|Publication number||US3890794 A|
|Publication date||Jun 24, 1975|
|Filing date||Dec 26, 1972|
|Priority date||Dec 26, 1972|
|Publication number||US 3890794 A, US 3890794A, US-A-3890794, US3890794 A, US3890794A|
|Inventors||Broadfoot John T|
|Original Assignee||Broadfoot John T|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (9), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
nit States Broadfoot atent 1 METHOD OF REPLACING PILING John T. Broadfoot, Star Rte. 1, Box
144, Kingston, Wash. 98346 Filed: Dec. 26, 1972 Appl. No.: 318,093
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 12/1923 Beeby 61/54 1,888,073 11/1932 Collins 61/54 2,013,214 9/1925 Kershaw 61/53 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 120,250 11/1947 Sweden 61/54 Primary Examiner-Jacob Shapiro Attorney, Agem, 0r Firm-Seed, Berry, Vernon & Baynham 5 7 ABSTRACT Deteriorated piling is replaced with a hollow, tubular, reinforced concrete column extending from just below the mud line to the underside of a load-bearing member supporting an overhead structure, The deteriorated piling is severed below the mud line and a castin-place concrete column is positioned between the severed piling and the overhead supporting member. Any required length of column is formed by suspending a preformed base section in water over the severed piling, securing a form member to the top edge of the base section, spraying quick-setting concrete over the form member, which sets in seconds, and adding progressive additions of form member and concrete while lowering the hollow column into place over the severed piling until contact is made with the overhead structure. An integral, hollow concrete column is formed functioning as a load-bearing piling.
10 Claims, 12 Drawing Figures PATENTEDJUN24|915 3 90 79 SHEET 1 FIG 33% PATENTEDJUN24 I975 3. 890,794 I SHEET 2 I MG, 4 FIG, 5 I FIG, 6
METHOD OF REPLACING PILING BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates to a method of replacing deteriorated piling and to a tubular, hollow concrete piling member.
2. Prior Art Relating to the Disclosure Wood piling used to support docks, piers, trestles and other structures supported in or over water are subject to deterioration because of alternate contact with water and air, bore worms or other causes. One method of replacing deteriorated wood piling with a solid concrete column is described in US Pat. No. 3,505,825. This patent describes a method of replacing deteriorated piling with a solid concrete column wherein a tubular concrete form is positioned between the upper end of a severed piling and the underside of an overhead load-bearing member and concrete continuously pumped into the column from the bottom up. A disadvantage of this is the handling difficulty encountered with the concrete form tubes.
Quick-setting concrete and means for pneumatic placement thereof are known. Generally, the applications of pneumatically placed, quick-setting concrete have been in providing ground support in mines and tunnels. There has been no application of pneumatically placed, quick-setting concrete to replacement of piling. A particularly useful apparatus for applying SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The objects of this invention are to provide a method of replacing deteriorated piling which (1) requires less equipment, (2) employs an economically and commercially feasible system, (3) requires less time and labor for replacement, (4) does away with the handling of heavy equipment, (5) can be carried out at any tide level, and (6) utilizes pneumatically placed concrete which sets within seconds.
Broadly, the method of this invention comprises providing a load-bearing, cast-in-situ, hollow concrete column as a replacement for a deteriorated piling by (l) severing and removing the deteriorated section of pi]- ing to leave a sound bottom piling stub and an overhead member to the underside of which the deteriorated section has been in load-bearing contact; (2) provi'ding a pre-cast base section adapted to fit over the sound severed'section of the piling, the base section including an elongated, tubular concrete form in contact with the pre-cast base around which is applied a layer of quicksetting concrete to form a solid concrete base and a hollow concrete column integral with the base; (3) positioning the base section in water above the severed sound section with the top edge of the column extending above the waterline; (4) securing another tubular concrete form extension to the upper end of the first form; (5) applying quick-setting concrete completely around the concrete form and its intersection with the base section; 6) lowering the column toward its position over the severed sound section and repeating steps (4) and (5) to form a continuous hollow concrete column extending between the piling stub section of the deteriorated piling and the overhead member.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS made in accordance with the disclosure herein.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS FIGS. 4 to 11 depict in sequence the steps of repairing or replacing a deteriorated piling ofa pier structure. The deteriorated piling 10, whether of wood or other material, is generally severed below the mud line 12 by first excavating around the base of the piling, as illustrated by FIG. 5, and then severing the piling below the mud line. The piling stub 10:! is generally sufficiently sound to build upon. The deteriorated piling is also disconnected from its connection to an overhead loadsupporting beam 14 supporting the floor or joists 16 of the pier.
Referring to FIG. 6, a floating platform 18 having a notched opening in one end thereof (see FIG. 1) is positioned about the removed piling. The platform is sized so that it can be moved in between the pilings of a pier structure. If needed, the platform may be made so that it can be folded to about one-half size for movement to a new pile-replacement location. Once the platform is located for replacement of a deteriorated piling. it is anchored in place by mooring lines 41 tied to adjacent piers. Pre-cast concrete base sections, each including a solid bottom piece 20 and integral hollow concrete columns 21 of the type shown in FIG. 6, are fabricated on or off site, as desired. The bottom piece 20, as illustrated by FIG. 3, is designed to fit over the stub 10a of the severed piling. An eye bolt 22, or other means to which a rope may be attached, is cast in the bottom piece. A section of concrete form tube about four or five feet in length is also imbedded during casting of the bottom piece 20. A steel cage 23 of concrete reinforcing rods extending from the base to about the top of the tube is fitted over the tube, anchored and spaced therefrom with suitable retainers. The tube and reinforcing are covered with a layer of concrete which may be applied as described in copending application Ser. No. 175,464, hereby incorporated by reference. The steel reinforced bottom piece 20 may take the form of an inverted letter U for fitting over the severed stub 10a of the pile. The solid concrete bottom piece 20 also has a concrete inlet opening 38 communicating with passages 20a, the function of which will be described later. The base section is lowered into the water in the notch portion of the raft above the severed stub 10a by a winch or other suitable means. Floating the section in water overcomes the weight problem generally encountered in replacing piling. The hollow piling limits the weight that must be supported from the overhead structure during fabrication of the piling. The base section is held in place by a line 24 secured to the eye bolt 22 and extends upward from the base to a winch 28 through a pulley 26 attached to the underside of the overhead supporting beam 14. An operator standing on the pier structure or platform, by controlling the winch, may raise or lower the base section as desired. The base section is lowered into the water in the notched out area of the platform. The weight of the base section suspended in the water, because of its buoyancy. weighs less than in air, making it easier to handle and enabling use of lighter equipment. The upper portion of the base section is not submerged but extends above the waterline as illustrated by FIG. 6. A tubular concrete form tube 29 having a verticalslit therein, allowing it to be placed over the line 24, is then secured to the top of the form tube extending from the base section, as illustrated by FIG. 7. The concrete form tubes are generally referred to as sonotubes" and consist of laminated paper, helically wound and impregnated with bitumen. Such a tube is water-impervious and light in weight. After securing the tube to the upper part of the base section. the vertical slit therein is' adhered to gether by means of tape 30, staples 30:! (see FIG. 2) or both. A removable centering device 39 may be secured to the top of the form tube to aid in centering the structure' suspcnded from the line 24. Referring to FIG. 8, a steel cage 32 of concrete reinforcing rods, extending from the top of the base section up to about the top of the tube 29, is fitted over the tube, anchored, and spaced with suitable retainers. The operator standing on the raft then pneumatically places a layer 34. of quick-setting concrete from a concrete pump on the pier see FIG. 1) completely around the tubular column from its intersection with the base section to just below the top portion of the tube 29. The quick-setting concrete may be applied with an apparatus such as described in application Ser. No. 174,464, now US. Pat. No. 3,754,683, mentioned previously, or by other suitable means. The thickness of the layer of concrete applied generally ranges from 2 to inches and sets within seconds. The cast-in-place structure is then lowered by the winch through the notched opening in the platform to a point where another section is required.
Additional tubular sonotubes of approximately six feet in length are secured to the top portion of the first column and reinforcing and quick-setting concrete pneumatically applied thereto to progressively lengthen the column until the base piece of the base section contacts the piling stub. Scuba divers may be used to position the base section over the severed piling stub. After positioning of the column over the stub a, additional tubular sections and reinforcing rods over which a layer of quick-setting concrete is applied are added until contact is made with the overhead structure. In areas of tide action, a scaffold 11 (FIG. 1) on the platform may be needed for the operator to reach the overhead structure. In a pier structure, a clearance of 5 feet is generally left between the high water mark and the cap of the piling. A scaffold having a maximum height of 10 feet would thus be sufficient for the worst conditions. A top cap 33, which may include a vent opening 331:, is then secured between the overhead structure and the top of the last applied sonotube. Then a layer 42 of pneumatically placed, quick-setting concrete is sprayed over the cap between the top of the last thesevered piling 40 and (2) to level the piling in placeif necessary. The line 24 extending between the winch and the eyelet 22 in the base is then severed and the raft moved to the next position for replacement of another piling.
The completed, hollow, reinforced concrete column is illustrated by FIG. 3 as it appears on completion. The upper portion of the column includes an applied concrete portion extending around the support beam 14 and integral with the top portion'of the hollow column. The cured concrete column is, for all intents and purposes. practically impervious to corrosion and erosion. The column is made sufficiently thick to withstand shocks and' expected loads imposed'thereon without undue loading.
If desired, a concrete inlet opening 35 may be formed in the lower part of the base section communicating with the interior of the column to allow fillingof the interior of the column with concrete, the opening being capped until used. In such case, the air vent 33a at the upper portion of the severed stub 10a is cut,'the sound-' ness of the wood thereof determined, and the diameter of the stub measured. The top surface of the stub 10a is generally cut perpendicular to the axis of the stub. The platform 18 is then positioned over the severed piling and securely moored. A prefabricated base section is then lowered into the water as previously described. The steps outlined by FIGS. 6 through 11 are then underta ken;
The system above described can be employed to'provide new piling structures by initially driving a piling stub so'that the upper portion ofthe stub is just below the mud line. The remaining assembly of the piling structure is handled in a 'manner similar to that def scribed previously.
The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as fol- IOWSI 1. A method of providing a load-bearing, cast-in-situ concrete piling, comprising:
providing a concrete base member adapted to be secured to a sound bottom piling stub whose upper end is just below the mud line;
securing an elongated, hollow concrete form tube t the top of the base member;
applying a layer of quick-setting concrete completely over the outer surface of the form tube and its intersection with the base member of sufficient thickness to form a hollow, load-bearing concrete column;
suspending the base member and hollow column in the water above and over the piling stub; lowering the integral base and column into contact with the piling stub;
securing the base to the piling stub; and
securing the upper end ofthe column to an overhead support member, the elongated, hollow. concrete form tube extending from the base member to just below the overhead member so as to form a continuous load-bearing concrete column extending from the piling stub to just below the overhead member.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the column is secured to the overhead member by applying a layer of quicl -setting concrete around the intersection of the concrete column and the overhead member.
3. A method of providing a load-bearing, cast-in-situ concrete piling as a replacement for deteriorated piling, comprising:
severing and removing the deteriorated section of a piling between the mud line and the overhead member with which the deteriorated piling has been in contact, leaving a sound bottom piling stub; suspending a precast concrete base member adapted to fit over and be secured to the piling stub in the water above and over the piling stub;
securing a first elongated, tubular concrete form to the upper portion of the base member;
applying a layer of quick-setting concrete completely over the outer surface of the form tube and its intersection with the base member of sufficient thickness to form a hollow, load-bearing concrete column integral with the base, the layer of concrete terminating just below the upper terminating edge of the tubular form;
lowering the base member and the integral, upwardly extending, hollow concrete column into contact with the piling stub of the severed section while progressively securing additional tubular concrete forms to the upper terminating edges of each suc eessive form with application of quick-setting concrete completely around the outer surfaces of each additional form so as to form a continuous, loadbearing. hollow concrete column extending from the stub to the overhead member, and
securing the concrete column to the stub and overhead member.
4. The method of claim 3 wherein the base member and hollow column are secured by filling the area surrounding the base and any voids between the base member and the stub of the piling with concrete.
5. The method of claim 3 wherein the concrete form tube consists of a non-metallic, laminated fiber sheet impregnated with bitumen.
6. A method of providing a load-bearing, cast-in-situ concrete column a replacement for a deteriorated piling, comprising:
severing and removing the deteriorated section of a piling between the mud line and an overhead member with which the deteriorated piling has been in load-bearing contact so as to leave a sound bottom 6 piling stub;
positioning a floating working platform in the water over and above the piling stub; suspending a prefabricated. steel-reinforced concrete base member in the water adjacent the platform over the piling stub. the base member having a lower section adapted to fit over and be secured to the piling stub and an upper, reinforced, hollow concrete column extending above the waterline;
securing a first elongated, tubular concrete form to the upper terminating edge of the column of the base member; securing a section of concrete reinforcing material around and spaced from the tabular form;
applying a continuous layer of quick-setting concrete completely around the outer surface of the concrete form and reinforcing material sufficient in thickness to form a load-bearing structure, the concrete layer terminating just below the upper terminating edge of the tubular form;
lowering theformed concrete column and base mem ber into thewater until contact of the base is made with the piling stub while progressively securing, between the waterline and the overhead member. successive tubular forms to the upper terminating edge portion of each succeeding form with application of reinforcing material and a layer of quicksetting concrete completely around the outer surface of each succeeding form to form a continuous, hollow, load-bearing concrete column extending between the piling stub and the overhead member; and
securing the concrete column to the piling stub and overhead member.
7. The method of claim 5 including filling the hollow interior of the concrete column from the bottom up with concrete.
8. The method of claim 5 wherein the concrete column is secured to. the overhead member by applying a layer of quick-setting concrete around the intersection of the concrete column with the overhead member.
9. A cast-in-situ -concrete replacement piling extending between and in load-bearing contact with a sound piling stub and an; overhead support member comprising:
a concrete base, member resting on the sound lower section;
a hollow concrete form tube extending upwardly to just below the overhead support member; and
a layer of reinforced concrete completely surrounding the tubular form tube integral with the base and extending into load-bearing contact with the underside of the overhead member.
10. The piling of claim 9 wherein a vertical crosssection of the concrete base member exhibits a U- shaped configuration, the legs of the U adapted to fit over the piling stub and wherein the base member includes a concrete inlet port extending therethrough for injection of concrete to fill any voids between the base member and the piling stub.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1476584 *||Mar 24, 1922||Dec 4, 1923||Cement Gun Construction Compan||Protected pile and process of making it|
|US1888073 *||Oct 11, 1929||Nov 15, 1932||Raymond Concrete Pile Co||Method of protecting piles from erosion|
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4492496 *||Sep 30, 1982||Jan 8, 1985||Austpole Pty., Ltd.||Method of attaching a stub to a pole|
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|US6189286||Feb 5, 1996||Feb 20, 2001||The Regents Of The University Of California At San Diego||Modular fiber-reinforced composite structural member|
|US6718723 *||Oct 18, 1999||Apr 13, 2004||Al-Tuhami AbuZeid Al-Tuhami||Method and apparatus for strengthening the concrete elements using prestressing confinement|
|US7607480 *||Nov 27, 2007||Oct 27, 2009||Clayton John Domingue||Method for repair of damaged wells|
|EP0071217A2 *||Jul 23, 1982||Feb 9, 1983||Floyd Elvin Dimmick||Method for restoring an underwater piling and an underwater jacket used therewith|
|EP0201122A1 *||Apr 21, 1986||Nov 12, 1986||Bouwchemie Leggedoor B.V.||Method for carrying out a repair or preservation of an under water structure and the jacket to be used thereby|
|U.S. Classification||405/216, 425/90, 405/222|
|International Classification||E02D5/22, E02D5/14, E02D5/64, E02D5/02|
|Cooperative Classification||E02D5/64, E02D5/14|
|European Classification||E02D5/14, E02D5/64|