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Publication numberUS3893810 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 8, 1975
Filing dateDec 18, 1972
Priority dateDec 18, 1972
Publication numberUS 3893810 A, US 3893810A, US-A-3893810, US3893810 A, US3893810A
InventorsLientz La Clede
Original AssigneeLientz La Clede
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Flare stack burner for odor and pollutant elimination
US 3893810 A
Abstract
A flare stack burner and method for burning of pollutants such as noxious gases, particulate materials and smoke carried by an air stream to eliminate odor and pollution problems. The air stream carrying the pollutants is directed around orifices that inject a combustible material into the air stream for ignition and primary burning and by vanes for more complete combustion causing the burning gases to flow in a vortical path. The fuel is ignited downstream from the vanes to incinerate the pollutants in the air stream and a secondary air blast may be introduced into the burning stream for complete oxidation.
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United States Patent Lientz July 8, 1975 [5 FLARE STACK BURNER FOR ODOR AND 3,759,668 9/1973 Yamada et al.... 23/277 C N NATI N 3,794,459 2/1974 Meenan 23/277 c POLLUTA T ELIMI 0 3,805,523 4/1974 Tanasawa 23/277 C [76} In entor: La Cl d Lientz, 0. Box 3 3,813,879 6/1974 lnoue et al. 23/277 c Branson, Mo. 65616 3,817,712 6/1974 Wentworth.... 423/210 Filed: Dec- 1972 R25,858 9/1965 Matvay 23/288 F [21} Appl. No.: 316,260 Primary Examiner-Barry S. Richman Assistant Examiner-Bradley R. Garris 52 U.S. c1. 23/277 (3; 23/288 F; 431/5 Agen" [51] Int. Cl. F23g 7/06; F23c 9/04; BOlj 9/16 58 Field of Search 23/277 0, 288 E, 288 F; 1571 ABSTRACT 60/88; 431/5, 202 A flare stack burner and method for burning of pollutants such as noxious gases, particulate materials and [56] References Cited smoke carried by an air stream to eliminate odor and UNITED STATES PATENTS pollution problems. The air stream carrying the pollut- 2 203 554 6/1940 Uhri at Bl/202 ants is directed around orifices that inject a combustible material into the air Stream for and pri- 2,761,496 9/1956 Verner et al 431 202 y burning and y vanes for more Complete 2,802,521 8/1957 Campbell et al 431/202 bustion causing the burning gases to flow in a vertical 2,829,731 4/1958 Clayton 431/5 path. The fuel is ignited downstream from the vanes to .879.862 3/1959 Burden 31/ incinerate the pollutants in the air stream and a secon- 1 7/1965 Barnes 23/288 F dary air blast may be introduced into the burning 3,574,562 4/1971 Kawahata 23/288 F Stream for complete Oxidation 3,628,903 12/1971 Hoyt 431/202 3,632,304 1/1972 Hardison 23/288 F 9 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures v7 14 7 7 A 16 0 1 i I 12 a SHEET PATENTEMUL 8 W5 FLARE STACK BURNER FOR ODOR AND POLLUTANT ELIMINATION The principal objects of the present invention are: to provide a flare stack burner and method for rapid oxidation of effluent with a minimum of temperature increase and a maximum of intimate contact of the flame,

effluent, oxygen and/or other combustible matter; to

provide such a flare stack burner and method for eliminating pollutants carried by an air stream and mixing them with a combustible fuel and burning them", to provide such a flare stack burner and method that can burn pollutants at high volume flow rates; to provide such a flare stack burner and method wherein a catalytic agent can be added to the pollutant to aid in its burning and help control the byproducts of the combustion; to provide such a flare stack burner with an adjustable flow rate primary air supply that provides oxygen for combustion and helps induce flow of the pollutants from their source to a combustion chamber; to provide such a flare stack burner with a secondary air supply injected into the combustion chamber to aid vortical flow of the burning mixture and supply additional oxygen to increase the rate and efficiency of combustion; to provide such a flare stack burner with a temperature controller for controlling the amount of added combustible fuel to maintain a desired combustion temperature and for conserving fuel; to provide such a flare stack burner with a combustion chamber of sufficient length wherein the gasses are in laminar flow when exhausted from the burner; and to provide such a flare stack burner and method that is easy and economical to manufacture and operate, efficient in operation, and suitable for its intended use.

Other objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent from the following description wherein are set forth by way of example certain embodiments of this invention.

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a flare stack burner.

FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of the flare stack burner with portions broken away to show structural details therein.

FIG. 3 is a sectioned plan view taken along the line 3-3.

FIG. 4 is a sectioned plan view taken along the line 4-4.

FIG. 5 is a sectioned plan view taken along the line 5-5 with sections broken away to show structural details.

FIG. 6 is an enlarged elevation sectioned view of a fuel jet and baffle.

Referring more in detail to the drawings:

As required, detailed embodiments of the present invention are disclosed herein, however, it is to be understood that the disclosed embodiments are merely exemplary of the invention which may be embodied in various forms. Therefore, specific structural and functional details disclosed herein are not to be interpreted as limiting but merely as a basis for the claims and as a representative basis for teaching one skilled in the art to variously employ the present invention in virtually any appropriate detailed structure.

The reference numeral 1 designates generally a flare stack burner that is used for burning or oxidizing pollutants or effluents such as noxious gases, smoke and particulate matter, to eliminate or reduce hazards of discharging the pollutants into the atmosphere. The pollutants are furnished by any suitable source 2 such as a refuse burner or chemical process container and are carried therefrom by a conduit 4 to the burner I. Fluid such as air from a primary supply device or air supply 5 is mixed with the pollutants and the mixture is directed toward a combustion chamber 6. A combustible fuel that is ignited by a pilot light 9 is injected into the mixture of air and pollutants and is directed onto baffles 8 that deflect the mixture from axial flow causing same to flow in a vortical path in the combustion chamber 6 where the pollutants are burned Or oxidized. Fluid such as air from a secondary supply device or air supply 10 is injected into the combustion chamber 6 tangentially to the vortical flow path and in the same direction as the flow aiding the vortical flow and helping increase the efficiency of the combustion in the combustion chamber by supplying additional oxygen to the burning mixture.

In the illustrated structure, the conduit 4 extends generally upwardly from and is operably connected to the source of pollutants 2 and the primary air supply 5. A housing 12 is suitably mounted on the conduit 4 adjacent to the open end thereof and extends generally upwardly therefrom. in the form shown, the housing 12 is round and has a lower portion adjacent the free end of the conduit 4 that is larger than the diameter of the conduit 4. The housing 12 is cone-shaped with the diameter thereof decreasing as the distance away from the junction of the conduits 2 and 4 increases and terminating in a tubular portion 14 spaced from the conduit 4. The primary air supply 5 communicates with the chamber 12 by having a tubular member I6 extending into the housing I2. A blower I7 is connected to the tubular member 16, externally of the housing 12, to force feed air through the tubular member I6 and into the housing 12. Inside the housing 12, the tubular member 16 has an upstanding end portion 19 pointing generally toward the opening adjacent the tubular portion 14. It is desirable to have the primary air supply 5 adjustable so as to control the flow rate of air into the burner 1. It is to be noted that a blower (not shown) could be connected between the source 2 and the housing 12 that is operable to pull the pollutants from the source 2 and force same through the conduit 4 into the housing 12. The use of the alternate blower would make the blower 17 an option. Various methods of flow control can be used, and in the illustrated form of the invention, the primary air supply 5 includes a plate 20 movably secured to the bottom wall 22 of the housing 12, with both the bottom wall 22 and the plate 20 each having respective spaced apart apertures 24 and 23 therethrough. The size of the openings 24 of the bottom wall 22 are varied by rotating the plate 20 thereby moving the opening 23 in varying positions relative to the aperture 24 from an open position allowing maximum flow, to a closed position allowing no additional flow therethrough.

As illustrated, a fuel injecting chamber 27 is suitably secured to the housing 12 adjacent the tubular portion 14 and extends upwardly therefrom. Fastening or securing may be done in any suitable manner and, in the illustrated structure, flanges 29 and 30 are secured to and extend from the fuel chamber 27 and the housing 12 respectively having securing devices 31 securing same together. The fuel chamber 27 is comprised of an inner and outer shell 32 and 33 respectively suitably se cured together forming a hollow annular chamber or manifold 34 therebetween. Elongate tubular members or jets 36 are secured to the inner shell 32 and are circumferentially spaced around the inside of the chamber 27 disposed at an acute angle to the outer shell 33 pointing generally toward the upwardly disposed open end of the fuel chamber 27. The tubular members 36 open into the chamber 34 communicating therewith. Each of the tubular members 36 has a free end spaced from the inner shell 32 that is flattened forming an elongate orifice 38 with the openings being generally parallel to the longitudinal axis of the fuel chamber 27. In the illustrated structure, the tubular members 36 are equally spaced circumferentially and are preferably four or more in number disposed equal degrees apart. The arrangement of the inner shell 32 and the tubular members 36 provide a streamlined interior with a minimum of restrictions to minimize flow resistance through the fuel injecting chamber 27. A fuel supply connection 40 such as a pipe nipple, is suitably secured to the outer shell 33 and opens into the hollow chamber 34.

The combustion chamber 6 is defined by a housing 41 which is suitably secured to and extends from the upward open end of the fuel chamber 27 and is generally co-axial therewith. in the illustrated structure, the housing 41 is an elongate tubular member that is suitably secured to a flange portion 39 of the fuel chamber 27 that is adjacent the upper end thereof. Preferably, gussets 42 are secured, such as by welding, to the flange 39 and the interior surface of the housing 41 securing same together. The interior surface of the housing 41 may be lined with a heat resistant material such as ceramic. A shroud 44 is suitably secured to the exterior surface of the housing 41 and is in spaced relation thereto. Securing may be accomplished in any suitable manner and as illustrated spacers 43 are secured to the interior surface of the shroud 44 in any suitable manner, such as by welding, and engage the exterior surface of the housing 41 in such a manner as to secure the shroud 44 to the housing 41. One method of securing the spacers 43 to the housing 41 is to have the free ends of the spacers 43 engaged in loops 46 that are secured to the housing 41 in any appropriate manner. The air space between the housing 41 and the shroud 44 helps insulate the shroud 44 and allows air to flow therebetween to cool both the shroud 44 and housing 41. The lower end of the shroud 44 has a skirt portion 48 ex tending downwardly and outwardly therefrom to help protect the parts of the burner 1 thereunder. The shroud 44 also hides the discoloration of the housing 41, that is preferably made of stainless steel, that is due to the heat of the combustion and oxidation.

The secondary air supply is comprised ofa blower 45 suitably mounted on the burner 1 having a tubular member 47 connected to the outlet thereof and opening into the combustion chamber 6, and pointing generally parallel to a radial plane from the longitudinal axis of the combustion chamber 6. Preferably, the flow rate of air from the secondary air supply 10 is adjustable by any suitable means as for example a variable inlet or outlet opening or a variable speed motor on the blower 45.

The baffles 8 are suitably secured to the inner shell 32 of the fuel chamber 27 generally above or downstream from the orifices 38. In the illustrated structure, one baffle 8 each overlies an orifice 38 and is spaced a small distance therefrom. The baffles 8 may be one of many various forms and in the form illustrated are flat generally triangular shaped plates with one of the flat surfaces thereof overlying a respective orifice 38 and sloping upwardly and away from the orifice 38 for a purpose later described. The baffles 8 may also be of such shape as to extend from below a respective tubular member 36 to a point above the respective orifice 38 wherein the end adjacent the orifice 38 is bent in an arcuate form to induce the air and pollutants to flow over the orifices 38 and mix with the combustible fuel therefrom. The arcuate shape will also help induce the desired vortex flow.

The present invention is better understood by a description of its operation. A combustible flowable fuel, such as natural gas, is introduced into the tubular member 40 and into the chamber 34 whereby the gas can flow through the orifices 38. The gas flowing through the orifices 38 is ignited in any suitable manner such as the pilot light 9 that includes any appropriate igniter (not shown) such as an electric igniter to ignite the pilot light 9. A blower 49 is provided to help maintain good pilot light flame stability and supply air thereto. Air from the primary air supply 5 flows upwardly through the burner 1 helping to induce the pollutants or effluent to flow from their source also upwardly through the burner 1. The mixture of air from the primary air supply 5 and the pollutants flow between the baffles 8 whereby they are separated into different flow streams that are each deflected over a respective orifice 38 and are mixed with the fuel therefrom. While flowing over the lower surface of the baffles 8, the direction of flow upwardly is changed and the mixture of fuel, pollutants and air is directed to flow in a vortex clockwise as viewed from the bottom of the burner 1. Air from the secondary air supply 10 is injected, at the desired flow rate, into the burning mixture of pollutants, air and fuel increasing the speed of the vortex and adding additional oxygen to the burning mixture to increase the burning efficiency. The combustion chamber 6 is of a sufficient length as for example three times the diameter so that the flow of burned fuel, pollutants and air and their by-products is laminar when exhausted from the combustion chamber 6. The amount of primary air introduced by the primary air supply is regulated by controlling the size of the openings 24 in the lower wall 22 of the housing 12, which is accomplished by rotating the plate 20 relative to the bottom wall 22 whereby the openings 23 are moved relative to the openings 24 changing the size of the opening formed by portions of the openings 23 and 24. The more restricted the openings 24, the less air that is induced to flow therethrough by the flow of air injected by the blower 17. It is to be noted that the size of the openings formed by portions of the openings 23 and 24 can be controlled manually, but is also adapted to be controlled automatically by control means that respond to combustion chamber 6 temperature and/or the analysis of exhausted by-products of combustion or oxidation. it is also to be noted that the combustion in the combustion chamber 6 also aids in inducing flow of the pollutants through the conduit 4 from their source to the combustion chamber 6. One of the features of the present invention is that a combustible gas is first introduced through the tubular member 40 to start combustion, and after the burner reaches operating temperature, any flowable combustible material can be introduced into the tubular member 40 in place of the starting gas, and hence the orifices 38, to maintain combuscontrols the fuel flow rate to maintain the combustion chamber temperature at a predetermined level for optimum operating efficiency of the burner l and conserve fuel. The present invention will handle numerous types of pollutants and in doing so, it is desirable to add an injector 52 that mixes a pre-selected catalyst with the effluent and in the form illustrated the catalyst is injected into the primary air supply, the catalyst being of such a composition to control the formation of byproducts of combustion and/or to aid in the oxidation of the pollutants. Deflecting the mixture of burning gas, air and pollutants over the baffles 8 at high velocities, increases the burning efficiency of the burner l by more thorough mixing of the mixture. A hood (not shown) may be provided over the exhaust opening of the combustion chamber 6 to prevent entry therein of water, air currents from downdrafts or other matter due to weather conditions. If the combustion chamber 6 is of sufficient length as for example, the length being three times the diameter, a hood is not necessary for rain protection because the rain falling at an angle will strike the interior of the housing 41 and run down same. At the bottom of the housing 41 a drain 60 is provided to allow rain water to drain out. Preferably, the drain 60 is an open space between the flange portion 39 and the housing 41. The drain will also allow some air to flow into the combustion chamber 6 during oxidation of the effluent.

improved and highly efficient burning or oxidation of pollutants is effected by directing the pollutants and air across the fuel streams from the orifices 38 and intermixing same at high velocities. Directing the mixture into the combustion chamber 6 in vortical flow prevents the air from shielding and insulating the pollut' ants from the fuel flames thereby increasing the efficiency of the combustion thereof. The baffles 8 will not become excessively hot during combustion of the pollutants because combustion thereof takes place slightly downstream therefrom in the combustion chamber 6 with the air adjacent the baffles 8 acting as an insulator. The combustion chamber 6 also helps prevent the atmosphere characterized by air currents around the burner 1 from affecting the burning of pollutants by shielding the burner 1 and oxidation process therefrom.

Flame oxidation of pollutants requires a lower temperature than heat oxidation and results in more efficient and less expensive oxidation. Other features of the present invention typically include: exhaust which is substantially laminar flow; the burner 1 can upwardly direct exhaust from the combustion chamber 6; air is injected into the burner l to aid oxidation and flow of pollutants and the flow rate of the air is adjustable; a catalytic agent can be injected to aid oxidation of the pollutants; improved mixing and oxidation of fuel, air and pollutants by injection of air from a second source, and there is a minimum of flow resistance through the burner 1.

It is to be understood that while I have illustrated and described certain forms of my invention, it is not to be limited to the specific forms or arrangement of parts herein described and shown.

What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent l. A flare stack burner comprising:

a. a conduit operable for conducting an effluent waste gas from its source in a stream;

b. a primary air supply means communicating with said conduit to supply air to the effluent waste gas;

c. means associated with the primary air supply means for adjusting the flow rate of air therefrom;

d. a housing means having portions defining an annular fuel supply manifold extending around the stream of air and effluent waste gas, said fuel supply housing means having a plurality of circumferentially spaced jet members directed generally downstream for discharge of flowable combustible fuel in streams into the mixture of effluent waste gas and air downstream of the primary air supply means;

e. an elongate tubular housing forming a combustion chamber having an interior larger than the interior of the fuel supply housing means and having one end portion mounted on the fuel supply housing means downstream therefrom, said tubular housing having a second end remote from said fuel supply housing means forming an exhaust opening;

f. means adjacent the fuel jet members discharge for igniting the mixture of fuel, air and effluent waste gases;

g. a mixing chamber means between the fuel supply housing means and the combustion chamber, said mixing chamber means including a plurality of circumferentially spaced baffles each positioned downstream of a respective jet member for deflecting the mixture of air and effluent waste gas generally transversely through the streams of fuel for mixing therewith, said baffles sloping upwardly and away from said respective jet members for inducing the mixture of air, fuel and effluent waste gas to flow in a vortical path into the combustion chamber; and temperature sensing means located in the combustion chamber to determine the temperature of the gases therein, and means responsive to said temperature sensing means for controlling the rate of flow of fuel into the combustion chamber from the fuel supply housing means.

2. A flare stack burner as set forth in claim 1 including:

i. a shroud means mounted on and extending around said tubular housing in spaced relation therefrom forming an air flow passage therebetween open at top and bottom ends thereof for dissipating heat from the tubular housing.

3. A flare stack burner comprising:

a. a conduit operable for conducting an effluent waste gas from its source in a stream;

b. a primary air supply means communicating with said conduit to supply air to the effluent waste gas;

c. means associated with the primary air supply means for adjusting the flow rate of air therefrom;

d. a housing means having portions defining an annular fuel supply manifold extending around the stream of air and effluent waste gas for injecting flowable combustible fuel into the mixture of effluent waste gas and air downstream of the primary air supply means, said fuel supply housing means having a plurality of circumferentially spaced jet members directed generally downstream for discharge of fuel in streams into the mixture of effluent waste gas and air;

e. an elongate tubular housing forming a combustion chamber having an interior larger than the interior of the fuel supply housing means and being mounted on the fuel supply housing means downstream therefrom, said tubular housing having an exhaust opening;

f. means for igniting the mixture of fuel, air and effluent waste gas;

g. a mixing chamber means between the fuel supply housing means and the combustion chamber, said mixing chamber means including a plurality of circumferentially spaced baffles each positioned downstream of a respective jet member for deflecting the mixture of air and effluent waste gas generally transversely through the streams of fuel for mixing therewith, said baffles sloping upwardly and away from a respective jet for inducing the mixture of air, fuel and effluent waste gas to flow in a vortical path into the combustion chamber;

h. temperature sensing means located in the combustion chamber to determine the temperature of the gases therein, and means responsive to said temperature sensing means for controlling the rate of flow of fuel into the combustion chamber from the fuel supply means;

i. a secondary air supply means communicating with said combustion chamber for supplying additional air to the combustion chamber, said secondary air supply means injecting the air generally tangential to and in the same direction as the vortical path to aid in mixing and the development of vortical flow of the mixture of fuel, air and effluent waste gas;

j. means communicating with said primary air supply means for injecting a catalyst into the primary air for aiding the oxidation of effluent waste gas.

4. A flare stack burner comprising:

a. a conduit operable for conducting an effluent waste gas from its source;

b. a primary air supply means communicating with said conduit to supply air to the effluent waste gas;

c. a fuel supply means communicating with the conduit and operable for injecting combustible fuel into the mixture of effluent waste gas and air downstream from the primary air supply means;

d. means forming a combustion chamber mounted on the fuel supply means downstream thereof and having an exhaust opening;

e. means deflecting the mixture of fuel, air and effluent waste gas to cause said mixture of fuel, air and effluent waste gas to mix and flow in a vortical path into said combustion chamber for burning;

f. means for igniting the mixture of fuel, air and effluent waste gas;

g. a secondary air supply means communicating with said combustion chamber for supplying additional air thereto;

h. said fuel supply means including a plurality of spaced apart jet members having discharge ends directed generally toward the combustion chamber and operable for discharge of the fuel in streams into the mixture of effluent waste gas and air;

i. said deflecting means being a plurality of baffles positioned downstream of said jet members and positioned in such a manner that the mixture of air and effluent waste gas is directed over and adjacent said discharge ends of the jet members and into the stream of fuel for mixing therewith, the resulting mixture of fuel, air and effluent waste gas thereafter flowing into the combustion chamber;

j. said secondary air supply means injecting air generally tangential to and in the same direction as the vortical path to aid in mixing and the development of vortical flow of the mixture of fuel, air and effluent waste gas;

k. said primary air supply means including a port opening into the interior of the conduit downstream of the source of effluent waste gas and spaced upstream from the jet members of the fuel supply means for entry of air into said conduit in response to the flow of effluent waste gas through the conduit.

5. A flare stack burner as set forth in claim 2 includa. means communicating with said conduit for injecting a catalyst into the effluent waste gas for aiding in the oxidation of the effluent waste gas.

6. A flare stack burner comprising:

a. a conduit operable for conducting an effluent waste gas from its source;

b. a primary air supply means communicating with said conduit to supply air to the effluent waste gas;

c. a fuel supply means communicating with the conduit and operable for injecting combustible fuel into the mixture of effluent waste gas and air, said injection of combustible fuel being downstream from the supply means of primary air to said effluent waste gas, said fuel supply means including a plurality of spaced apart jet members having discharge ends directed generally toward the combustion chamber operable for discharge of the fuel in streams into the mixture of effluent waste gas and an;

d. an elongate tubular housing having opposed end portions with the downstream end portion mounted on the conduit in downstream relation to said fuel supply means, said tubular housing forming a combustion chamber having an interior larger than said conduit, and with the upstream end portion forming an exhaust opening for said chamber, said downstream end portion having spaces between the housing and conduit forming drain openings;

e. means deflecting the mixture of fuel, air and effluent waste gas to cause said mixture of fuel, air and effluent waste gas to mix and flow in a vortical path into said combustion chamber for burning, said cleflecting means being a plurality of baffles positioned downstream of said jet members and positioned in such a manner that the mixture of air and effluent waste gas is directed over and adjacent to said discharge ends of the jet members and into the streams of fuel for mixing therewith, the resulting mixture of fuel, air and effluent waste gas thereafter flowing into the combustion chamber;

f. means in the conduit adjacent the communication of the fuel supply means therewith for igniting the mixture of fuel, air and effluent waste gas;

g. a secondary air supply means communicating with said combustion chamber above said deflecting means for supplying additional air to said combustion chamber.

7. A burner as set forth in claim 1 including:

a. temperature sensing means located in the combustion chamber to determine the temperature of the gases therein, and means responsive to said temperature sensing means for controlling the rate of flow of fuel into the combustion chamber from the fuel supply means.

8. A flare stack burner as set forth in claim 6 including:

a. means associated with said primary air supply means for adjusting the flow rate of primary air; and wherein b. said primary air supply means includes openings communicating with the interior of the conduit downstream of the source of effluent waste gas and

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Classifications
U.S. Classification422/111, 431/5, 422/182, 422/170, 422/183
International ClassificationF23G7/08, F23G7/06
Cooperative ClassificationF23G7/085
European ClassificationF23G7/08B