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Publication numberUS3892111 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 1, 1975
Filing dateJan 4, 1974
Priority dateJan 23, 1973
Also published asDE2400550A1
Publication numberUS 3892111 A, US 3892111A, US-A-3892111, US3892111 A, US3892111A
InventorsBresler Horst
Original AssigneeG A O Ges Fur Automation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Variable locking device
US 3892111 A
Abstract
An adjustable locking system includes in combination (1) a key operable with a cam member of a tumbler cam including a shank stem having a longitudinal stem bore opening at one end and having a hand engagement portion adjacent the opposite end, a plurality of tumbler engaging rings, each having an engagement recess for engaging the tumblers, rotatably mounted on said stem, an opening in said stem underlying each of said rings, a cam movable in the bore of said stem for each ring, a locking member associated with said cam and located in said opening to engage and lock each associated ring, said cam being displaceable in the bore by engagement of the cam setting members between a position in which said cam engages and forces said locking member into engagement with said rings to prevent rotation thereof and a position in which said cam permits inward movement of said locking members in their associated openings out of engagement with said rings to permit their rotation; and (2) a lock for said key including a lock cylinder having a central keyway bore having at least one locking pin bore, a locking pin in said bore biased inwardly, a core socket having unlocking means actuable in one end part of said core socket to engage the bolt for unlocking, a settable test ring rotatable within the bore of said core socket and having a central keyway bore, said test ring and said core socket having alignable radial bores, at least one locking pin in said radial bores having means biasing said locking pin into said key way bore and in an interior biased position locking said core socket and test ring against rotation when engaged in fixed tumbler ring but being set in said core socket and test ring when the ring is not fixed.
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United States Patent Bresler l l l l July 1, 1975 [75] Inventor:

G.A.O. Gesellschait fur Automation, Germany [73] Assignee:

[22] Filed: Jan. 4, I974 [21] Appl. No.: 430,702

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data Jan. 23, 1973 Austria .4 A565/73 [52] US. Cl. 70/358; 70/364 A; 70/383; 70/41 1 [5|] Int. Cl ..E05b19/18 [58] Field of Search 70/41 I, 402, 395, 35 B, 70/364 A, 383, 373, 375, 382, 399, 404

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3l6,l32 4/l885 Doubler 70/4ll X 1,070,329 8/l9l3 Dardeau 70/4l I 3,595,043 7/l97l Williams........ 3,774,424 ll/l973 Ehrat 70/383 Primary Examiner--Robert L. Wolfe Attorney, Agent, or Firm-McGlew and Tuttle [57] ABSTRACT An adjustable locking system includes in combination (1) a key operable with a cam member of a tumbler cam including a shank stem having a longitudinal stem bore opening at one end and having a hand engagement portion adjacent the opposite end, a plurality of tumbler engaging rings, each having an engagement recess for engaging the tumblers, rotatably mounted on said stem, an opening in said stem underlying each of said rings, a cam movable in the bore of said stem for each ring, a locking member associated with said cam and located in said opening to engage and lock each associated ring, said cam being displaceable in the bore by engagement of the cam setting members between a position in which said cam engages and forces said locking member into engagement with said rings to prevent rotation thereof and a position in which said cam permits inward movement of said locking members in their associated openings out of engagement with said rings to permit their rotation; and (2) a lock for said key including a lock cylinder having a central keyway bore having at least one locking pin bore, a locking pin in said bore biased inwardly, a core socket having unlocking means actuable in one end part of said core socket to engage the bolt for unlocking, a settable test ring rotatable within the bore of said core socket and having a central keyway bore, said test ring and said core socket having alignable radial bores, at least one locking pin in said radial bores having means biasing said locking pin into said key way bore and in an interior biased position locking said core socket and test ring against rotation when engaged in fixed tumbler ring but being set in said core socket and test ring when the ring is not fixed.

6 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures SHEET 1 VARIABLE LOCKING DEVICE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION l. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a variable locking device by means of which it is possible to assure that a certain lock can only be operated by a certain key, with it being practically impossible for the key to be made by unauthorized persons.

2. Prior Art It is already known to provide other locking means instead of the key bit which, in any case by corresponding mechanical working, can theoretically be made by an unauthorized person. To this end the key of a conventional locking device comprises two or more adjusting rings seated on its stern. These rings in the axial direction, are capable of assuming two defined positions, with the adjusting rings being blocked when in the one position, and capable of revolving freely when in the other position, with the second position being compulsorily reached when the key is inserted completely into the lock. The lock comprises a number of test rings corresponding to the number of adjusting rings, with said test rings concentrically surrounding the adjusting rings after the key has been inserted in the lock. Finally, the lock comprises a number of tumbler means permitting an arbitrary turning, but between adjusting rings and test rings, only a compulsory turning in discrete angular steps, thus safeguarding an unambiguous assignment between adjusting rings and test rings in the set angular position upon re-insertion of the key into the lock, so that only the key adjusted in a certain lock by turning the adjusting rings and the test rings, can be effectively inserted into this lock.

The present invention is an improvement over the known prior art and has for its object to provide an improvement in or relating to variable locking devices.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, the invention relates to a variable locking device with the key thereof, instead of the bit or web, comprising two or more adjusting rings. These adjusting rings by corresponding means, are either forcelockingly connected to the stem of the key and incapable of revolving, or they are capable of revolving freely; and, moreover, the lock comprises a number of test rings corresponding to the number of adjusting rings, with said test rings concentrically surrounding the adjusting rings subsequently to the insertion of the key; also, said test rings, along their circumference, comprise a number of tumbler means permitting an arbitrary, but between the adjusting rings and the test rings, only a compulsory turning in discrete steps.

A substantial feature of the invention is characterized in that the key comprises a hollow stem on which the adjusting rings are arranged next to each other, and inside which there is provided an axially displaceable spindle divided into a number of sections corresponding to the number of adjusting rings; each of said sections including a tapering portion; the invention is further characterized in that the key stem comprises along its circumference a certain number of bores per spindle section, in which balls are supported for engaging the internal toothings of the adjusting rings, and blocking the turning thereof; said balls, when the key is inserted, owing to the displacement of the spindle into the tapered portion, drop out of the bores, thus permitting the adjusting rings to be revolved; moreover, the lock comprises a number of test rings corresponding to the number of adjusting rings, as well as a core socket capable of revolving inside the lock cylinder and surrounding the test rings in their entirety; further, the invention is characterized in that the tumbler or securer means includes several bores uniformly distributed over the peripheral area of the lock cylinder, the core socket and the test rings, with said bores each being associated with a locking pin and, in the defined angular positions of both the adjusting rings and the test rings, in alignment with one another, with one of the bores of the test rings having a long locking pin. According to the invention, moreover the locking pins are so designed as to be capable of engaging the notch extending along the peripheral area of the adjusting ring.

Further features of the invention will become apparent from an example of a specific embodiment to be described hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I shows the key according to the invention in a front view;

FIG. la is an end elevation of the key shown in FIG. 1.

FIG. 2 shows the key in a sectional view;

FIG. 2a is an end elevation of the key shown in FIG. 2.

FIG. 3 shows the lock in a sectional view;

FIG. 4 shows the key and the lock in a cross-sectional view; and

FIG. 5 shows a device for setting the adjusting and test rings, in a cross-sectional view;

DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION According to FIG. I, the key includes the bow or loop 1, of the hollow stem 2, the collar 3, the guide sleeve 5, as well as the three adjusting rings 4.

As is evident from FIG. 2 of the drawings, the spindle 8 as biased by the compression spring 7, is positioned inside the keys hollow stem 2. The spindle 8 is subdivided into a number of sections corresponding to the number of adjusting rings 4, with each section comprising a tapered portion 9. Each section of the keys stem as defined by the spindle sections, comprises in its peripheral area a number of bores 10, with the number of these bores corresponding to the number of the desired setting positions of the adjusting rings. The bores 10 contain the balls 11 aimed at engaging the internal toothing or notches 12 of the adjusting rings 4 when the spindle 8 is at normal position. By this arrangement, therefore, the adjusting rings 4 are prevented from being turned. The number of teeth or notches 12 of the adjusting rings 4 is either equal to or a common multiple of the number of desired setting positions (i.e., number of tumbler or securer means per test ring) of the adjusting rings 4, as well as equal to or a common multiple of the number of bores 10.

When the key is inserted into the lock, upon displacing the spindle 8 in the direction as indicated by the arrow 13, the balls 11 become disengaged from the notches or toothing 12 so that now the adjusting rings 4 are capable of being freely turned on the keys stem portion 2.

The lock itself is schematically shown in FIG. 3. Thus, the lock includes the lock cylinder 14 and the rear plate 15 firmly connected thereto. Inside the cylindrical housing 14 the core socket 16 is arranged so as to be capable of being loosely revolved, with the test rings 17 and the armor plate 18 being supported therein. Firmly connected to the core socket 16 is the locking bit 19, with the unlatching pin 20 being tightly fitted therein and which, upon insertion of the key, serves to displace the spindle 8 in opposition to the action of the spring 7, thus releasing the adjusting rings 4 for being turned as described hereinbefore.

By the recesses 21 as provided for in the cylindrical housing 14, care is taken that the locking bit 19 has the necessary space for performing the locking movements. The clearance of the core socket 16 with respect to the housing 14 may be adjusted with the aid of the centering screw 22 as screwed into the rear plate 15.

The cylindrical housing 14, (shown in FIGS. 3 and 4) the core socket 16 and the test rings 17 are all disposed around the key hole 23 into which the adjusting rings 4 of the key fit exactly. Moreover, the housing 14 and the core socket 16 have a common recessed portion 24 which, together with the key hole 23, corresponds to the outer contours of the collar 3 (FIGS. 1 and 2'). Accordingly, there will result the flux of force which is necessary for performing the locking motion, i.e. from the bow or loop of the key 1 via the hollow stem 2 and the collar 3 to both the core socket 16 and the locking bit (web) 19. A locking movement, however, can only be performed after the proper key has been inserted in the respective lock. The reference numeral 35 indicates the adjustable levers to be explained with reference to FIG. 5 hereinafter.

This will now be described with reference to FIG. 4 showing a section taken through the lock according to FIG. 3. For the sake of enabling a better understanding, only two of the tumblers are shown. It is possible, however, to provide three, four, six, eight or ten tumblers per test ring.

The tumblers consist of the bores 25 in the lock cylinder 14, of the bores 26 in the core socket 16 and of the bores 27 in the test rings 17, as well as of the locking pins 28 to in the bores 25 to 27. As may be seen from FIG. 4, the bores 25 to 27 are in alignment with one another. Moreover, it may be seen from FIG. 4 that the locking pin 31 is longer than the locking pin 30 of all other tumblers in a given test ring 17. The locking pin 31 is in fact longer than all the other locking pins by the depth of the notch 6. If the key fitting into the respective lock is inserted now, the tumblers meet upon each other in such a way that the long locking pin 31 will come into engagement with the notch 6 as will still be described in greater detail hereinafter.

In this case there will result a form-locking (positive) connection between the adjusting ring 4 and the test ring 17 so that both rings will be turned upon turning of the key. thus enabling performance of the locking movement in the course of which the core socket 16 carrying the locking bit 19, is actuated by the collar 3.

When inserting any other key (and, consequently, the wrong key), the tumblers will be adjusted in such a way that a short locking pin 30 will engage the notch 6 of the adjusting rings 4. As will be easily recognized, the locking pins 28 and 29 will in that case slip inwardly to such an extent that any revolving movement between the core socket 16 and the lock cylinder 14 is blocked, thus preventing any locking movement from being performed. The engagement of the locking pins 30, 31 is supported by the action of the spring 32 as retained in position by the headless setscrew 33.

For preventing the locking pins 28 to 31 from dropping into the interior when no key is inserted, the lock ing pins 30, 31 are provided with a projection 34.

With reference to FIG. 5 there will now be described the arbitrary setting and blocking of both the adjusting rings 4 and the test rings 17, by which the originally neutral key becomes associated with the respective lock. In the course of this setting, the adjusting rings 4 together with the engaged long locking pin 31 and, consequently, the test rings 17, are turned by the same angular amount without the key itself being turned as well. Since this setting remains to exist after the key has been removed, with the position of the key upon reinsertion, however, being determined by the precise fit ting of the collar 3, only the right key can be effectively inserted into the lock. The blocking system is moreover aimed at preventing the tumblers of the individual test rings from being each systematically sensed with a view to having them readjusted by unauthorized persons.

FIG. 5 shows the lock in the case of a closed door; this on the presumption that the lock is firmly built into the door. In the position shown the test rings 17 are blocked in their revolving movement. By this it is safeguarded that the proper key, when inserted into the lock, will also meet upon the proper tumblers for enabling an unlatching of the lock.

The blocking system consists of the adjustable lever 35 supported inside the lock cylinder housing 14 in the bearing 40 capable of revolving in the direction as indicated by the arrows 36 and 37, with this adjustable lever 35 engaging with its base 38 the external toothing 41 of the test ring 17, as well as of the bolt 45 which is centered by the guide 47 and resting against the door panel 46.

When the door is closed, a flux of force exists between the door panel 46, the bolt 45, the adjustable lever 35 and the form-locking (positive) connection between the lever base 38 and the external toothing 41. In the position shown, the movement of the adjustable lever 35 is blocked, thus also preventing the test ring 17 from being turned.

If now the lock is opened now with the associated key so that the core socket 16, via the collar 3 is turned in the direction as indicated by the arrow 51 by one division step, and is thus swivelled out of the range of the door panel 46, then the adjustable lever 35, by the action of the compression spring 43, is moved in the di rection as indicated by the arrow 44. The limit stop 48 at the bolt 45 prevents a self-retardation of the lever point 39 in the toothing 41 of the test ring 17 which, during this movement of the adjustable lever 35, and by the lever point 39 engaging the toothing 41, is turned by one step further in the direction as indicated by the arrow 42. The recessed portion 52 in the core socket 16 and the recessed portion 53 in the lock cylinder housing 14 permit the free movement between the lever 35 and the core socket or the lock cylinder housing respectively.

Re-adjustment of the test ring 17 and, consequently. of the adjusting ring 4 to any other optional position may now be effected by manually actuating the bolt 45 into the direction as indicated by the arrow 49, with the turning of the test ring being effected via the corner 50 of the lever engaging the toothing 41. One turning step corresponds to the division of the tumblers. Upon closing the door and locking by the key, the bolt 45 is again displaced in the direction as indicated by the arrow 49, so that now the test ring 17 is again locked in position (arrested). in this position the key may then be removed from the lock without the settings of both the test rings and the adjusting rings being changed.

What is claimed is:

1. In a variable locking device with the key thereof, instead of the bit or web, comprising two or more adjusting rings which are seated on the stem of the key and are only capable of revolving freely after the key has been inserted in the lock, and in which, moreover, the lock comprises a number of test rings corresponding to the number of adjusting rings, with said test rings concentrically surrounding the adjusting rings subsequently to the insertion of the key, and with said test rings, along their circumference, comprising a number of tumbler means permitting an arbitrary, but between the adjusting rings and the test rings, only a compulsory turning in discrete steps, the key comprises a hollow stem (2) on which the adjusting rings (4) are arranged next to each other, and inside which there is provided an axially displaceable spindle (8) divided into a number of sections corresponding to the number of adjusting rings (4), with each of said sections comprising a tapering (9), that the key stem (2) per spindle section, comprises along its circumference a certain number of bores (16) in which balls (11) are supported for engaging the internal toothings (12) of the adjusting rings (4), and blocking the turning thereof and which, when the key is inserted, owing to the displacement of the spindle (8) into the tapered portion, drop out of the bores, thus permitting the adjusting rings to be revolved, that moreover the lock comprises a number of test rings (17) corresponding to the number of adjusting rings (4), as well as a core socket (16) capable of revolving inside the lock cylinder (14) and surrounding the test rings (17) in their entirety and that the tumbler or securer means consist of several bores (25 27) uniformly distributed over the peripheral area of the lock cylinder (14), the core socket (16) and the test rings (17), with said bores each being associated with a locking pin (28 30) and, in the defined angular positions of both the adjusting rings and the test rings, in alignment with one another, with one of the bores (27) of the test rings (17) having a long locking pin (31), and that moreover the locking pins (30, 31) are so designed as to be capable of engaging the notch (6) extending along the peripheral area of the adjusting ring (4).

2. A key operable with a cam member of a tumbler cam comprising a shank stem having a longitudinal stem bore opening at one end and having a hand engagement portion adjacent the opposite end, a plurality of tumbler engaging rings, each having an engagement recess for engaging the tumblers, rotatably mounted on said stern, an opening in said stem underlying each of said rings, a cam movable in the bore of said stem for each ring, a locking member associated with said cam and located in said opening to engage and lock each associated ring, said cam being displaceable in the bore by engagement of the cam setting member between a position in which said cam engages and forces said locking member into engagement with said rings to pre- 3,892,l ll

vent rotation thereof and a position in which said cam permits inward movement of said locking member in their associated openings out of engagement with said rings to permit their rotation.

3. An adjustable lock for a key having a shank stem with a hand engagement element on the opposite end and having at least one tumbler engagement ring having an engagement recess for engaging the tumbler rotatably mounted on the stern comprising a lock cylinder having a central keyway bore having at least one looking pin bore, a locking pin in said bore biased inwardly, a core socket having unlocking means actuable in one end part of said core socket to engage a bolt for unlocking, a settable test ring rotatable within the bore of said core socket and having a central key way bore, said test ring and said core socket having alignable radial bores, at least one locking pin in said radial bores having means biasing said locking pin into said keyway bore and in an interior biased position blocking said core socket and test ring against rotation when engaged in a fixed tumbler ring but being set in said core socket and test ring when the ring is not fixed.

4. An adjustable locking system comprising in combination l a key operable with a cam member of a turn bler cam including a shank stem having a longitudinal stem bore opening at one end and having a hand engagement portion adjacent the opposite end, a plurality of tumbler engaging rings, each having an engagement recess for engaging the tumblers, rotatably mounted on said stem, an opening in said stem underlying each of said rings, a cam moveable in the bore of said stern for each ring, a locking member associated with said cam and located in said opening to engage and lock each associated ring, said cam being displaceable in the bore by engagement of the cam setting members between a position in which said cam engages and forces said locking member into engagement with said rings to prevent rotation thereof and a position in which said cam permits inward movement of said locking members in their associated openings out of engagement with said rings to permit their rotation; and (2) a lock for said key including a lock cylinder having a central keyway bore having at least one locking pin bore, a locking pin in said bore biased inwardly, a core socket having unlocking means actuable in one end part of said core socket to engage the bolt for unlocking, a settable test ring rotatable within the bore of said core socket and having a central keyway bore, said test ring and said core socket having alignable radial bores, at least one locking pin in said radial bores having means biasing said locking pin into said key way bore and in an interior biased position locking said core socket and test ring against rotation when engaged in fixed tumbler ring but being set in said core socket and test ring when the ring is not fixed.

5. The adjustable locking system, according to claim 4, wherein said tumbler bores include locking pins slidably mounted in said bores, each of said bores in said lock cylinder having a set screw adjustably mounted at the outer end of each of said bores and a compression spring between said set screw and one of said locking pins at the inner end of each of said bores and biasing the locking pin inwardly, each of said bores in said core socket having a locking pin slidably mounted therein and alignable with a bore having a locking pin in said lock cylinder, each of the locking pins in said core socket being of a length substantially equivalent to the thickness of said core socket, one of the locking pins in each of said test rings being of a length greater than the other locking pins in any one test ring, by a distance substantially equivalent to the depth of the exterior notch in a setting ring of the key, and all of the locking pins in each of said test rings having a projection of smaller diameter than said locking pin on the inner end of the locking pin for engagement with the exterior notch of the setting rings of the key, each of the bores in said setting rings having an opening into the interior of said lock which is adapted to permit said projection to extend therethrough without permitting said locking pin to fall into the interior of the lock when the key is withdrawn from the lock.

6. The adjustable locking system according to claim 4, wherein the outer peripheral surface of said test rings includes a toothed portion, at least one adjusting lever is pivotally connected to the lock cylinder having a slot therein, said lever extends through a corresponding slot in the core socket for engagement with the toothed portion of one of said test rings, said adjusting lever having a base portion and an outwardly extending lever point portion for engagement with the toothed portion of the test rings when one end and the base portion of the adjusting lever is pivoted away from engagement with the toothed portion of said test rings, an actuating bolt slidably mounted adjacent said base portion. and a compression spring for biasing said base portion toward said bolt.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US316132 *Jun 26, 1884Apr 21, 1885F Onedoubler
US1070329 *Apr 1, 1911Aug 12, 1913Leon Joseph Mathurin DardeauVariable-combination key for safety-locks.
US3595043 *Feb 10, 1969Jul 27, 1971Williams Daniel AKeylock mechanism
US3774424 *Nov 18, 1971Nov 27, 1973Ehrat KKey-operated mechanical lock
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5331752 *Jan 14, 1992Jul 26, 1994Rollerblade, Inc.Skate with detachable shoe
US5682779 *Mar 6, 1995Nov 4, 1997Dolev; MosheMechanically changeable cylinder lock and key with rotating pins
Classifications
U.S. Classification70/358, 70/411, 70/383, 70/493
International ClassificationE05B19/12, E05B35/00, E05B19/00
Cooperative ClassificationE05B35/00
European ClassificationE05B35/00