US 3893880 A
A photographic film cassette having a normally inoperative applicator system configured for depositing a developing fluid on the exposed film emulsion responsive to transport of the film in a predetermined arrangement includes a rigid actuating member carried on the film and configured for displacing a supporting pad into an operative position in supporting engagement with the film during application of the processing fluid. Preferably, the actuating member is a staple-like element affixed in clamping engagement to the film and having a portion extending obliquely therefrom so as to form an inclined arm configured to engage the pad member during appropriate advance of the film. In an alternate embodiment a rigid, conically shaped protuberance is formed in the film.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 11 1 Cook 1 1 METHOD OF MANUFACTURING APPARATUS ACTUATING PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM  Inventor: Gerald H. Cook, Lynnfield, Mass.
 Assignee: Polaroid Corporation, Cambridge,
 Filed: Oct. 4, 1973  Appl. No: 403,520
Related US. Application Data  Division of Ser, No. 262,044, June 12, 1972, Pat. No.
 U.S. Cl. 156/211; 156/251; 156/253; 352/92; 352/236  Int. Cl B321) 31/18; 1332b 31/20  Field of Search 352/72, 78 R, 92, 94 R,
[111 3,893,880 [451 July 8,1975
Primary Examiner-Charles E. Van Horn Assistant Examiner-Basil J. Lewris Attorney, Agent, or FirmDavid R. Thornton  ABSTRACT A photographic film cassette having a normally inoperative applicator system configured for depositing a developing fluid on the exposed film emulsion responsive to transport of the film in a predetermined arrangement includes a rigid actuating member carried on the film and configured for displacing a supporting pad into an operative position in supporting engagement with the film during application of the processing fluid. Preferably, the actuating member is a staplelike element affixed in clamping engagement to the film and having a portion extending obliquely therefrom so as to form an inclined arm configured to engage the pad member during appropriate advance of the film. In an alternate embodiment a rigid, conically shaped protuberance is formed in the film.
3 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures mil HJUL S 1975 FT I 1 METHOD OF MANUFACTURING APPARATUS ACTUATING PHOTOGRAPHIC FlLM CRCSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This is a division of application Ser. No. 262,044, filed June 12, 1972, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,812,515.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates to photographic film handling cassettes and more particularly to photographic film handling cassettes having a self-contained processing system controlled in part by the advancement of the photographic film.
2. Description of the Prior Art The present application is directed to photographic film cassettes from which the film strip need not be removed during the exposure processing and projection operations and more particularly to film cassettes of this type which include internally programmed film processing systems. Exemplary of such systems are those described in the commonly assigned copending patent application Ser. No. 227,092 of John F. Batter, Jr. et al. filed Feb. 17, 1972. As described in the copending application, a motion picture system has been devised by which a supply of photographic film contained in a cassette can be exposed in the camera adapted to receive the cassette and then processed, or developed, to provide the conventional series of transparent image frames in accordance with transport of the film strip in a predetermined program. In this arrangement, the film strip carries actuating means configured for cooperating with a processor of the cassette during rewinding of the exposed film so as to automatically deposit a layer of processing fluid along the length of the film. For this operation, the film cassette is placed in a viewing apparatus which is configured for automatically operating the cassette in a prescribed manner to deposit the indicated layer of processing fluid and then to advance the film incrementally frame by frame past the light source so that the scene to which the film was exposed in the camera is reproduced on the screen.
in the above noted arrangement the processor retained within the cassette includes a nozzle opening through which processing fluid may be deposited upon the film strip as the latter is transported thereacross. In conjunction with such deposit of the fluid, a pressure pad member is displaced from an inoperative position into a film supporting position beneath the nozzle in accordance with engagement of the pressure pad with an actuating member of the film strip. Preferably, the paid member is initially, releasably latched in its inoperative position so as to prevent any accidental interference with film advancement during the exposure operation. and hence, the actuating member carried by the film must exert a sufficient amount of force to first release the pad from its latched position, and then to drive it into firm supporting engagement of the film with the nozzle.
in this cassette, the pad displacement is effected by a leaf-like bump integrally formed with the film and although this arrangement is generally satisfactory, it can be appreciated that reliable operation is dependent upon a positive, locking engagement between the actuating member and the pad which will overcome the pad latch and carry the pad a short distance with the film. It is difficult, however, to provide such a bump member having adequate strength and extending a sufficient distance out of the film plane so as to insure such pad engagement. Further, this arrangement fails to strengthen the film strip in the area of the actuating element, and hence, does not appropriately transfer as much force as possible from the film.
These problems of achieving internal operation of the cassette elements in accordance with film transport are, of course, further exemplified by the requirement that each cassette carry its own processor and further by the fact that the cassette and its components including the film must be capable of mass production manufacturing techniques and the tolerance levels incident to such techniques for the system to be acceptable in a competitive commercial market. Hence, it will be appreciated that the design and structural organization of the means by which the operational elements of the cassette are actuated by the film, are critical to the overall system in which the cassette is used.
Consequently, an important object of this invention is to provide an improved photographic system.
Another primary object is to provide an improved film handling cassette having an internally programmed film processing system.
A further object of this invention is to provide an im proved film handling cassette having a retained processing system and a film strip configured for actuating the processing system in accordance with film transport.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a photographic film strip suitable for actuating an operational element of a photographic system.
Another object of this invention is to provide a method of manufacturing an actuating member in a photographic film strip.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the present invention, the novel system comprises a film handling cassette which contains an elongated strip of photographic film, operational means for facilitating a predetermined photographic program responsive to actuation by said film strip, and actuating means defining a rigid projection extending out of the plane of said film and configured for engagement with, and actuation of, said operational means in accordance with transport of such film in a predetermined direction.
In the preferred embodiment, the cassette includes a processing station having a nozzle configured to dispense processing fluid to the film strip during advancement of the latter and a pressure pad member which is displaceable along the film path from an inoperative position into supporting engagement with the film beneath the nozzle in accordance with engagement of the pad by actuating means carried on the film strip, and the actuating means comprises a staple-like member aligned with the longitudinal axis of the film. One leg of the staple is in clamping engagement with the film and the other is extended at an oblique angle to the plane of the film so as to provide an arm member configured for positive engagement with the pressure pad during film advancement.
ln an alternate embodiment, a conically shaped pro tuberance integrally formed in the film and displaced out of the plane thereof provides a rigid elongated protuberance located along the longitudinal axis of the film. Additionally, a reinforcing strip is disposed on the photographic film in the area of the protuberance to add an additional thickness of material and provide stiffening of this area of the film and the protuberance.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The novel features that are considered characteristic of the invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to its organization and its method of operation together with additional objects and advantages thereof will best be understood from the following description of the preferred embodiment when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein like numbers have been employed in different figures to denote the same parts and wherein:
FIG. I is a diagrammatic plan view of a photographic film handling cassette incorporating the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary plan view of the film strip employed in the cassette shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a view in section of the pad actuating mem ber of the film strip taken along the line 33 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary view in elevation illustrating the operation of the pad actuating member illustrated in FIG. 3',
FIG. 5 is a view in section of an alternate embodiment of the pad actuating arrangement utilized in FIG. I;
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary plan view of the film strip shown in FIG. 1 illustrating another alternate embodiment of the pad actuating member; and
FIG. 7 is a view in section of the actuating member of FIG. 6 taken along the line 77 of the latter figure.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The illustrated embodiment of this invention, which may be best understood by first referring to FIG. 1 of the drawings. employs a multipurpose film handling cassette 10 of the type described in the abovementioned copending patent application which is configured for substantially automatic processing of the film strip responsive to appropriate transport of the latter within the cassette. As shown in FIG. 1, the cassette II) comprises a generally parallelepiped casing or housing 12 constituted by planar faces or side walls 14 and 16, end walls I7 and 18, and elongated top and bottom edge walls 19 and 20. Carried within the housing 12 is a photographic film strip which is permanently at tached at one of its ends to a rotatable supply spool or reel 24 from which it extends within the casing 12, in a somewhat extended path around suitable rollers generally designated at 27, 28 and 29, to a take-up spool or reel 26 to which the opposite end of the film is attached. In its path within the casing 12, the film 22 ex tends past a normally inoperative film processing station 30, which is subsequently explained in detail, and across an opening 31 which functions at different times to facilitate both exposure and projection. For facilitating the latter operation, a prism 32 is mounted behind the film strip 22 and in adjoining relation to both the opening 31 and to an illumination aperture (not shown) of the side wall 14.
In the illustrated embodiment, the processing operation is substantially controlled by the film transport program to which the cassette is subjected. This is accomplished, as later explained in detail. by utilizing one of the film spools and the film strip itself to provide both information and energy to the processing station 30 of the cassette. Consequently, the photographic film strip 22 is designed to cooperate with operational elements of the processing system, and preferably comprises a base of any suitable transparent material carrying at least over the central portion thereof, an emulsion of photosensitive coating of any conventional variety as, for example, an emulsion developed by a monobath processing composition to form a positive transparency suitable for projection.
In this arrangement, the film strip 22 which is illustrated in FIG. 2 as viewed from the exterior side of the film strip as shown in FIG. 1, comprises a leader 38 terminating at an end formed with an aperture 39 which serves to connect that end of the film to the take-up spool 26. Behind the leader 38 is a strip 40 of photographically useful film upon which projectable images may be formed. Following the photographically useful portion 40 is a trailer region generally designated at 41, which carries at its ends an aperture 42 by which that end of the film is configured for connection to the supply spool 24.
Carried along one edge of the film strip 22 are a plurality of conventional sprocket holes 43 which are configured for cooperation with a drive pawl (not shown) in either a camera or projector for incremental advancement of the film. Adjacent the trailing end 41, the series of sprocket holes 43 are interrupted by a first elongated sprocket hole 44 which may, for example, span two of the sprocket holes 43. Further along the film in the direction of the supply reel end, the series of sprocket holes 43 is again interrupted by a second elongated hole 45, longer than the sprocket hole 44, and, for example, spanning three of the sprocket holes 43.
As described in the aforementioned copending patent application, the first elongated sprocket hole 44 terminates the advance of the film in the camera (not shown) and thereby establishes an exposure end point, whereas the second sprocket hole 45 determines a film takeup or projection point in the projection apparatus (not shown). These different termination points are employed since, as later explained in detail, it is preferred to advance the film beyond the exposure end point to facilitate application of the processing composition to the exposed film, and for that purpose a double film drive pawl (not shown) is employed in the projector apparatus whereby the film may be carried beyond the first elongated hole 44 until the second elongated hole 45 is encountered. This further advancement of the film in the projector unit is accomplished in order to bring an actuating member 47, later explained in detail with regards to FIGS. 3 and 4, into cooperative engagement with a pressure pad member of the processing station 30 as will subsequently be described. Additionally, the leader end 38 of the film strip 22 carries detent engaging means, here shown as an aperture 49, which serves to actuate a valve member also forming a part of the processing station 30.
Referring again to FIG. I, the film processing station 30 generally comprises a housing having a first compartment or receptacle S8 retaining a source of processing composition or fluid 52 which in accordance with operation of a tear-tab 60 is adapted to release the fluid to a second compartment 54 which includes a coating nozzle generally designated at 56. The latter includes a nozzle opening 65 which extends from the compartment 54 to a film engaging surface 67 of the nozzle which is configured for depositing a layer (not shown) of controlled thickness of the processing fluid on the film strip 22 during transport of the latter to wards the supply spool 24, or that is, in its rewind direction. Deposit of suitable layer of the fluid 52 is facilitated by a doctor blade element 66 which is depressed slightly below the film engaging surface 67 and which in cooperation with the latter and a pressure pad to be subsequently described applys a substantially uniform coating of fluid on the film strip 22. Hence, the surface 67 in effect provides means for spacing the film strip from the nozzle opening 65 and the doctor blade 66.
In the operation of the cassette, the fluid 52 is released to the nozzle 56 for coating of the film strip 22 in accordance with withdrawal of the tear-tab 60 from the processor housing 50. To facilitate the latter, as described in the aforementioned copending application, the tab 60 extends to an actuating assembly generally designated at 62 which extends beneath the supply spool 24 and into engagement with a cam member 64. The latter member is rendered operative to release the assembly 62 upon insertion of the cassette in the projector (not shown) which carries a cassette latching shaft configured to automatically enter the cassette and depress the cam 64 so as to drive the actuating assembly 62 from its latching post 63. Then, under the urging of a spring member 61, the assembly 62 is displaced into engagement with the outer teeth of the film spool 24. Following release of the actuating assembly 62, rotation of the supply spool 24 in the rewind direc tion, as shown by the arrow in FIG. I, also rotates the actuating assembly in the same direction and automatically tears the tab 60 from its sealing location so as to release the fluid 52 to the processor nozzle 56.
Mounted beneath the applicator housing is a pressure pad assembly 70, which is shown in FIG. 1 in the initial position assumed by it upon assembly of the eassette and prior to processing of the film strip 22. As shown therein, the strip 22 normally passes between the nozzle surface 67 and a raised film engaging surface 74 of the pad assembly 70. The latter is mounted on and biased towards the nozzle surface 67 by a leaf spring 72.
The pad assembly 70, as subsequently explained, is designed for displacement along the film path between an initial, inoperative position shown in FIG. 1 wherein its pad surface 74 is held away from the processor nozzle and an operative position, shown in FIG. 4, wherein its pad surface sandwiches the interviewing portions of the film strip 22 against the nozzle land 67. In the initial position, the pad assembly is spaced from the nozzle 56 by upright members positioned at each of the longitudinal ends 76 and 79, respectively of the pad. Hence, the leading end 76, as considered with respect to the leading end or take-up end 38 of the film, carries a folded shroudlike member 77 through which the film strip 22 passes and which extends upwardly into contact with a steplike portion '78 of the processor housing 50. The other end or trailing end 79 of the pad assembly 70 includes a pair of upright posts or arms, only one of which is shown at 80. These upright posts also cooperate with depending posts of the nozzle 30, only one of which is shown at 89 in FIG. 4, to stop the pad in its operative position. The arm 80 and its counterpart (not shown), between which the film strip passes, engage the processor housing 50 and in combination with the forward member 77 initially hold the pad surface 74 out of cooperative engagement with the nozzle. The height of the upright members are appropriately arranged such that in the initial position the pad assembly is tilted downwardly at its leading end 76 whereby its trailing end 79 lightly engages the film strip 22, and hence, is configured to cooperate with the actuating member 47 of the film strip 22 (as will be subsequently explained in regard to FIGS. 3 and 4) so as to be carried with the film strip to the left of the pad position shown in FIG. 1. Finally, it should be noted that a depending member 81 of pad assembly 70 cooperates with a turned up end 82 of the spring 72 to latch the pad in its initial position.
Prior to describing the actuating member 47 in detail, description of the processing system will be completed. In this regard, it should be noted that a wedge-like slide valve 84, shown in FIG. I, is displaceably mounted in adjoining relation to the leading end 76 of the pad assembly 70 and is configured to be displaced into blocking engagement with the nozzle 65 upon completion of the processing operation. In this arrangement, the slide valve 84 carries a downwardly extending arm 86 which, at the end of the rewind operation, is configured to cooperate with the film aperture 49 so as to carry the valve to the right from the position shown in FIG. I. This displacement forces the valve 84 into blocking engagement with the nozzle opening 65. Additionally, cam members 88 and 89 which depend from the sides of the slide valve 84, serve to depress the pad assembly 70 out of film engagement upon completion of the processing operation.
As previously indicated, the unique structure of the preferred embodiment utilizes a substantially rigid, stapie-like member which is shown in greater detail in FIG. 3. As can be seen from the latter figure, the member 47 herein comprises an initially U-shaped, staplelike member of metal or rigid plastic, for example, having a pair of leg portions 92 and 94 interconnected by a body portion 96. In this arrangement, the body portion is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the film 22 and stiffens the latter at this point. Both leg members are extended through the film strip 22 with one leg member 92 bent back upon itself into clamping arrangement with the body member 96 while the other leg member 94 is positioned at an acute angle to the film to provide in combination with the latter a somewhat V-shaped trap, opening in the direction of the leading end 38 of the film so as to suitably engage the trailing end 79 of the pad 70 as shown in FIG. 4, when the film is fully advanced in the exposure direction. Hence, the staplelike element provides an extended actuating arm 94, and additionally reinforces the film so as to provide a substantially straight line engagement of the actuating member with the pressure pad assembly 70. Hence, in contrast to a simple leaf-like protuberance which is of limited rigidity, the unique structure efficiently strengthens the film in the area of the pad actuating member and additionally provides a highly reliable catch which will not slip from the pad edge 79 once it engages the latter.
The functional operation of the staple legs can be m terchanged as shown in an alternate embodiment of HO. 5 wherein the leading leg 92 is folded forwardly of the body 96, rather than in an overlying relation thereto, thereby forming an actuating arm which is inclined over the film in the direction of the leading end there and suitably engages the pad during film advancement. This arrangement also provides reinforcing for the film and substantially straight line engagement of the latter with the pressure pad. However, it should be noted that since the clamping portion formed by leg 94 is closer to the trailing end of the film than its pad en gaging arm 92, engagement of the latter with the pad tends to cause some rotation of the film around the latter.
To enable a complete understanding of the invention exemplary dimensions found to be satisfactory in use are set forth and include a pad assembly having a 0.0 l 5 inch thick trailing edge. For cooperation therewith the actuating staple was formed from 0. lOO wide by 0.005 inch thick strip, 0.200 inch long of stainless steel flat stock initially bent into a U-shaped arrangement having a body portion 0.100 inch long and upright leg portions 0.050 inch in length. In assembly to the film, the staple was aligned with the film axis and the legs were driven downwardly through the 0.004 inch thick film strip. One of the legs was folded into clamping engagement, while the remaining leg was directed towards the leading or take-up end of the film at an angle of approxi mately 45. Hence, the angled leg extended approximately 0.035 inch below the film, as measured normal thereto, so as to provide a suitable arm for engaging the pad assembly edge.
To enable a more complete understanding of the novel unit, the overall operation of the system will now be explained. As previously indicated, upon insertion of the cassette into a projector (not shown) following exposure of its film, the latter is driven slightly further forward by the double claw (not shown) so as to bring the arm 94 of the actuating member 47 into contact with the end 79 of the pad assembly and thereby displace the latter to the left from its initial position shown in FIG. 1. This permits shroud member 77 of the pad 70 to drop off the ledge 78 and the pad to spring upwardly under the urging of the spring 72 so as to thereby carry the emulsion side of the film strip 22 into coating engagement with the nozzle surface 67. Thereafter, upon initiation of film rewind, or that is, initial clockwise rotation of the film spool 24 to which the actuating assembly has already been coupled, the tab 60 is torn from the fluid receptacle 54 so as to release the fluid 52. The latter flows to the nozzle opening 65 and through it to the film strip 22 such that a thin layer of processing fluid is deposited on the film during the rewind operation. Then at the end of rewind, as the film strip 22 is substantially completely rewound onto the supply reel 24, engagement of the aperture 49 with the arm 86 of the valve 84 displaces the latter to the right as shown in H0. 1 and across the nozzle opening 65 to its closed position (not shown).
Other arrangements for providing a rigid, selfsustaining tab member may also be utilized. For exam ple, as shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, the film 22 in combina tion with a reinforcing layer 100 may be formed in a substantially rigid protuberance 98. In this arrangement, the reinforcing layer 100 of, for example, alluminized Mylar or the like, is affixed to the film by heat sealing or a suitable adhesive, in the general area in which the protuberance is to be formed. A transverse slot or arcuate cut 102 is provided in both the film strip and the reinforcing layer and portions thereof generally designated at 104 are pressed outwardly of the base side of the film to form a conical surface 106 whose leading, pad-engaging edge 108 extends approximately .035 inch below the film and defines a generally circular segment in a plane orthogonal to and transverse to the plane of the film. Except at the leading edge 108, the surface 106 remains joined to the film 22, and from edge 108 tapers to a somewhat blunted apex at 110 so as to form a generally conical shape which not only contributes to maintaining the protuberance in its formed shape but more importantly, strengthens the film 22 and the protuberance 98 along their common longitudinal axis. Hence, when the protuberance 98, or that is, its edge 108 comes into contact with the pad member 70, the resulting stress is distributed longitudinally along the protuberance, and the latter not only resists deformation back into the plane of the film strip but also, along with the film resists folding back on itself. These latter functions are, of course, aided by the reinforcing strip 100.
Forming the protuberance as a two ply laminate advantageously provides somewhat greater strength to the protuberance than is to be expected from a single ply of equal thickness inasmuch as the bond interface between the plys resists relaxation of the deformation back into the strip. This added strength may be enchanced by heat forming of the protuberance from a previously laminated strip. However, it is preferable to affix the reinforcing strip or laminate 100 to the film strip 22 simultaneously with the forming of the protuberance so that the bond interface is set in the conically formed arrangement. This simultaneous bonding and forming may be achieved, for example, by utilizing a heat scalable reinforcing strip and by attaching the latter during heat forming of the protuberance. Certain dimensions have been indicated in this specification in order to impart a full understanding of the present invention. However, it is to be expressly understood that these dimensions are exemplary only and are not to be interpreted as restricting the scope of this invention in any manner.
It will be seen that by this invention there is provided an improved photographic cassette and photographic film structure which efficiently transmits energy to operational elements of the cassette in accordance with film transport therein. Simple, efficient actuating members suitable for location at any convenient point on the film are disclosed. The members are configured to be sufficiently rigid to not only resist deformation but to also strengthen the film strip in the vicinity of the actuating member.
This invention may be practiced or embodied in still other ways without departing from the spirit or essential character thereof. The preferred embodiments described herein are therefor illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims and all variations which come within the meaning of the claims are intended to be embraced therein.
What is claimed is:
l. A method of manufacturing a photographic film strip having a protuberance extending from a given side thereof, said protuberance being configured for actuating an operational element of a photographic system during advancement of the film strip therein, said method comprising the steps of:
positioning a segment of material over a selected portion of said film strip wherein said protuberance is to be located, said segment having an area exceeding the perimeter of said protuberance and adapted for bonding to said film strip; forming a short transverse cut through both said seg ment and said film strip, said cut having a length shorter than the width of said segment and said film strip; and pressing said segment to bond it with said strip while simultaneously forming a depression bordering on 10 said cut in both said segment and said film strip to thereby form said protuberance.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein said segment is of heat scalable material and said method includes the step of heating said segment during said step of pressing said protuberance.
3. The method of Claim 1 wherein said positioning step includes positioning said segment on the side of said film strip opposite said given side, and said pressing step includes pressing a portion of said segment within said depression and bordering said cut to at least slightly beyond the given side of said film strip.