinge joint between a roof portion and a building section,
FIG. 10 is a vertical sectional view of the top face of a wall portion of a building section taken on the line X-X in FIG. 2,
FIG. 11 is a vertical sectional view of a slidesupport of a roof portion on a building section,
FIG. 12 is a vertical sectional view taken on the line XII-XII in FIG. 11 of the connection between two adjacent building sections,
FIG. 13 is a vertical detailed sectional view of the junction of the roof edges of adjacent building sections,
FIG. 14 is a schematic elevation ofa building section with an elevated roof portion to which a partition is fastened,
FIG. 15 is a vertical sectional view of the building section of FIG. 14, a roof portion with a partition se cured thereto being shown tilted downward,
FIG. 16 is a plan view of the building section of FIG. I4, taken in the position illustrated in FIG. I5,
FIG. 17 is a sectional view of the building section of FIG. 14, the roof portion being shown in the elevated position,
FIG. 18 is a vertical sectional view corresponding with FIG. 17, the roof portion being shown shifted in position with respect to the living space-bounding part of the building section,
FIG. I9 is a vertical sectional view of a chimney of the bungalow and the adjacent edges of the roof portions taken on the line lXX-IXX in FIG. 1,
FIG. 20 is a plan view of the part shown in FIG. 19, the roof tiles being omitted,
FIG. 21 is a schematic elevation of another form of prefabricated building sections, roof portions being shown hinged to each other,
FIG. 22 is a schematic elevation of the section of FIG. 21, taken in the direction of the arrow XXII in FIG. 21,
FIG. 23 is an enlarged vertical sectional view of a hinge connection between roof portions taken on the line XXIII-XXIII in FIG. 22,
FIG. 24 is a vertical sectional view of a slideconnection of a roof portion with the building section'shown in FIG. 21,
FIG. 25 is a schematic elevation of a third form in which two roof portions are hinged to the building sec- 1101],
FIG. 26 is a plan view of the form of FIG. 25, the roof portions being shown tilted down and a roof portion being shown shifted in place with respect to the building section.
FIG. 27 is a vertical sectional view of joining ridge edges of the roof portions of the form shown in FIGS. 25 and 26,
FIG. 28 illustrates schematically a further form of a prefabricated building section having an asymmetrical roof in two portions hinged to the building section,
FIG. 29 is an elevation of the long side of a prefabricated building section shown only schematically and having tiltable, vertical walls for an upper story and a tiltable roof portion.
FIG. 30 is an elevation in the direction of the line XXX-XXX in FIG. 29,
FIG. 31 is a front view of a further form of a bungalow erected from prefabricated building sections,
FIG. 32 is an elevation of the bungalow shown in FIG. 31 taken in the direction of the arrow XXXII in FIG. 31,
FIG. 33 illustrates schematically how roof portions of the bungalow shown in FIGS. 31 and 32 can be tilted down for transport purposes, viewed on the line XXXIII-XXXIII in FIG. 32,
FIG. 34 is an elevation of the gable of a bungalow erected from prefabricated building sections.
FIG. 35 is a vertical sectional view of the upper part of the facade of the bungalow of FIG. 34,
FIG. 36 is an elevation of a further form of bungalow erected from prefabricated building sections having tiltable roof portions,
FIG. 37 is an elevation of the bungalow of FIG. 36 in the direction of the arrow XXXVII in FIG. 36,
FIG. 38 is an elevation of a further form of a bungalow erected from prefabricated building sections and having two relatively displaced portions,
FIG. 39 is an elevation in the direction of the arrow XXXIX of FIG. 38,
FIG. 40 is a schematic plan view of the bungalow of FIGS. 38 and 39,
FIG. 41 is an elevation of a bungalow erected from prefabricated building sections and having two roof parts of different heights, and
FIG. 42 is an elevation of the building of FIG. 41 in the direction of the arrow XLII in FIG. 41.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS FIGS. 1 to 20 illustrate a bungalow 1 (FIG. 1) having a roof 22. The bungalow 1 is formed from five prefabricated, box-shaped building sections 2, 3, 4, and 6, placed on a foundation 7. The bungalow has a width 8 of about 12 ms and a length of about l2.5 ms. Each building section has a length which corresponds with the length 8 and a width 11 of about 2.50 ms. The length 8 of a building section is preferably not larger than 20 ms and not smaller than l0 ms. The width 11 is preferably between 2.40 ms and 3 ms.
Each of the sections, as is shown for the section 2 in particular in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, comprises a parallelepiped-shaped portion 23 having a bottom wall 12, a top wall 13 and two end walls 14 and 15. The bottom wall 12 together with the end walls 14 and 15 and the top wall 13 constitute mainly the supporting part of the section. This supporting part preferably consists of a parallelepiped-shaped skeleton of metal beams, supporting material to form a floor, end walls and a ceiling. In accordance with the division of the bungalow into different rooms further walls are arranged between the walls to form inner walls of the bungalow. These inner walls are not shown.
The portion 23 has arranged on it two roof portions 17 and 18, each of which constitutes part of a side of the roof 22 of the bungalow 1. The roof portions 17 and 18 are of equal size so that the ridge 234 of the roof is symmetrical to the width 8. At the front and rear of the bungalow the sections 2 and 6 have facades, for example, the facade 16 of the section 2. This facade 16, as well as the other walls, the floor and the ceiling, is shown only schematically in FIGS. 5 and 6, Above the facade 16, associated with the part 23 of the building section 2, a gable 19 is provided. The gable 19 comprises two portions 20 and 21 (FIG. 3), the portion 20 being rigidly secured to the roof portion 17. The portion 21 is rigidly secured to the roof portion 18.
The floor and the end walls are preferably made of concrete. A portion (FIGS. 9 and 11 of the top wall 13 forms the ceilingjust mentioned and a further superimposed portion 56 forms a floor for a space located above the parallelepiped-shaped portion 23 and beneath the roof portions 17 and 18. As is shown in FIG. 6 for the roof portion 17 in detail, each of the roof portions 17 and 18 comprises supporting beams 33 or 24, extending parallel to the longitudinal direction of the section 2 and carrying laths 35 or 26, as illustrated in FIGS. 7, 8 and 9, for tiles 57, as illustrated. The laths also serve as anchorages for rubber-coated asphalt paper 34 or 25, giving a satisfactory anchorage thereof to the supporting beams 33 or 24. It is also possible to mount on the beams 33 or 24 wooden boards.
In each of the sections the parallelepiped-shaped portion, for example the portion 23 of the building section 2, constitutes a rigid unit on which the roof portions 17 and 18 are mounted so that these portions can be arranged with their faces that will be asphalt paper and/0r tile covered in use flat on the top wall 13 ofthe portion 23, as is shown in FIG. 3. The roof portions 17 and 18 themselves constitute individual units, which are arranged above the walls 14 and 15 respectively on the top of the portion 23 of the section 2, the portion 18 being movable about a hinge shaft 27. To this end, to the underneath (in erected condition) of the supporting beams 24 of the roof portion 18 is secured an 1. section beam 28 (FIG. 9). Plates 29 secured to this L- section beam 28 are located at the side of supports 30 arranged on a channel-section beam 31 above the wall 15 and forming part of the skeleton of the para]- lelepiped-shaped portion 23 of the section 2, there being a plate 29 near each of the supporting beams 24 and the beam 31 being provided with an equal number of supports 30. Each plate 29 and support 30, lying side by side and in contact with each other. are secured to each other by a pivot pin 32, the axes of these aligned pins 32 forming the pivotal axis 27 for the roof portion 18.
The roof portion 17 includes, as indicated above supporting beams 33 corresponding to the beams 24 of the portions 18 and extending parallel to the longitudinal direction of the section. The roof portion 18 with the beams 33 bears on a number of support slides 36 (FIG. 11 secured to a metal beam 37 which is above the wall 14 and forms a part of the skeleton of the parallelepiped-shaped portion 23 of the section 2. The support slides 36 are each provided on each side with guides 38 (FIG. 12). Between these guides 38 the associated supporting beams 33 are held laterally. Each pair of guides 38 have registering holes. through which holes, and through holes 41 in the beams 33, pins 39 are passed for locking the roof portion 18 in the erected position shown in FIG. 11. The supporting beams 33 have, at a distance 40 from the holes 41, registering holes 42. Through the holes 42 the pins 39 can be passed when the roof portion 18 is shifted in position along the support slides 36 with respect to the position shown in FIG. 11. The purpose of this alternative position will be described hereinafter.
The roof portion 18 is also provided with a gutter 43 and eaves 44. Hinged to the bottom edge of the eaves 44 (FIG. 9) by a hinge 45 is a cover strip 46 (FIG. 9). From FIG. 11 it will be seen that the roof portion 17 also has a gutter 47, eaves 48 and a cover strip 50 hinged to the eaves by means of a hinge 49.
The sections 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are preferably prefabricated completely in a factory and thereafter transported to the building site. On the building site the sections are arranged on the foundation 7 and connected with each other to form the bungalow 1. Prior to prefabrication the parallelepiped-shaped portion 23 is made as a single unit. This unit comprises a skeleton of metal beams, amongst others the beams 31 and 37 shown in FIGS. 9 and 11. These beams 31 and 37 are connected with each other by longitudinal beams 51 (FIG. 10) extending in the direction of length of the section and associated with the skeleton. On the base a plurality of horizontal beams are provided and the upper and lower beams of the skeleton are interconnected by vertical beams so that a parallelepipedshaped skeleton of beams is formed, which is not shown in detail in the drawings. The bottom wall 12, end walls 14 and 1S and top wall 13 are fabricated between the beams of the skeleton. The bottom wall 12 is preferably made of concrete. The walls 14 and 15 have concrete layers 52 and 53, between which an insulating layer 54 is provided (FIG. 9). The top wall 13 includes a ceiling 55 below its beams and a floor 56 above its beams. Although in this form the beam skeleton is provided with a closed bottom wall, closed side walls and a closed top wall, a plurality of these walls may be left open to form larger spaces within adjoined sections. The skeleton thus constitutes, so to say, the space-bounding building section.
Independently of the parallelepiped-shaped portion 23 the roof portions 17 and 18 are completely prefabricated with a large roof edge and cover strip such as the strip 46.
When the portion 23 and the roof portions 17 and 18 are completely prefabricated, the roof portion 18 is secured to the portion 23 in the factory by means of the hinge pins 32. After the portion 18 has been secured to the portion 23 the portion 18 is placed down flat on the floor 56 of the top wall 13 of the portion 23 as is shown in broken lines in FIG. 9. The cover strip 46 remains suspended from the eaves as is shown in broken lines in FIG. 9. To the portion 18 is secured the portion 21 of the gable 19. This connection of the portion 21 is carried out as convenient before the portion 18 is so cured to the portion 23 by means of the hinge pins 32 or after the portion 18 is secured to the portion 23. In the position in which the portion 18 is located on the top wall of the portion 23, the portion 21 hangs down alongside the facade 16 as is shown in FIGS. 3 and 5. The portion 17 is arranged on the portion 23 so that the supporting beams 33 are located on the support slides 36 between the guides 38. The portion 17 is arranged on the portion 23 as is shown in FIG. 3. The holes in the beams 33 are in line with the holes in the guides 38. The pins 39 are inserted into the holes in the guides 38 and the holes 42 so that the portion 17 is firmly secured to the portion 23. The portion 17 has se cured to it the portion 20 so that, when the portion 17 is lying flat on the portion 23, this portion 20 is located at the side of the facade 16. as is shown in FIG. 3.
The portion 23 has a height 58 of about 2.9U ms. When the portions 17 and 18 are lying flat on the portion 23, the over-all height of the portions 17 and 18 with the portion 23 amounts to about 3. I0 ms (height 59). This height of only a little more than 3 ms permits of transporting a section that will have a pointed gable type roof when erected from the factory to the building site. The section to be transported in which the gable portions 20 and 21 are located at the side of the facade 16 has a width 60 (FIG. 5) of about 2.65 ms. The overall length 61 of the section to be transported in the po sition shown in FIG. 3 amounts to about I4 rns. When the section arrives at the building site in the position shown in FIG. 3, the roof portions 17 and 18 are displaced with respect to the portion 23 of the section so that they occupy the position shown in FIGS. I and 2. The roof portions 17 and 18 then form the slanting roof surfaces, the proximal ends of which are secured to each other and form part of the ridge of the roof. In order to move the portions 17 and 18 into the position shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 the operation is as follows.
The roof portion 18, which is connected with the portion 23 by means of the hinge pins 32, is elevated by lifting means, for example. a screw jack, into the inclined position shown in FIG. 4. When the roof portion 18 occupies the inclined position relative to the paral leIepiped-shaped portion 23, as is shown in FIG. 4, supports 63 are arranged beneath the ridge edge 62 of the roof portion 18. The supports 63 are secured to the top wall above the long side ofthe portion 23 (FIG. 10 J, for which purpose means not shown in the drawings are provided on the top wall 13 of the portion 23. When the supports 63 are put in place, the roof portion 18 is secured by means of bolts 64 to the top ends 65 of the supports 63, as is shown in FIG. 7. After the roof portion 18 is arranged in the position shown in FIG. 4, a pulley 67 is fastened near the ridge edge 62 of the roof portion by means of arms 66 to one or more supporting beams 24. On the ridge edge 68 of the portion 17 a pul- Iey 69 is secured by means of arms 70. By means of a rope 71, passed around the pulleys 67 and 69, the roof portion 17 is lifted after the pins 39 have been with drawn from the holes 42 of the supporting beams 33.
When the portion 17 has arrived approximately at its final position, as is shown in FIG. 7, a screw jack 72 is arranged beneath this portion so that over the last part of its movement from the position of FIG. 4 to the position shown in FIG. 8 the portion 17 can be elevated by the screw jack. The portion 17 can then be drawn by the rope 71 onto the top ends 65 of the supports 63 so that the edge 73 of the roof portion 17 comes into contact with the corner piece 74 of the ridge edge 62 of the roof portion 18. as is shown in FIG. 8. In this position the roof portion 17 is fastened by means of bolts 132 to the top ends 65 of the supports 63. In this position of the roof portion 17 the supporting beams 33 will be located between the guides 38 so that the holes 41 in the beams 33 are in line with the holes in the guides 38. The hinge pins 39 are passed through the holes in the guides 38 and the holes 41 in the beams 33 so that the lower side of the roof portion 17 is coupled with the portion 23 near the top of the end wall 14. By moving the roof portions 17 and 18 into the position shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 8 the gable portions and 21 move along the facade 16 into the position shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, and the edges 75 and 76 of the gable portions come into contact with each other so that an uninterrupted front is formed. The joining edges 75 and 76 can be covered by a cover plate not shown in detail in the Figures. The lower edges of the portions 20 and 21 are secured by means of a strip 85 to the floor 56. The strip 85 is secured to a beam 86 of the portions 20 and 21 and the floor 56 after the roof portions 17 and 18 are arranged in place as is shown in FIGS. 2 and 8. In this embodiment the gable is formed by profiled sheets, but it may consist of different material. The ridge edges 62 and 68 of the roof portions 17 and 18 are covered by an overlapping strip 77 which is part of the roofing 34 of the roof portion 17. This overlapping strip 77 is arranged across the edge portion 78 of the roofing of the roof portion 18 as is shown in FIG. 8 so that the edge portion 78 is then lying on the top of the ridge 68 of the roof portion 17 and the overlapping part 77 is lying across the ridge 62 of the roof portion 18. The overlapping strip 77 can be stuck to the edge portion 78.
Thus, a prefabricated building section is provided in a simple manner with a roof portion so that transport of the section is possible with a smaller height than the over-all erected height 79. The roof portions 17 and 18 can be put up in the inclined position shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 before the section is shifted in the building being erected into its place adjacent the neighboring section or sections. By arranging the roof portions 17 and 18 in their inclined positions relative to each other before joining the section concerned to the neighboring sections of the building more space is available for lifting the roof portions out of the position shown in FIG. 3. When the sections are placed in contact with each other they can be coupled with each other, for example, by interconnecting adjacent metal beams e.g. 51 and 82 of FIGS. 10 and 12 by means of bolts. In the contacting positions of, for example, the sections 2 and 3, the supporting beams of the roof portions of the sections concerned are in contact with each other, which is illustrated in FIG. 12 for a beam 33 and the support ing beams 83 of the section 3. These supporting beams 33 and 83 can be bolted to each other at one or more further spots so that the roof portions and the parallelepiped-shaped portions of adjacent sections are rigidly connected with each other. The adjacent support slides of neighboring sections can be constructed in conjunction as is shown in FIG. 12. The support slides 87 and 88 of these sections are located in contact with each other in the mounted state of the sections and have each only a guide 89 and 100 respectively. between which two neighboring beams 33 and 83 are located. Between these guides the beams 33 and 83 can be clamped together by means of a bolt, for example, the bolt 250 in FIGS. 11 and 12, when the adjacent support slides are arranged in place.
The adjacent edges of the roof portions of adjacent sections are covered by a cover strip 251 (FIG. 13). This strip is arranged on the rubber-coated roofing material 34 (or 25) of the building section 2 and the corresponding roofing material 253 of the building section 3. The strip 251 is arranged across the adjacent laths 35 of the building section 2 and the corresponding laths 253 of the building section 3. The strip 251 is secured to the edges of the roof portions of the building sections by means of an adhesive and/or by other means.
After the roof portions, e.g. the portions 17 and 18 are set in their final, erected positions, the hinged cover strips 46 (FIG. 9) and 50 (FIG. 11) are turned about their hinges and fastened to beams 220 and 221 respectively of the walls 15 and 14 respectively. The space above a cover strip, e.g. the covering strip 46 may be effectively employed for storage of a Venetian blind 222 for a window of the facade formed by the wall 15. For a window in the facade 16 below the gable 19 a Venetian blind 222 (FIG. 10) may be arranged above the floor 56 behind the gable 19. From this position the blind can be guided downwards through an opening left free above a window, for example, the window 224, when the strip is fastened in position. Rain water conduits 225 and 226 can be passed through openings in the strips 46 and 50. These conduits may, if desired, be placed during the prefabrication of the portion 23. After the sections with the roof portions are mounted in their final positions in the building, the conduits 225 and 226 can be connected with the gutters 43 and 47 respectively.
Above the floors 56 and beneath the roof portions of the associated sections, for example, the roof portions 17 and 18, a loft space is defined, which may be employed for storing goods not to be used daily, for in stance, trunks and the like. This space may, however, also be utilized for bedrooms and/or hobby rooms. For this purpose the loft spaces may be bounded by boards secured to the lower faces of the supporting beams 24 and 33, which is not shown in the drawings. The loft extending below the whole roof of the building may be divided by partitions. The roof or the gable or both, for example the gable l9 and the portions 17 and 18 may have windows for lighting the loft, for example, the windows 84 in the gable 19 (FIG. 2).
A partition in the loft may extend over the whole width of the building beneath the roof portions of a section, for example. the section 3. FIGS. 14 to 18 show, schematically, an embodiment in which such a partition 92 is provided. The partition 92 is shown in FIG. 14 in an elevation. In the erected building this partition is located above the long side ofa section, for example, the side 96 (FIG. 15). The partition 92 shown in FIG. 14 comprises two portions 93 and 94, each of which is secured to a roof portion 90 and 91 respectively. The roof portions 90 and 91 and their connection with the parallelepiped-shaped portion 97 of the section 3 correspond with the roof portions 17 and 18. The portion 94 of the partition 92 has a door 95. The portions 93 and 94 are secured to the roof portions 90 and 91 in the same manner as has been described for the gable portions 20 and 21 and the roof portions 17 and 18. The portions 21 and 20 are located in the mounted position of the section shown in FIG. 5 for portion 20 at the side of the facade wall 16. Simply by lifting the roof portions 17 and 18 from the position shown in FIG. 3 the gable portions are each brought into the position which it has to occupy in the building, when the section is mounted. With the sections located between the end sections 2 and 6 the sides of the roof portions e.g. the roof portions 90 and 91 of the section have to be located, in the mounted state, just above the sides 96 and 98 of the parallelepiped-shaped portion of the section because the roof portions of adjacent sections in this embodiment join each other satisfactorily. In order to enable. for the transport position, an arrangement of the portions 93 and 94 of the partition 92 along the long sides, for example. the sides 96 of FIG. 15, the roof portions 90 and 91 of this embodiment with the partition parts secured thereto are slidable over a short distance in the direction of width of the section. In the transport position shown in FIG. for the building section 3 the roof portion 91 is shifted with respect to the parallelepipedshaped portion 97 over a distance 99 in the direction of width 11 of the section 97. The portion 94 can be arranged at the side of the wall 96 for transport purposes. The portion 93 is, in a like manner, arranged along the side 96 for transporting the building section. The portions 93 and 94 of the partition 92 are thus located in the same manner along the side 96 as is shown in FIG. 3 for the gable portions and 21 located along the side 16.
When the section 3 has arrived at the building site, the roof portions 90 and 91 can be elevated in the same manner as the roof portions 17 and 18. After elevation and arrangement in the correct inclined positions of the roof portions 90 and 91, the portions 93 and 94 of the partition 92 are still at the side of the wall 96, as is shown in FIG. 1. It will be obvious that when the roof portions are lifted, the wall portions such as the parti tion 92 and gable 19 are also lifted. These wall portions are. consequently, also hinged to the building section via the roof portions. The connection and construction of the hinge pins and the slide supports of FIGS. 14 to 18. corresponding with the connection of the roof portions 17 and 18 of the section 2, are such that the roof portions 90 and 91 can be displaced over a distance 99 with respect to the portion 97. After the roof portions 90 and 91 have been lifted, they are displaced over the distance 99 so that they occupy the position shown in FIG. 18. The roof portions 90 and 91 are locked in this position against displacement along the hinge pins or along the support slides. The portions 93 and 94 of the partition 92 are thus located in their final positions substantially within the places of the sides 96 of the parallelepiped'shaped portion 97 of the building section 3. In the position shown in FIG. 18 the sides of the roof portions 90 and 91 are flush with the sides of the paral lelepiped-shaped portion 97 so that the section 3 can join as a whole. satisfactorily. the sections 2 and 4. Tiles. for example as at 57 in FIG. 11. may be disposed on the laths of the roof portions 90 and 91, either during prefabrication or after the sections are mounted in their final positions in the building on the building site.
Adjacent sections can be secured to each other from the loft as the supporting beams are readily accessible from the loft. The bolts of the beams, for example, the beams 51 and 82 (FIG. 12) can be put in through openings in the floor 56. These openings can be provided with coverable apertures. For putting these bolts in place the ceiling need not be opened then.
It will be apprecited that the living space of the bungalow formed principally by the parallelepiped-shaped portions of the sections 2 to 6 is expanded by an upper space obtained on the building site by elevating the roof portions arranged during the prefabrication on the parallelepiped-shaped, box-shaped portions, for example. the portion 23 of the section 2. The roof constitutes a satisfactory insulation for the living space beneath the roof. The roof is aesthetically attractive, it requires little maintenance and conducts rain water readily to the sides of the building. Inasmuch as the roof portions 17 and 18 can be elevated independently of each other and because their separate weight is not excessive, the roof portions may, if necessary, be lifted by manual force. Together with the supports 63 the roof portion 18 constitutes a strong triangular support for hoisting the roof portion 17. The position of the supporting beams 33 between the guides 38 and the connection of the supporting beams 24 to the hinge pins 32 provide a satisfactory anchorage of roof portions against lateral displacement on the box-shaped sections such as the portion 23, when the whole building section, for example, the section 2, is transported. The construction is particularly suitable for series prefabrication in factories. If desired, these factories may be displaceable for carrying out the production near the building site. By using a plurality of adjacent supporting beams in a roof portion the thickness of the roof structure inclusive of the supporting beams may be comparatively small. This is advantageous for providing a suitable height of the living spaces in the building sections, for example, in the portion 23, for instance a height of 2.60 ms without the risk of having an excessive transport height 59. The height 215 (FIG. 8) of the supporting beams may be particularly small, when approximately midway between the lower end near the pivotal axes 27 and 39 of the roof portions 18 and 17 respectively and the top ends 62 and 68 of the supporting beams; a further support, for example, a beam 216 is provided, which is held preferably by two upright supporting beams, for example the beam 217, on the top of the portion 23. The beams 217 are preferably held on longitudinal beams in the long sides of the top wall 13 of the section portion 23, for example, the beams 51 (FIG. 10) of the embodiment described.
FIGS. 19 and 20 show the construction of the connection of the roof portions 103 and 104 of the building section 4 with the chimney 101. The connection of the roof portions 103 and 104 with the box'shaped portion 130 of the building section 4 is identical with the structure shown for the building section 2. The joining sides of the roof portions 103 and 104 have recesses 130 and 131 respectively forming an opening 105 for the jacket 102 of the chimney 101. The chimney jacket 102 is held in this opening 105. In order to form the opening 105 the supporting beams 106 and 107 of the roof portions 103 and 104, these beams corresponding with the supporting beams 33 and 24 of the roof portions 17 and 18, are shorter than the beams 33 and 34. The opening
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|U.S. Classification||52/64, 52/79.5, 52/71, D25/22|
|International Classification||E04B1/344, E04B7/00, E06B9/17, E04F17/02, E04F17/00, E04B7/02, E04B7/24|
|Cooperative Classification||E04F17/02, E06B9/17, E04B1/3442, E04B7/24, E04B7/02, E06B9/1703|
|European Classification||E06B9/17B6, E04F17/02, E04B7/24, E04B7/02, E04B1/344C, E06B9/17|