Anti-freezing device for water-pipes
US 389098 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet l.
E. A. NEWMAN.
ANTI-FREEZING DEVICE EUR WATER PPES.
(No Model.) 4 sheets-'sheen E. A. NEWMAN;
ANTI-PREEZING DEVICE POR WATER PIPES. No. 389,098. Patented Sept. 4,1888.
A. PEERs. Phmnmhagmptm. wxshman, D. C.
(No Model.) 4 sheets-'sheet 3.
E. A. NEWMAN. ANTI-FREEZING DEVIGB POR WATER PIPES.
No. 389,098. Patented Sept. 4, 1888.
3 M lclg N.'PETRS. Pham-Lixhngmphar, Washington DJ;
(No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 4..
E. A. NEWMAN. ANTI-PREEZING DEVICE POR WATER PIPES.
vPatenized Sept. 4, 1888..
UNITED STATES PATENT OEETCE.
ED\VIN A. NE\VMAN, OF WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBI, ASSIGNOR TO THE NEVMAN ANTLFREEZING VATER PIPE COMPANY, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
ANTI-FREEZING DEVICE FOR WATERBPIPES.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 389.098, dated September 4, 1888.
Application filed November 5, 1887. Serial No. 254.414. (No model.)
To all whom, it may concern.- line-wire, a, to the thermostat TIL. The fau Be it known that I, EDWIN A. NEWMAN, a cet is provided with a plug, E?, of insulating citizen ofthe United States, residing at Washmaterial, so that when the faucet is turned te ington, in the District of Columbia, have ina position to have the finger E near on the vented certain new and useful Improvements plug the electric circuit will be broken. The 55 in Electro-Thcrinostatic Anti- Freezing Apfaucet is shown as provided with a ventilatparatus for VaterPipes, of which the following-valve, o, the operation of which is deing is a specification. scribed in my application for Letters Patent The object of my invention is to provide filed November, 1887, No. 254,413. The ob [o improved apparatus for the automatic out ott ject of the Ventilating-valve is to admit air to 6o of water from the service pipes of a building, the pipes to facilitate draining the water from and for draining them at times when the tern them.
peratnre has fallen to such a degree that the D5 indicates a water-trap, such as is often water in the pipes is liable to freeze. used in a pipe system. At the bottom of the' Another object of my invention is to probend of the trap I connect a drain-pipe, D, 65 vide means for temporarily turning on the Waand between the trap and the drain-pipe I arter to the scrvicepipes when it is wanted after range a valve, preferably formed of a disk, (if,
it has been turned oft' by the therxnostatic ap secured to a stern, D. The valve rests on a parat us. valve-seat, d5, to which is secured a stud, d,
2O My invention consists in certain novel appathat projects through a perforation, di, at one 7e ratus and organizations of apparatus adapted side of the disk. The stud d fits loosely in to attain the objects of my invention. Certhe perforation, so that the disk may rock up tain features of the invention are deemed and down on the stud as a pivot.
novel irrespective of their application to the The valvestem D4 is secured at its lower end apparatus 1o which they are herein shown as to the armature D of an electro magnet, D?. 75
applied. The magnet is mounted on the pipe DG, and is The subjectmatter claimed will be hereinsuitably insulated therefrom, as indicated. after designated. The core ofthe magnet projects into the pipe, In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is and its end is in close proximity to the armaa diagram view of one form of my improved ture. When the magnet is not energized, the 8o apparatus, showing some ot' the apparatus stem will hang verticallyand the armature will partly in section. Fig. 2 is adiagram view of 'ne held away from the magnet. The valve will another form, with some of the apparatus then be closed; but when the magnet is enerpartly in section- Fig. Bshows another modigized the armature will be attracted and the tied forni of apparatus. Fig. 4 is a vertical valve will be opened, asindicatedin the draw- S5 central section of the valve a nd valve-operatings. When the valve is open, the water will ing mechanism shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 5 is pass from the trap into the drain-pipe D, and a plan view of the valveseanwith the casing thence to a sewer or other conduit. Theline broken away, of the valve shown in Figs. 3 wire n runs from contact cf to one pole of bat- 40 and 4.. Fig. G is a bottom view of the valve tory C B and from the other pole to the elecgo shown in Figs. 3 and 4, and Fig. 7 is a bottom tro-magnet D. From the magnet D2 the wire view of the switch-blocks of the faucet which a runs to the coils of the magnet A of the apis preferably employed in my improved pipe paratus for controlling the valves between the system. strect-main andthe service-pipes and between .Referring first to Fig. l, Th indicates a therthe service-pipes and the drainpipe. g5 mostat that may be et' any suitable construc- Aindicatcs a pipe connected to the streettion, and E so much of a cool: o1' faucet as is main, and A7 the service-pipe. The valve A* necessary to illustrate my invention. A conwhen closed rests on a valveseat, A, and closes tact-finger, E3, bears on the plug of the faucet, communication between the main and the serv- 5o and is connected by an electric conductor or icepipe. The valve when closed rests on a roo valve-seat, A7, and closes communication between the service-pipe and the drain-pipe A, which extends through the electro-magnet A and forms its core. The valves A4 and As are connected, as shown, by a rod or spindle, A3, which passes through the pipe Agand connects them with the armature A of the electro-mag net A. The spindle A3 extends through the valve Atand is supported and guided in lugs or cross-bars A1" in the pipes. It will be observed that when the valve A4 is closed the valve AB is open, and vice versa. The pipes are all connected by a suitable couplingA", within which is the valve-chamber. The coils of the magnet A are inclosed by a metallic casing, A. A series of vresistance-blocks, as, is arranged in a frame, at, of nonconducting material, which is adj nstably attached to the casing A. The end block, ai, is connected electrically with the coils of the magnet A.
The armature A2 carries a spring co1itactfin ger, a2, that is moved back and forth by the armature over the resistanceblocks. The armature is electrically connected by the spindie A3 and the pipes, as shown by dotted lines, to the faucet E. If the armature A2 be withdrawn from the magnet, the finger a2 will rest on the resistance-block a5, so that a maximum current may pass; but as the armature ap! proaches the magnet the finger passes over the blocks, so as to throw in more and more resistance until the armature is home, when the minimum current will pass. As is well known, a feeble current will be sufcient to hold the armature home,while a much stronger current is necessary to draw it from a distance. This arrangement enables me to save battery.
The operation of the apparatus is as follows: Suppose the temperature is high and there is no danger of the pipes freezing; the electric current will then be broken between the thermostat Th and the contact a', so that no current can, pass through the magnets A and D2. The valve A* will then be held open by the water-pressure and the valve As closed. The valve d* in the trap will also be closed. But suppose the temperature to be low and the thermostat to be in electrical connection with the contact a, the faucet E to be closed, and the finger E resting on the metallic part of the faucet; an electric current will then run from one pole of battery C B to electro-magnet D2; thence to electro-magnet A', resistanceblocks a3, finger a2, armature A2, spindle A3, to pipes; thence to faucet E', finger E3, thermostat Th, contact a', and back to battery. The armature A2 will be drawn home, and will thereby close valve A4 and open valve Af. The armature D3 will also be drawn home and will open valve dt, so that the water-supply will be cut off from the house-pipes and the drain-pipes opened, so that the water in the house or service pipes, as well as in the traps, &c., will be allowed to escape. The valves will remain in this condition as long as the weather is cold enough to freeze the pipes. Vhen it grows warmer, the electric circuit will be broken at the thermostat and the valves will assume their normal position. If while the weather is cold it is desired to draw water from the faucets, the electric circuit may be broken as soon as the faucet is turned till the finger E rests on the plug E, so that the magnets will be demagnetized and the valve A4 will open and the drain-valves close. Vhen the faucet is turned back, the valves will be returned again.
I will now describe a modification of my apparatus shown in Fig. 2. This apparatus is so arranged that the electric current is used only at the instant of energizing the magnets. Just after they are energized and have attracted their armatures the current is broken. Bysuch an arrangement there is but little consumption of battery, which will consequently last a long time and need but little attention. thermostat, R* the upper part of a cock or faucet, R3 the valve stern, R2 a metallic switchblock connected to the casing of the fancet,and It aswitch-block, the body of which is formed of insulating material and is provided on its upper and lower faces with metallic rings as and a, respectively, which project from the block and respectively make contact at times with the casing It and the metallic block R2. The faucet shown in the drawings is of that class in which the valveestem is raised and lowered to open and close the Valve. Wrhen the stem is raised, the ring a makes contact with the faucetcasing. Vhen the stem is In this figure, TIL represents a` IOC lowered, the ring a9 makes contact with the block R2. The circuit-wire a is eleetricallycon nected to the ring a9 and passes to the electro'- magnet D?, arranged below the bend of the trap D. The circuit then continues to eontact a', and, when the thermostat is closed, through the thermostat and battery C 13,10 the coils of the electro-magnet A. A eireuit-wire, a", is connected to the ring as on the switch-block R'on the faucet and runs to an electro-magnet, DS, arranged beneath the trap D5, by the side of the magnet D2. The cores of the magnets D2 and il)8 project into a valve-casing, D, arranged between the trap and the drain-pipe D. A valve, cl, normally rests on a valve-seatjust below the trap and over the casing. vWithin the casing is an arm, DW, pivoted at its lower end, and provided at its upper end with a cam, dl", in contact with a stud, d, on the bottom of the valve d4. In the drawings the valve is shown closed; but if the arm Dm be swung on its pivot over to the other side of the casing the cam will raise the stud du, and thus open the valve d. The arm D1 constitutes the armature of the electro-magnets D2 and DS. Vhen the magnet D2 is energized and the magnet D8 deenergized, the armature will be attracted to a position to hold the valve d4 open. When the magnet Ds is energized and the magnet D2 deenergized, the armature will be attracted to a position to allow the valve to remain closed.
Referring to the apparatus for controlling the valves between the street-main, the serviceipipes, and the drain-pipe, A6 indicates the pipe connecting with the street-main, A7 the servicepipe, and Ao the drainpipe. AL is a valve designed to open and close communication between the main and the service pipe and between the service-pipe and the drain-pipe. The valve A* is connected by a rod or spindle, A3, (which passes through the core ot' the magnet A,) with the armature A?, which is preferably cup-shaped, as shown. The pipes A, A7, and A are connected by a coupling, A, which is provided with an annnlar series of openings, c, and a chamber, c, between the pipe A6 and the pipe A7. An opening, al, is made in the coupling, which opens communication between the pipe A7 and a chamber, a7, that connects with the drainpipe A9. If the armature be withdrawn from the magnet, as shown in the drawings, there will be communication between the main and the service-pipe, and connection between the service-pipe and the drain-pipe will be closed; but it' the armature be drawn home the valve A4 will be moved beyond the openings o, so that the communication between the main and the service-pipe will be closed and communication between the service-pipe and the drain-pipe will be opened.
F2 indicates an electro-magnet mounted on the coupling Aljust over the electro-magnet A.
F indica-tes a gravity-catch adapted to engage with the armature A2 when it is home and hold it fast. An arm, f5, of the catch earries the armaturefl ot' the electro-magnet F2, and also a spring contactwtinger, f, that moves over a block of insulating material, F, and a metallic contact-plate, f3. The platef3 is electrically connected with the coils of the magnet F2, which is in turn connected by line aX with battery C B', eleotroanagnet DS, and ring zrin the faucet. The block Fi and plate f are curved,so as to allow thc iingerj'2 to move back and forth freely.
On the casing of the magnet A is secured an insulatingblock, a, which carries a metallic plate, ar, electrically connected with the coils of magnet A. A linger, et, is secured to arma ture A, and is moved back and forth by the armature over block u. and plate ai. When the armature is withdrawn, the finger a" rests on the plate n, and if the electric circuit be closed at the thermostat and at the faucet a current will run from battery C B to coils of magnet A', to plate ai", to finger at, to armature A2, to pipes, to faucet, as shown by dotted lines; thence by wire a to magnet D2, to contact a', through thermostat, back to battery. This will energize the magnet A and the armature A1 will bc drawn home. Just before it is fully drawn home the catch F' drops, so that the armature cannot return. When the armatu re is fully drawn home, the linger n* will have passed oli from the plate a, so that thc electric cireni t is broken; but, as above rcmarlret'l, the armature is held in place by the catch F.
its economical use of battery.
The current will also energize the magnet D7, which will attract the armature DI, and thus open the valve d* in the trap DI". When contact is broken at the thermostat or at the fancet, the magnets A and D* will be demagnetized; but the valve A is opened by a separate circuit, and by which also the valve al4 is closed. This circuit runs from battery C B to magnet F2, to platefl, to tingerf, to catch F', thence through coupling A1l and pipes to faucet and ring a, when said ring is in contact with the casing ot' the faucet. Freni the ring es the circuit runs to magnet D5, and thence to battery C B. It will be seen that in the act of opening the faucetthe electric circuit is closed, so as to close the valve d* and withdraw the catch F. At the same time the circuit a is broken at the faucet and the magnets D2 and A are demagnetized. The waterpressure will then force bach the valve A* and hold the armature away from the magnet. As soon as the armaturef* is home the circuit is broken between fingerj"l and platefi. The nosef rests on the armature Al and holds it up until the armature is drawn home. Instead of employing a magnet for elevating the catch, a pull-cord, F', may be used.
The operation of the apparatus has been sufticiently indicated in the above description.
The great utility of this form of apparatus is Then the circuit is broken at the thermostat, no current can pass through either circuit. The circuit a is broken at the contact u', and the circuit c will be broken as long as the catch F is IGO raisedi. e., as long as the armature A2 is away from the magnet, which position it always occupies when the circuit is broken at the thermostat. Vhen the circuit is closed at the thermostat, the valves will be automatically operated, as above described, and may be opened and closed at the faucet-in the act of turning the water on or oi in the usual way.
In Figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6 I have shown amodilied form of apparatus, by which the valve between the strcetmai n and the service-pipe and between the service-pipe and the drain-pipe maybe operated by electrnanagnets using a minimum amount of current ina somewhat different way from that shown in Fig. 2.
A indicates the pipe connecting with the main; A7, the service pipe, and A*I the drainpipe.
Av1 represents a valve adapted to open and close communication between the main and the servicepipe and between the service-pipe and the drain-pipe. The valve A* is in this instance circular, as shown in Fig. 6, and provided on opposite sides with openings A15. On its under side the Valve is formed with a. hollowed-out chamber, Al, extending transversely across the valve between the openings Ai nearly to the edge on cachside. The valve A." rests on n horizontal valvelseat, A5, provided with a central opening, a, connecting with the d1'ain-pipe,an l on nach side with openings a, which register at times with the IIO openings A15 in the valve. When the openings do so register, communication is established between the main and the service-pipe, as indicated in the drawings, and the drainpipe is closed; but when the valve is given a quarter-turn the chamber A6 registers with both the openings am, andthe entrance to the drain-pipe and the openings Al5 are closed-by the solid part of the valve-seat, so that no water can enter from the main, and the water in the service-pipe will pass through the openings cl2 into the chamber A16 and out through the drain-pipe.
rl`he valve A1 is connected by a valve-spindle, A3, to an armature, A2, below the electromagnets A and AX. The armature is preferably formed of two wings united at their inner ends and secured to the spindle A3. A plan view of the armature is shown by dotted lines in Fig. 3. The wings face in opposite directions, and their upper faces are tapered or inclined from their outer ends upwardly, as shown in Fig. 4, so that when the extreme outer ends of the armature-wings are opposite the magnets the attractive force will be exerted along the inclined surface, causing the armature to turn until the upper plane surface is reached. The movement of the armature will of course correspondingly turn the Valve. I have shown two vertical horseshoe electro-magnets arranged with their legs side by side equal distances apart, but crossing each other. The cores of the magnets are so arranged that a single pair of magnets will act correspondingly on the opposite wings of the armature. "lhe spindle A3 is surrounded by suitable packing, m, but is free to turn therein. Above the armature and secured thereto is a switch-block, G, of insulating material and provided with a metallic contactring, g, on which spring contact-fingers c and a7 bear at all times. Above the ring g are curved plates g', each equal to a quarter of the surface of the block and arranged on opposite sidesthereof. The plates g arein electrical connection with the ring g, preferably being formed integrally therewith. Spring contact-fingers a8 and a9 bear at times ou the plates g' and at times on the surface of the block between the plates. The ring and plates are sunk into the block so that their outer surfaces coincide. The tinger c is arranged diagonally opposite to the finger as, so that they will be on correspending plates g' at the same time. The iingers a7 and c are similarly arranged. The frame and casing of the apparatus may be of any suitable construction. I preferably form au annular brass base-piece, G', over pipes and on it mount a plate, G2, of insulating material. The magnets are mounted onthe plate G2, and are covered by a casing, G3, secured at the top to the metallic connection between the cores of the magnets.
Referring to Fig. 3, M3 indicates a switchplate of insulating material, provided with a hand-switch, m3. Two contact-buttons, m4 m5, are arranged on one side of the plate in close proximity to each other, so that the switch may close an electric circuit between them. Similar buttons, m6 m7, are arranged on the opposite side of the plate. A circuit-wire, a, runs from button m to thermostat Th, thence to battery C B,thence t0 sp ring-finger c6, thence to ring g on the switch-block to plate g', to linger as, to coils of electro-magnet A', and thence by wire a to button mi. When an electric circuit is closed through this circuit, the valve A4 will be closed-i. e., the water will be cut off from the main and the drainpipe will be opened. Of course, if the circuit is not closed at the thermostat, the magnet will not be energized. In the drawings the circuit is supposed to be open at the thermostat. Another circuit runs from button m4 by wire aX to finger al, to ring'g, to plate g8, to finger a9,to coils of electro magnets AX, to line (1*, through battery C B', to button m5. If the circuit be closed, the magnets AC will be energized and will turn the valve so as to turn on the water and close the drain-pipe. The most import-ant feature of this construction is, that immediately after the magnets are energized and the armature has been given a-quarter-turn the electric circuit is broken by reason of the fact that the plates g go past the 9; ends of the contact-fingers c and asand a7 and a9, so that the current is only used for an instant. This is true of either circuit.
The operation of the apparatus has been indicated in the above description; but to furroo ther explain: Suppose that the temperature falls and the circuit a is closed at the thermostat; the magnets A willimmediately be energized and will turn the armature so as to shut the valve AK Immediately after the valve is [o5 closed the circuit is broken, the contact-plates g having left the contact-fingers t6 and as ot this circuit and made contact with the fingers of the other circuit. The valve will remaink stationary until the other circuit is closed at iro the hand-switch, when the magnets AX will be energized and the valve again opened. By this arrangement the valve may be opened and closed at pleasure.
If the thermostat be omitted, the valve may l if, be opened and closed at pleasure by simply shifting the hand-switch; but when the thermostat is included in the circuit for closing the valve the circuit will be closed automatically at the thermostat to shut the valve when izo the temperature falls to the freezing-point.
My improved apparatus is especially designed for use in a pipe system; but some parts of it are obviously more extended in their application.
The apparatus may be connected in the circuit of an electric-light system, by which powerful currents may be utilized to operate the valves.
I claim as of my own invention- 1. The combination of the main, the servicepipe, a valve for opening and closing communication between the main and the servicepipe, the electro-magnet, the armature of the electro-magri et connected to the valve, the electric circuit, including the coils of the electromagnet, the faucets in the service-pipes, and the circuit making and breaking devices operated by the faucets, substantially as set forth.
2. The combination of the main, the servicepipe, a valve for opening and closing communication between the main and the servicepipe, the electro-magnet, the valve spindle, the armature of the electro-magnet connected to the valve-spindle, the electric circuit, including the coils of the electro-magnet,the thermostat for automatically making and breaking the circuit, the faucets in the service-pipe, and the circuit making and breaking devices operated by the faucets, substantially as set forth.
3. The combination of the main, the servicepipe, the drain-pipe, a pipe-coupling connecting the main, the service-pipe, and the drainpipe, a valve within the coupling for opening and closing communication between the main and the service-pipe and between the servicepipe and the drain-pipe, thc valve-spindle, the electro-magnet, the armature of the electromagnet connected to the valvespindle, and the electric circuit, including the coils of the magnet, substantially as set forth.
4. The combination of the main, the service pipe, the valve for opening and closing communication between the main and the servicepipe, the electro-magnet, the valve-spindle passing through the core of the magnet, the armature carried by the valve-spindle, the electric circuit, the contact-finger carried by the armature and moving coincidently therewith for making and breaking the circuit, and the thermostat included in the circuit, substantially as set forth.
5. The combination ofthe main, the servicepipe, the drain-pipe, a valve for opening and closing communication between the main and the service-pipe and between the service-pipe and the drain-pipe, the electro-magnet, the valve-spindle passing through the core ofthe magnet, the armature of the electromagnet secured to the valve-spindle, the electric circuit c, including the pipes, the thermostat for automatically making and breaking the circuit, the faucet, the switch-block, the contactring a9, foi` making and breaking the circuit at the faucet, the electro-magnet F2, its armature, the catch operated thereby, the electric circuit ax, including the pipes and the magnet F2, and the contact-ring ai, for making and breaking the circuit ax at the faucet, substantially as set forth.
6. The combination of the main, thc servicepipe, the valve for opening and closing communication between the main and the servicepipe, the electro-magnet, the valve-spindle passing through the core of the magnet, the armature of the electro-magnet secured to the valve-spindle, the sewer-trap, the valve in the bend of the trap, the electro-magnet for operating the Valve, the electric circuit, including the coils of the electro-magnets, the thermostat for automatically making and breaking the circuit, the faucet, and the circuit making and breaking devices operated by the faucet, substantially as set forth.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my naine.
EDWIN A, NEWMAN.
LLOYD B. Wiciii, ALLAN Moll-anu Anular.