Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3890969 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 24, 1975
Filing dateJan 21, 1974
Priority dateJan 21, 1974
Also published asCA1042747A1, DE2501552A1
Publication numberUS 3890969 A, US 3890969A, US-A-3890969, US3890969 A, US3890969A
InventorsHalbert Fischel
Original AssigneeBaxter Laboratories Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Cardiopulmonary bypass system
US 3890969 A
Abstract
An emergency alertable gravity feed cardiopulmonary bypass system is disclosed in which a blood volume responsive transducer is utilized in returning oxygenated blood to a human circulatory system at a pumping rate corresponding to venous drainage or selected norms. The transducer is coupled to a standpipe and is responsive to a confined gas volume therein related to the blood volume in a first air evacuable, gravity fed, collapsible bag and is coupled to a rate setting control. Blood flow from the first bag is directed by a control responsive oxygenation pump through a membrane oxygenator and heat exchanger and air evacuable collapsible bag and a main pump before return to the patient. The oxygenation pump rate slaved to the main pump is greater than the gravity feed rate, and a pressure relieving conduit recirculates excess blood flow from the second bag to the first bag. Supervisory control of the flow rate of the main pump may be exercised by manual adjustment of the flow rate.
Images(1)
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Fischel I 1 1 CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS SYSTEM [75] Inventor: Halbert Fisehel, Santa Ana, Calif.

[73] Assignee: Baxter Laboratories, Inc., Morton Grove, 1111 122] Filed: Jan. 21, 1974 [21 1 Appl. No: 435,223

[52] US. Cl 128/214 R; 23/2585; l28/D1G. 3', 128/214 E [51] Int. Cl. A61M 01/03 [58] Field ofSearch 128/214 R.2l4 8.214E,

l 56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,721,732 10/1955 Melrose 23/2585 X 2,927,582 3/1960 Berkman ct a1. 23/2585 2,988,001 6/1961 DArcey et a1. 417/476 X 3,017885 1/1962 Robicsek i A l A 128/D1G. 3 $709,222 1/1973 Dc Vrics t t i 128/213 3,756,234 9/1973 Kopp v. 128/214 R OTHER PUBLICATIONS Lewis et a1, .lour. Thoracic Surg; Vol. 43, No. 3, Mar, 1962, pp. 392496 [451 June 24, 1975 Primary Examiner-Da1ton L. Truluck Attorney. Agent, or FirmLouis Altman l 57] ABSTRACT An emergency alertable gravity feed cardiopulmonary bypass system is disclosed in which a blood volume responsive transducer is utilized in returning oxygenated blood to a human circulatory system at a pumping rate corresponding to venous drainage or selected norms. The transducer is coupled to a standpipe and is responsive to a confined gas volume therein related to the blood volume in a first air evacuable. gravity fed. collapsible bag and is coupled to a rate setting control. Blood flow from the first bag is directed by a control responsive oxygenation pump through a membrane oxygenator and heat exchanger and air evacuable col lapsible bag and a main pump before return to the patient. The oxygenation pump rate slaved to the main pump is greater than the gravity feed rate, and a pressure relieving conduit recirculates excess blood flow from the second bag to the first bag. Supervisory control of the flow rate of the main pump may be exercised by manual adjustment of the flow rate.

8 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure PATENTEDJUN 24 I975 BIPOLAE NULL PA-n E'NT (CHZUJLATQRY svsre m) GQAVIT'Y DQAlHAGE I MEMBRANE I OXVENATION OXVE ATOQ 3o- Pump AND HEAT MAlN Pump I ECHAN6E2 I I I VAQIABLE V 5 SPEEDPUMP AI2IABLE 2+ Mame SPEED PUMP 4O t Mo'ro2 I AMPLIFIER I CJQCUIT 4'4 4 CA RDIOPU LMUNARY BYPASS SYSTEM BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field oi the lnvention This invention pertains to blood flow rate controllers tor pump oxygenation systems and. more particularly. to venous blood feed responsive. oxygenation systems for use in cardiovascular surgery and for cardiopulmonary partial support.

2. Description of the Prior Art (icnerally. a cardiopulmonary bypass system is a medical system used in cardiovascular surgery. intensive care and surgical recovery that is coupled to a human body to revitalize and pump blood. thereby performing certain functions of the heart and lungs and often partially or fully bypassing a portion of the circulatory system. The cardiopulmonary bypass system receives a venous blood feed (oxygen deficient blood) from the human circulatory system. oxygen-ates and warms the blood and returns the blood to the circulatory system at a tlovv rate corresponding to the venous drainage. thus reducing the load on the lungs and heart.

A cardiopulmonary bypass system in a partial support capacity is used. for example. during cardiac intensive care of patients who have suffered a cardiac infarction where a portion of the heart muscle has died from an insufficient blood supply. The dead muscle is soft and difficult to suture since it will tear easily. The muscle may heal if the patient is kept quiet and heart chambers are subject to a minimum amount of pressure. Failing such care. an aneurysm may result in which the softened muscle swells up and stagnatcs pools of blood which tend to clot. The tendency toward development of an aneurysm is minimized by reducing the pumping load on the heart with the partial support system. Typically the ini'arcted tissue scars over and thereby regains its tensile integrity in several weeks during which time the cardiopulmonary bypass system must operate continuously. Recent developments in pump oxygenation equipment. such as membrane oxygenators having limited long term blood degradation effects. have made possible long term partial support of this duration. in the past. technicians have monitored the flow of blood in pump oxygenation systems for a relatively short period of time. such as less than four hours. during heart surgery. However, the costs and availability of technicians generally preclude their usage on a long term basis. and even where they are used human error can be a significant problem.

Conflicts between safety. costs and flexibility must be reduced to provide a satisfactory cardiopulmonary by pass system. Such desirable features include responsiveness to a gravity feed rate. minimal blood degradation and long term reliability. ln addition. the exposure ol the blood to air should be minimized. while the buildup of excess gases should be avoided or at least indicated.

Many specific requirements must be met in a practical partial support system. For example. the cardiopulmonary bypass system experiences a load as the blood is returned to the human body. The load is variable and the llow impedance seen by the cardiopulmonary by" pass system may increase itt'or example the arteries are constricting or decrease when hemorrhaging is occur ring. Yet the cardiopulmonary bypass system should generally maintain a constant flow rate to the human body. equal to the venous drainage. In the past. the re- (ill turn flow rate has been controlled in response to central venous pressure or return [low pressure See. for example. Turina. ct al.. "An Automatic llltlltlpttl monar) Bypass Unit for Use in infants". The Journal of Thoracic and (.ardiovascular Surgery 63 (February W72). p. 263. lb However. venous pressure is an in accurate measure of blood flow and may vary considerably i'or a constant blood tlovv depending on the physical state of the patient.

Blood removal from the human circulatory system by a cardiopulmonary bypass system should not cause an excessive vacuum or suction so as to collapse the veins. yet provide a substantial and generally umtorm blood flow to effectively unload the patients cardiopulmonary system. A system utilii'ing a negatiie ressure in a caval cannula is described in an article by Turin-a et al.. Scrvo-contrrrlled Perfusion Unit \tith Menu branc Oxygenator for Extended (ardiopulnionary By" pass. Biomedical Engineering (March 1% l pp lOZ lO'I. The Turina system however is rather sophl. ticated and complex and utili/ing sensors and set vos {or a number of controls. and tint is both unduly costly and subject to greater tendency to lnilurc The rate and changes in rate of blood flop indicate the physical state ol' the patient. and thus ll \vould be desirable to monitor the blood ilotv rate. lllt' physician may find it necessary to incrvzise or decrease the return flow rate of the blood. increasing the blood llovv rate in excess of the drainage rate often requires ihc addition of blood to the system. it would be advantageous to have a cardiopulmonary bypass system which could introduce quantities of blood to the blood llon in addition to the blood supplied by the patients .:irculatory system.

The quantity of blood flowing in the ll't'llldllfli'y sys tem of a neonate or young infant is extremely critical. For example. hyaiine membrane disease attacks the .il veolar sacks of infants. When this occurs. bc lining of the lungs is impervious to oxygen and (Us Since the infant having this disease receives insufficient oxygen. the treatment in the past has been to increase. in con centration and pressure. the oxygen provided to the in fant. Although the disease is often lured by this tech nique. other serious conditions may set in which are Caused by the toxic effects ottixygcn such as rctrolental fibroplasia. in which the retina is t cstmyrd lly using a cardiopulmonary bypass systtin. ill;- in; allowed to heal. The control of blood volume is extremely im portant since the hyaline disease typrcallv occurs with underweight infants. typically les han 2500 grams and having a total blood volume of nly I! tilt: cc.

Thus it would be desirable to have a ardinpul monary bypass system that is safe. reliable. gr .rv ity ll'ctl responsive. and volume altcrable.

SUMMARY OF THE llx v 51M 1 EON ln broad terms. a cardiopnlrnonary bypas system for use with a human circulatory system in accordam'c with this invention comprises \ariablc volume :iir l'r'ee means for collecting a grav ty l'eed bit. wl ilovv from :1 patient and transducer mean coupled to th totlector means for providing a b ood lit l'tlsit'rfisl e sign'tl related to the feed iatc ol the blood. Alter r xygcnating and warming the blood lT lI'll the collector means. pump means coupled to the collector mean rct us the biood to the patient at a llou ra e controlled by the signal from the transducer means such that the blood llovv re turning to the patient is substantially the same as the drainage rate from the patient.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention. a first collapsible bag is coupled to receive a gravity fed flow of blood. The bag is collapsible and air cvactlable so that any blood-gas interface may be substantially eliminated. The bag is also llexible so as to inhibit air suction when empty and thereby prevent an air embolism to the circulatory system.

A standpipe extending from the bag is coupled to a gas pressure responsive transducer The standpipe provides a confined gas volume. the pressure within which acts on the transducer. Blood flow rate changes into the bag manifested by blood volume changes ofthe bag resuit in fractional changes in the confined gas volume and subsequent pressure changes that are much amplified with respect to the fractional blood volume changes of the bag. A second collapsible bag is provided that functions generally in a buffer capacity and supplies revitalized blood to the patient. Revitalization means generally comprising a pump. a membrane oxy genator and a heat exchanger is coupled between the first and second bags. A recirculation path communicating between the second bag and the first bag provides a positive recirculation of a part of the blood flow. relieving excess pressure in the second bag and insuring equilibrium in the flow rates. A main variable speed pump coupled to the second bag delivers a controlled blood flow from the second bag to a human circulatory system. To regulate pump speed. a rate setting control responsive to the transducer signal drives the main pump at a rate which tends to maintain the blood volume of the first bag at a predetermined point for a particular blood drainage rate such that the return blood flow rate is held at substantially the rate of the venous blood flow. The rate setting control may be manually varied by a supervising physician to directly change the rate of flow without shutting off the automatic system.

In accordance with another feature a reservoir is in cluded for storing blood. The blood in the reservoir may be selectively admitted into the first drainage bag for increasing the total blood volume of the combined circulatory and cardiopulmonary bypass system. A valve coupled tube may be used to tap off an excess quantity of blood if the flow exceeds predetermined levels.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a combined block and simplified broken away schematic diagram of an example of a blood flow controller in accordance with the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring to FIG. I. in a preferred embodiment of cardiopulmonary bypass system It) in accordance with the invention. a collector means 12 is disposable below a blood withdrawal point on a patient for receiving a gravity fed venous blood flow from a human patients circulatory system A gas containment means or standpipe I4 coupled into the interior of the collector means extends vertically to a pressure responsive transducer I6 which is in operative relation to the interior at the upper end ofthe standpipe 14. The collector means I2 generally comprises a first collapsible bag I8 and a venous fecd tube 20 coupled at an inlet of the collapsible bag 18. While the collapsible bag 18 and the venous feed tube 20 may be of various ntaterials they here are of a surgical quality neoprene and are typically disposable units. The thickness of the collapsible bag [8. which is preferably transparent or translucent. is sufficient for it to accept a substantial volume of blood without danger of rupture or susceptibility to puncture from contact with foreign objects. The bag I8 is also. however. sufficiently pliable for its walls to readily conform to the interior blood volume. thereby substantially eliminating an interior blood-gas interface and completely collapsing when all blood is removed. An outlet tube [9 at the top of the bag 18 can be closed by a clamp 21 when all air has been exhausted from the bag interior.

The standpipe 14 is preferably a rigid and transparent or translucent shaped tubular element of surgical quality. The standpipe 14 having a small interior volume in comparison with the interior volume of the first col lapsible bag and having nominal blood levels therein. defines a confined gas volume 22 within a cylindrical chamber 23 and exerting a pressure through a sterility barrier 24 Within the chamber 23 on the transducer I6. An increase of blood flow into the first collapsible bag 18 causes a distention of the bag I8 and thereby causes the blood level in the standpipe 14 to increase. reduc ing the confined gas volume 22. A reduction ofthe confined gas volume 22 causes an increase in the pressure applied through the sterility barrier 24 to the transducer l6. Small fractional changes in the blood flow rate into the collapsible bag 18. manifested by small fractional volume changes of blood in the collapsible bag I8 causes large fractional changes in the pressure of the confined gas volume 22. Thus the combination of the collection means I2. the standpipe l4 and the transducer 16 provide a highly sensitive means of measuring and indicating changes in the venous flow rate.

While the transducer 16 provides a signal related to a blood flow rate from the patient into the collapsible bag I8, this signal is not necessarily related to the signal which would be obtained if for example. a paticnt's central venous pressure were monitored. The applicants invention tends to provide a more accurate indication of venous flow rate since a patient's blood pressure may vary with changes in blood volume in the patient's circulatory system and with other parameters.

Revitalization or oxygenation means 28 is provided for continuous revitalization of the blood including the oxygen transfer to oxygen deficient blood and the warming of blood which has been partially cooled since removal from the patient. The oxygenation means 28 generally comprises an oxygenation pump 30 driven by a pump motor 32 coupled thereto. The oxygenation pump 30 is coupled to a membrane oxygenator and heat exchanger 34 in series fashion. with the oxygenation pump 30 forcing blood through the membrane oxygenator and heat exchanger 34. The pump motor 32 for the oxygenation pump 30 may be a roller blood pump in which blood is carried between a membrane and a surface defining a cylindrical chamber by rollers rotating and bearing on the membrane and against the surface.

A second collapsible bag 36 comparable to the first bag 18 is air evacuahle and is preferably translucent or transparent. Flow through the oxygenation means 28 is transported to the collapsible bag 36 via a conduit 37 to provide generally a continuous supply of freshly revitalized tie. oxygenated and warmed) blood to the second collapsible bag 36. The second collapsible bag 36 also helps to dampen or buffer uneven or pulsating flows of blood returned to the patient by way of a main pump 38. For positive circulation under all conditions. the main pump 38 is constantly driven at a slightly slower rate than the oxygenation pump 3 so that the main pump 38 does not operate without a blood flow supply.

Although two collapsible bags 18, 36 are described. it should be noted that a single partitioned bag may be used in accordance with this invention. The collapsible nature of the bags besides limiting blood-gas interfaces. helps prevent a massive air embolism Should blood in either bag 18 or 36, for some reason. be emptied and collapse occur. air which could enter through leaks in the cardiopulmonary bypass system are prevented lrom being pumped into the patients circulatory system.

A recirculation path is defined by a tube 39 coupling blood from the second bag 36 to the first bag 18, providing pressure relief to equalize pressure between the two bags 18, 36. Excess pressure would tend to be present in the second collapsible bag 36 in the absence of the recirculation path. because of the faster pump rate of the oxygenation pump with respect to the main pump 38.

The main pump 38 is preferably a roller blood pump coupled to the second collapsible bag 36 for returning the oxygenated and warmed blood to the patients circulatory system. The main pump 38 maintains a blood flow rate invariant with respect to a varying impedance or load of the human circulatory system as experienced by the pump 38. despite the fact that the impedance or load provided by the patients circulatory system varies with the patients physical state. For example. a constriction in the patients circulatory system causes an increased impedance, yet blood is returned to the patient at a rate independent of that physical state.

A variable speed main pump motor 40 coupled to the main pump 38 drive the pump 38 at a desired controllable blood flow rate in response to a signal fed from controller means or a rate setting control 42. The rate setting control 42 may simply be an amplifier circuit providing an error signal tending to drive the variable speed pump motors at a rate equal to the venous blood flow. A preferred embodiment given by way ofcxample provides a rate setting control 42 comprising an amplifier circuit 44, a servo motor 46. a speed reducer 48 coupled to the servo motor a variable impedance or a potentiometer 50 mechanically coupled to the speed reducer 48 and a control knob 52 on the potentiometer shaft. Rate setting control 42 is responsive to a signal from the transducer 16 to provide the variable speed pump motor 40 with a signal from the potentiometer 50. which adjusts the signal from a voltage source 5] to drive the main pump 38 at a flow rate corresponding to the blood volume in the collapsible bag [8. The blood volume in the collapsible bag 18 is maintained at a predetermined level such that the return blood flow rate is held substantially equal to the venous blood flow. The control knob 52 coupled to the potentiometer 50 can be used to manually override the rate setting control 42 to exercise supervisory control of the flow rate of the main pump 38.

The amplifier circuit 44 amplifies a bipolar null referenced signal from the transducer 16 to provide a signal sufficient to drive the servo motor 46. This signal is bipolar in that it may represent deviations from a null in either of two directions corresponding to either an increase in pressure exerted on the transducer 16 by the confined gas volume 22 or a decrease in pressure ex erted by the confined gas volume 22. In setting up the system the pressure within the confined gas volume 22 may be equalized at ambient by a closeable output (not shown) in the cylinder 23, the outlet being shut when a desired blood level is reached in the standpipe I4. The servo motor 46 rotates in accordance with the po' larity of the transducer signal tending to rotate the potentiometer S0 in accordance with the blood volume in the collapsible bag 18, as sensed by the transducer 16.

The speed reducer 48 may be a gear reduction system coupled between the servo motor 46 and the potentiometer 50, reducing the angular rotation of the potentiometer 50 with respect to the angular rotation of the servo motor 46 thereby providing an adjustable gain in the system. Gain is adjusted to allow time for changes in the pump rate ofthe main pump 38 to influcnce blood volume changes sensed by the transducer and further rotation of the servo motor without excessive overtravel of the potentiometer 50.

The setting of the potentiometer 50 determines the speed of the variable speed pump motor 40 which in turn determines the flow rate of the main pump 38. An adjustable resistance 54 in the motor 40 energizing circuit permits further adjustment to maintain a pump rate through the oxygenation pump 30 in excess ofthat through the main pump 38. such that a flow is rccirculated back from the second collapsible bag 36 to the first bag 18 and the main pump 38 does not operate without a blood supply.

Dial indicia 53 juxtaposed adjacent the control knob 52 indicates the instantaneous rate at which the main pump 38 is being driven. The knob 52 may be manually rotated by overcoming the torque supplied by the servo motor 46 through the speed reducer 48. A slip clutch or a friction coupling between the speed reducer 48 and the potentiometer 50 is suitable for a motor 46 of greater torque, but this arrangement would not comparably restore the knob 52 to the proper setting when released.

An outlet tube 56 whose exterior surface is hermeti cally joined to the bag 36 can be closed by a clamp 57 to permit exhaustion of interior air in the same fashion as the first bag 18.

A reservoir 58 is provided for receiving and storing an excess quantity of blood from the cardiopulmonary bypass system 10 and for increasing the volume of the blood in the cardiopulmonary bypass system 10 by releasing such blood to the second bag 36 through a valve 59. A valve 60 in the conduit from the main pump 38 may be used to tap off blood from the cardiopulmonary bypass system 10. The valves 59, 60 are used to add blood to the reservoir 58 and to release blood to the cardiopulmonary bypass system 10 may be manually actuable or may be of a type actuable by an electrical signal. For example, a perfusion flow servo system is described in the Turina et al. article in the March 1973 issue of Biomedical Enginerring. previously cited. A cardiotomy tube (not shown) may also be coupled into the reservoir 58 to provide a blood source to the reser voir S8. The cardiotomy line is used to remove blood which collects adjacent severed veins and arteries resulting from incisions during an operation. The blood, having been suctioned off from the patient, is in a frothy condition and a debubbler (not shownl is typically used to reduce the frothy condition of the blood before it enters the reservoir 58.

To review the operation of the cardiopulmonary bypass system it), the first collapsible bag 18 is generally disposed at a level beneath that of the patient so as to promote a gravity blood feed. Initially. blood is added to the first collapsible bag 18 with the bag clamps 2i. 57 released. Ambient air pressure is established in the interior volume 22 and the transducer 16 by opening a valve (not shown) or disconnecting the standpipe 14 from the cylinder 23. Blood is added until the blood level in the standpipe 14 reaches a reference of priming level 62. after which the standpipe 22 is then recon nected to the sterility barrier 24 and the transducer 16. Thus the pressure in the confined volume 22 is initially equalized with respect to ambient.

Air that is present in the first and second collapsible bags 18. 36 is forced out, either manually or by filling the bags 18. 36, and the outlets l9. 56 are then closed by the clamps 21, 57. The blood air interfaces within the bags [8. 36 are thus minimized.

Venous blood flows under gravity into the first collapsible bag 18, whose volume then varies in accordance with the rate of blood flow thcrethrough. This volume establishes the blood level in the standpipe l4, and as previously described fractional changes in the blood volume within the bag 18 cause much larger variations in the pressure exerted on the transducer 16. Though the transducer [6 signal is generally referenced to ambient pressure. an inverted Utube arrangement (not shown) may be used to provide a negative pressure head so that the transducer may be arbitrarily oriented where the level of the collector means 12 varies from the position depicted in the embodiment of HGV l and is. for example. disposed closer to the level ofthe patient.

The transducer 16 signal is applied to the amplifier circuit 44. providing an energizing signal to the servo motor 46, which rotates at a rate determined by signal amplitude and in a direction determined by polarity. Through the speed reducer 48, motor rotation turns the potentiometer 50 in a corresponding direction at a slower speed. also rotating the control knob 52 so that the blood flow rate may be read offthe dial 53. As main pump 38 speed is adjusted by the motor 40 controlled by the potentiometer O setting, the blood level is returned toward the null position 62, slowing down or reversing the servo motor 46. Note that the pump motor 40 can continue to operate at or near a substantially constant speed and that the system is stabilized by gain adjustment at the speed reducer 48 although other means might also be used.

Blood from the first collapsible bag 18 is pumped through the revitalization or oxygenation means 28, by the oxygenation pump 30, which provides sufficient pressure to drive the blood through the membrane oxygenator and heat exchanger 34 and to the second collapsible bag 36. Because the oxygenation pump motor 32 speed is also determined by the potentiometer 50 setting. the oxygenation pump pumps blood at a flow rate in excess of the flow rate of the main pump 38 as determined by the setting of the adjustable resistor S4. Excess pressure developed by the oxygenation pump 30 within the second collapsible bag 36 is re' lieved via the tube 39 which serves as a recirculation path. Blood from the second collapsible bag 36 is then pumped by the main pump 38 to the patients circula tory system.

It is important to alert a physician to the existence of a low blood volume condition in a patient. This condition may represent internal hemorrhaging and may re quire that an additional quantity of blood be intro duced into the total system. A physician or assistant. alerted to such a condition may now increase the circulating blood volume by opening the reservoir valve 59. thereby allowing blood to flow into the second collapsible bag 36. Also. or alternatively. the physician may manually override the knob 52. thereby increasing the flow rate of the main pump 38 to the human circulatory system. it should be recognized that such an increase in the return flow rate without replenishment can only be carried on for a limited period of time without col lapse of the bags 18 and 36.

Thus. a simple. accurate and sensitive cardiopul monary bypass system for receiving a variable rate gravity fed venous flow from a human circulatory system. revitalizing the blood and returning it to the circulatory system at a rate substantially equal to the venous flow rate has been described which is volume alterable and provides means for reducing degrading blood gas interfaces.

While the invention has been particularly shown and described and with reference to a preferred embodiment thereof. it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

What is claimed is:

l. A cardiopulmonary bypass system for receiving a variable rate gravity fed venous blood flow from a human circulatory system. revitalizing the blood and returning the blood to the circulatory system at a flow rate substantially equal to the gravity fed blood flow comprising:

a first collapsible bag disposable below a withdrawal point coupled to receive a gravity fed flow of blood at an inlet. the collapsible bag being at least partially filled with blood and substantially without a blood-gas interface. the collapsible bag having a sufficient flexibility such that a collapse of the bag resulting from an emptying of blood therein inhibits a suction from occurring at the inlet.

a second collapsible bag;

recirculation path means for communicating blood from the second collapsible bag to the first collapsible bag.

revitalization means coupled between the first and second collapsible bags for continuously oxygenating and warming blood from the first bag and trans porting the oxygenated and warmed blood to the second bag;

main pump means coupled to the second bag for delivering a blood flow from the second bag to a human circulatory system at a rate controlled by a control signal applied thereto.

blood volume transducer means coupled to the first bag for providing a signal related to the blood volume in the first bag; and

controller means responsive to the blood volume indication for supplying a control signal to the main pump means to drive the main pump means at a rate which tends to maintain the blood volume of the first bag at a predetermined level such that the return blood flow rate is held substantially equal to the venous blood flow.

2. The invention as set forth in claim 1 and in which the first collapsible bag volume is determined by the blood therein and including gas containment means coupled to said first bag and said transducer means and having nominal blood levels and an interior volume small in comparison with the interior volume ofthe first collapsible bag, said gas containment means defining a confined gas volume, the pressure within which acts on the transducer means such that blood flow rate changes into the first collapsible bag manifested by blood volume changes of the bag result in fractional changes in the confined gas volume and subsequent pressure changes that are much amplified with respect to the fractional blood volume changes of the bag.

3. The invention as set forth in claim 2 in which said blood volume transducer means is coupled to the first container by a vertically extending standpipe having a small interior volume in comparison with the interior volume of said first container, said standpipe being positioned to prevent blood from the first container from coming into contact with said transducer.

4. The invention as set forth in claim 2 and in which the transducer means, the gas containment means and the collapsible bag define a closed system such that when the gas containment means is exposed to ambient air pressure and the system is brought to a reference level, the closing of the system thereby defines a transduccr reference with respect to subsequent blood flow changes.

5. The invention as set forth in claim 1 and further comprising rate setting control means tending to maintain a return blood flow rate equal to a venous feed rate and means for manually overriding the rate setting control.

6. The invention as set forth in claim I, and in which the revitalization means comprises:

a membrane oxygenator. oxygenator pump and heat exchanger coupled in series fashion. said oxygenator pump including means responsive to the flow rate of the main pump for maintaining the flow rate 5 of the oxygenator pump at a rate greater than that of the main pump, such that a flow is recirculated back from said second bag to said first bag and the main pump does not operate without a blood flow supply.

7. In a cardiopulmonary bypass system of the type having a first container for receiving a blood drainage. a second container for receiving a revitalized blood flow from the first container, blood treatment appara tus and an auxiliary pump coupled between the first and second containers; a recirculation path for coupling blood from the second container to the first con tainer, and a main pump coupled to the second container for providing a blood flow to a human cardiovascular system, the combination therewith of:

transducer means responsive to a blood volume in the first container; means coupled between the main pump and the auxiliary pump for driving the auxiliary pump at a rate greater than that of the main pump; and

means for driving the main pump at a rate related to blood volume responsive signals received from said transducer means. 8. The invention as set forth in claim 7 and further comprising:

a reservoir for storing a fluid at a level greater than that of a fluid level in the first container; means coupled between the reservoir and the first container for communicating a flow from the reservoir to a said container; and

valve means for selectively admitting a fluid from the reservoir to the first container.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2721732 *Dec 23, 1952Oct 25, 1955Nat Res DevApparatus for mixing liquids and gases
US2927582 *Mar 19, 1956Mar 8, 1960Research CorpPump-oxygenator
US2988001 *Apr 30, 1956Jun 13, 1961United Shoe Machinery CorpApparatus for use in the extractorporeal circulation of blood
US3017885 *Mar 30, 1959Jan 23, 1962Robicsek FrancisBlood flow meter
US3709222 *Dec 28, 1970Jan 9, 1973Sarns IncMethod and apparatus for automatic peritoneal dialysis
US3756234 *Jun 4, 1971Sep 4, 1973Vital AssistsSingle needle dialysis
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4026669 *Jul 14, 1975May 31, 1977Baxter Laboratories, Inc.Variable capacity reservoir assembly
US4192302 *Sep 12, 1978Mar 11, 1980Boddie Arthur WHepatic isolation and perfusion circuit assembly
US4231366 *Aug 8, 1977Nov 4, 1980Dr. Eduard Fresenius Chemisch-Pharmazeutische Industrie Kg Apparatebau KgBlood flow monitoring and control apparatus
US4466804 *Sep 24, 1981Aug 21, 1984Tsunekazu HinoExtracorporeal circulation of blood
US4490331 *Feb 12, 1982Dec 25, 1984Steg Jr Robert FExtracorporeal blood processing system
US4582598 *Dec 15, 1981Apr 15, 1986Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc.Separating and collecting plasma from whole blood
US4598733 *May 21, 1985Jul 8, 1986Terumo CorporationApparatus for detecting the volume of blood in a blood reservoir
US4599093 *Aug 2, 1984Jul 8, 1986Steg Jr Robert FOxygenation, medical equipment
US4605503 *May 26, 1983Aug 12, 1986Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc.Single needle blood fractionation system having adjustable recirculation through filter
US4610656 *Aug 21, 1984Sep 9, 1986Mehealus PartnershipFully portable semi-automatic mechanical heart-lung substitution system and method
US4717548 *Sep 22, 1982Jan 5, 1988The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Department Of Health And Human ServicesAnalytically controlled blood perfusion system
US5147186 *Jan 4, 1991Sep 15, 1992Bio Medicus, Inc.Blood pump drive system
US5242384 *Mar 13, 1992Sep 7, 1993Davol, Inc.Blood pumping and processing system
US5411706 *Feb 9, 1994May 2, 1995Hubbard; Lloyd C.Heart/lung machine for processing blood during surgery
US5423738 *Sep 7, 1993Jun 13, 1995Robinson; Thomas C.Blood pumping and processing system
US5478309 *May 27, 1994Dec 26, 1995William P. Sweezer, Jr.Catheter system and method for providing cardiopulmonary bypass pump support during heart surgery
US5540653 *Oct 23, 1992Jul 30, 1996Datascope Investment Corp.For an extracorporeal bypass procedure
US5634892 *Feb 23, 1995Jun 3, 1997Whalen; Robert L.For the extracorporeal oxygenation of blood/removal of carbon dioxide
US5762868 *Nov 30, 1995Jun 9, 1998Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyPleated filter disposed within gap formed between oppsite ends of oxygenating medium
US5800375 *Dec 20, 1995Sep 1, 1998Heartport, Inc.Catheter system and method for providing cardiopulmonary bypass pump support during heart surgery
US5823986 *Feb 8, 1995Oct 20, 1998Medtronic, Inc.Perfusion system
US5976463 *Jan 27, 1997Nov 2, 1999Shigehisa AmanoPump-oxygenator
US6017493 *Sep 26, 1997Jan 25, 2000Baxter International Inc.Vacuum-assisted venous drainage reservoir for CPB systems
US6050968 *Sep 29, 1997Apr 18, 2000Medtronic, Inc.Two-chambered softshell reservoir
US6293920 *Oct 7, 1998Sep 25, 2001Heartport, Inc.Catheter system and method for providing cardiopulmonary bypass pump support during heart surgery
US6315751Aug 15, 1997Nov 13, 2001Cleveland Clinic FoundationCardiopulmonary bypass system using vacuum assisted venous drainage
US6387323 *May 15, 1998May 14, 2002Cardiovention, Inc.Integrated blood oxygenator and pump system having active blood oxygenator
US6537495Dec 23, 1999Mar 25, 2003Edwards Lifesciences LlcVacuum-assisted venous drainage system with rigid housing and flexible reservoir
US6632189Sep 3, 1999Oct 14, 2003Edwards Lifesciences CorporationSupport device for surgical systems
US6899704Jul 10, 2001May 31, 2005Heartport, Inc.Devices and methods for intracardiac procedures
US6955175May 1, 2003Oct 18, 2005Stevens John HMethod and apparatus for thoracoscopic intracardiac procedures
US7100614Mar 15, 2002Sep 5, 2006Heartport, Inc.Method of Forming a Lesion in Heart Tissue
US7131447Apr 26, 2004Nov 7, 2006Heartport, Inc.Methods and systems for performing thoracoscopic coronary bypass and other procedures
US7682327 *May 6, 2004Mar 23, 2010Lifebridge Medizintechnik AgMobile heart-lung machine
US7918822 *Aug 24, 2007Apr 5, 2011Alka KumarSurgical aspiration system and method of surgical aspiration
US8317738 *Jan 16, 2009Nov 27, 2012Terumo Kabushiki KaishaLiquid collection container and extracorporeal circuit
US8517969 *Nov 16, 2012Aug 27, 2013Terumo Kabushiki KaishaLiquid collection container and extracorporeal circuit
US20130078144 *Nov 16, 2012Mar 28, 2013Terumo Kabushiki KaishaLiquid collection container and extracorporeal circuit
USRE36774 *Apr 24, 1997Jul 11, 2000Baxter Healthcare CorporationCylindrical blood heater/oxygenator
DE4238884A1 *Nov 19, 1992May 26, 1994Jostra MedizintechnikDevice with blood@ oxygenator - is for use in cases of acute cardiac insufficiency and has attached hose system, being filled with infusion soln.
DE102008024835A1May 23, 2008Dec 10, 2009Maquet Cardiopulmonary AgUniversell anwendbares optimiertes Perfusionssystem
EP0162447A2 *May 21, 1985Nov 27, 1985TERUMO KABUSHIKI KAISHA trading as TERUMO CORPORATIONApparatus for detecting the volume of blood in a blood reservoir
WO1983002059A1 *Nov 19, 1982Jun 23, 1983Baxter Travenol LabBlood fractionation apparatus
WO1995021686A1 *Nov 14, 1994Aug 17, 1995Spin CorpPump/oxygenator with blood recirculation
WO1996024397A2 *Feb 8, 1996Aug 15, 1996Medtronic IncPerfusion system
WO1999016482A1 *Sep 29, 1998Apr 8, 1999Medtronic IncTwo-chambered softshell reservoir
WO2000043055A1 *Jan 21, 2000Jul 27, 2000Baxter IntLow-prime cardiopulmonary bypass circuit
Classifications
U.S. Classification604/6.14, 128/DIG.300, 604/67, 422/48, 422/46
International ClassificationA61M1/14, A61M1/36
Cooperative ClassificationY10S128/03, A61M1/3624, A61M1/3666
European ClassificationA61M1/36C2
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Dec 12, 1985AS02Assignment of assignor's interest
Owner name: MINNESOTA MINING AND MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 3M CEN
Effective date: 19851111
Owner name: OMNIS SURGICAL INC., A CORP OF DE.
Dec 12, 1985ASAssignment
Owner name: MINNESOTA MINING AND MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 3M CEN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:OMNIS SURGICAL INC., A CORP OF DE.;REEL/FRAME:004486/0094
Effective date: 19851111
Jul 13, 1984ASAssignment
Owner name: OMNIS SURGICAL INC., A DE CORP.
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:BAXTER TRAVENOL LABORATORIES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:004285/0631
Effective date: 19840709