|Publication number||US3894367 A|
|Publication date||Jul 15, 1975|
|Filing date||Jul 18, 1973|
|Priority date||Sep 7, 1971|
|Publication number||US 3894367 A, US 3894367A, US-A-3894367, US3894367 A, US3894367A|
|Inventors||Yacoboni Joseph D|
|Original Assignee||Yacoboni Joseph D|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Referenced by (22), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1191 Yacoboni DOME-SHAPED STRUCTURE  Inventor: Joseph D. Yacoboni, 740 Olivant Pl,
Pittsburgh, Pa. 15206  Filed: July 18, I973  Appl. N0.: 380,290
Related US. Application Data  Continuation of Scr. No 177,994. Sept. 7, 1971 abandoned  [1.5. CI. 52/80; 52/82  Int. Cl E04b H32  Field of Search 52/80, 81, 86, 88, 245, 52/246, 237, 241
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 35,630 6/1862 Rumbold 52/81 240,868 5/1881 Waters l 52/80 I.806.354 5/1931 Lange 52/82 2.370.763 3/1945 Whitney 52/88 2.690.185 9/1954 Pomykala 52/80 2,934,180 4/1960 Hammitt l. 52/220 3.061.977 11/1962 Schmidt l v v 52/81 3296755 1/1967 Chisholm 52/81 3.372.396 3/1968 Braccini l v l 52/80 3.417.520 12/1968 Fink i l 52/80 3.763.608 10/1973 Chamlee 52/80 [451 July 15, 1975 D226,18l l/1973 Tarics 52/81 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 909 840 3/1946 France 52/86 OTHER PUBLICATIONS Architectural Record, Feb. 1958. p. 10. Architectural Record, Feb. 1960, p. 14.
Primary Examiner-Frank L. Abbott Assistant E raminerl-lenry Raduazo Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Fred C. Trenor, Esq
 ABSTRACT A dome-shaped structure has a foundation and a plurality of load-bearing structural elements each of which extends upwardly from the base and meets at a common vertex suspended above the base. Each structural element has a longitudinal centerline that lies approximately within intersecting great circle planes whose line of intersection is perpendicular to the base. A top covering extends over the structural elements from the vertex of the structural elements to a small circle intermediate the vertex and the base. A plurality of side panels extend from the top covering to the base to provide an enclosure.
13 Claims, 11 Drawing Figures urrrfrmu 15 L975 SHEET .1 f YTi aliiL 1 192;-
SHEET DOME-SHAPED STRUCTURE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This is a continuation of application Ser. 177,994, filed Sept, 7, 1971, and now abandoned.
This invention relates to a housing structure having a generally dome-shaped exterior configuration and to a method for building the same.
The provision of adequate housing facilities for modern man is and has always been a perplexing and expensive problem. The costs of labor and of material prevent low-income families from obtaining adequate housing. Consequently, such families are forced to tolerate and to live in the squalor and filth of ghetto districts.
In an effort to solve the absence of satisfactory housing facilities, modern man has razed ghetto buildings whereupon low income families are forced to move on in search of new dwellings and to await the reconstruction of a sterile, impersonal, high-rise apartment complex. Unfortunately, the interim period of wait is long, unnecessary delay requiring many months before the first family can return to its remodeled district.
The bigger the high-rise apartment complex the longer its construction time and the longer a family is deprived of adequate housing. Also, there are attendant labor costs and production hours interspersed with labor difficulties which contribute to the spiraling construction costs.
There has been a long-felt need for economic and commodious housing facilities for low-income families. Such facilities must be commodious and accommodate an average-sized family. The structure and architecture of such facilities must be pleasing and have some esthetic value and inherent beauty. The structure should be sturdy and relatively easy to construct with low-cost but adequate building materials. The time required to construct such facilities should be very short such that the delay of transfering families is minimal. Each family unit should be isolated so that each family has some degree of privacy, of independence and of individuality.
My invention provides an answer to these long-felt needs. I have, quite surprisingly, discovered a novel dome-shaped structure which fulfills these needs and have developed a novel method of erecting such a structure within a greatly reduced period of time as compared to the time needed to build conventional structures. The design of my structure is flexible and it may be adapted to meet a wide range of floor space requirements and the like depending upon the various circumstances. It has a configuration which is inherently beautiful and pleasing and through inexpensive landscaping techniques it naturally blends in with the surrounding environment without intruding upon the natural beauty of the environment.
While my invention is substantial contribution to the housing needs of modern man, particularly low-income families, it is also adaptable for use in other more affluent contexts. For example, my novel structure may be desired as a second home.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the invention, a dome-shaped building comprises a base and a plurality of loadbearing structural elements. Each structural element extends upwardly from the base and meets at a common vertex suspended above the base. Each structural element has longitudinal centerlines that lie approximately in intersecting great circle planes whose line of intersection is substantially perpendicular to the base. A top covering extends over the structural elements from the vertex to a small circle that is intermediate the vertex and the base. A side covering extends from the top covering to the base.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In the drawings:
FIG. I is a side-elevational view of an embodiment of the housing structure made in accordance with the invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic, side-elevational view of the housing structure of FIG. I taken at line IIII;
FIG. 3 is an expanded side elevational view of one of the structural elements of FIG. 2 and its connection to the base of the housing structure;
FIG. 4 is a top planar view of the structural element of FIG. 3 taken at line IV-IV',
FIG. 5 is an exploded, isolated view of a segment of the roof of the housing structure of FIG. 1;
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the housing structure of FIG. I taken at line VIVI;
FIG. 7 is a top planar view of the common vertex of the structural elements of FIG. 2 taken at line \/V;
FIG. 8 is an expanded, cross-sectional view of a side panel of the housing structure of FIG. 1;
FIG. 9 is an expanded, top-planar view of two adjacent side panels of the housing structure of FIG. 1; and
FIGS. 10 and II are perspective views illustrating a method of erecting the housing structure of FIG. 1.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION In accordance with the invention as shown in FIG. 1 the housing structure II has a base 13, a plurality of structural elements or ribs IS, a top covering or roof deck 17 and a plurality of side panels I9.
The base 13, as shown in FIG. 2, comprises two con crete slabs, a first inner concrete slab 2I resting on the earth as a foundation and supporting side panels 19 and a second outer concrete slab 23 in the form of an annulus resting on the earth as a foundation and supporting the structural elements 15. The first concrete slab 21 has a circular configuration in FIGS. 1 and 2; however, any particular configuration may be used in accordance with the invention. The second concrete slab 23 has a ring-like configuration in FIGS. I and 2 that is concentric with the first slab 21.
Alternatively, the base 13 may comprise one common concrete slab (not shown in the drawings) adapted to rest on the earth as a foundation for the housing structure I I; however, two slabs as described above are preferred since it represents an economic savings which is a desirable aspect of the invention. The depth to which both of the concrete slabs 21 and 23 illustrated herein extend into the earth will depend upon the particular building code requirements of local municipalities.
The outer concrete slab or annulus 23 is a desirable feature of the invention in that all of the structural elements 15 are connected to this annulus and are thereby interconnected together to provide an integral structure. Such a construction renders the structure stronger and earthquake proof. If desired, however, individual foundation pilings (not shown in the drawings) for each structural element 15 may be used in accordance with the invention with tie bars or the like extending between such pilings to provide an interconnected structure.
Each of the structural elements l5 extend upwardly from concrete slab 23 and meet at a common vertex or locus 25 that is suspended above the base 13 as shown in FIG. 2.
The cross-sectional configuration of the structural elements of FIG. I is T-shaped as seen more clearly in FIG. 4; however, the particular cross-sectional configuration of the structural elements is not critical. Preferably, two inverted L-shaped beams 15a and 15b that have been fastened together with bolts 26 or the like as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 are used to form a single structural beam having the T-shaped configuration. Alternatively, the structural elements may be l-beams or the like.
The structural elements 15 illustrated herein are preferably composed of structural steel; however, they may be composed of wood, laminated wooden beams, aluminum and the like.
The structural elements 15 are fixed to the concrete slab 23 in FIGS. 1 and 2. One end of the structural element 15 terminates at a steel base plate 27 as shown in FIG. 3. The steel plate 27 is preferably metallurgically welded to the end of the structural element 15. As shown in FIGS. 4 and 7 the base plate 27 comprises two sections 270 and 27b where each section is fixed to each structural member 150 and 15b. Each section 270 and 2712 has an elongate aperture or slot 29 as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. Anchoring bolts 33 or the like are embedded in concrete slab 23 and each anchoring bolt 33 extends upwardly through the elongated aperture 29 and terminates above the base plate 27. A conventional washer 35 and nut 37 secure the base plate 27, and. consequently, the structural element I5 to concrete slab 23.
The base plate 27 is disposed into recess 39 of concrete slab 23 as shown in FIG. 3. The recess 39 has linear dimensions that conform generally to the dimensions of the base plate 27. The recesses 39 are a desirable feature of my invention as grout or the like (not shown in the drawings) may be disposed into the remaining unfilled portion of recess 39 to provide a neat appearance of the fixture of the structural elements 15 to the base I3 of the housing structure.
Each of the structural elements 15 are structural, load-bearing members and together with the annulus or concrete slab 23 they support the entire weight of the housing in accordance with the invention. Each structural element I5 has a longitudinal centerline A as shown in FIG. I that lies approximately in great circle planes that intersect each other at the common line of intersection B which is substantially perpendicular to the base 13 as shown in FIG. 2. Herein the expression great circle plane" refers to those geometric planes that pass through the center of a common sphere. The structural elements illustrated herein are also substantially on great circle arcs that are formed by the great circle planes intersecting a common sphere.
The total number of structural elements 15 used in the practice of the invention will depend upon engineering requirements of the particular size of the structure. I have found. however, that structural elements are preferred.
The top covering or roof deck 17 extends over the structural elements I5 from their common vertex to a small circle that is intermediate the vertex 25 and the base 13 as shown in FIG. 2. Herein the expression small circle" refers to the geometric plane intersecting a common sphere that is parallel to the base 13 and that does not pass through the center of the common sphere. The distance that the top covering 17 extends downward from the vertex 25 and terminates above the base 13 is a matter of choice, economics and styling. In a preferred embodiment of the invention the structure 11 is formed of a plurality of prefabricated spherical roof segments 4] as illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 5. Each roof segment 41 comprises two structural members or beams 15a and 1517 each of which has the generally inverted L-shaped configuration, a center batten 43 between the two structural members 150 and 15b, at least three cross'ribs 45a, 45b, and 45, a terminal member 49 fastened to cross-rib 45c and a laminate 51 extending thereover and forming a part of the top covering 17. The members, batten, cross-ribs and terminal members are metallurgically welded together to provide a sturdy roof segment. The laminate 51 is secured to the various structural elements of the roof segment with fastener 53 of the like as shown in FIGS. 5 and 6. If desired, a caulking compound 52 or the like is disposed between the laminate 51 and underlying structural elements of the roof segment 41 for providing weatherproofing as shown more clearly in FIG. 6.
The members or beams 15a and 15b, center batten 43 and cross-ribs 45a, 45b, and 45c define a curved surface conforming substantially to a spherical segment of a sphere. The laminate 51 conforms to the spherical segment. As is well known a curved membrane, such as the laminate SI of FIG. 5 tends to buckle at relatively low compressive loads and lose its structural effectiveness before it can be of any significant use. This problem becomes more acute as the compressive loads on the curved membrane increases. Thus, the use of center batten 43 and cross-ribs 45a, 45b, and 45c provides considerable reinforcing strength to the laminate 51 which is a desirable feature of the invention.
The roof segments 41 of FIG. 5 when placed edge to edge form the dome-shaped structure 11 of FIG. 1. To this end the common vertex 25 comprises a hub 55 as shown in FIG. 7 to which each of the terminal members 49 of the roof segments 41 is connected. The hub 55 includes a plurality of spokes 57 that extend radially outwardly from the hub 55. Each spoke 57 is a structural load-bearing member and includes a plurality of apertures 59, preferably two, which are common with apertures 61 in the terminal member 49 of the roof segment. Conventional fasteners 63 secure each terminal 49 of the roof segment 41 to each respective spoke 57 of the hub 55 as illustrated in FIG. 7.
Each beam 150 and 15b of the roof segment 41 as shown in FIG. 5 has a plurality of apertures 47 that are spaced apart at equal intervals therealong. Thus fasten ers 26 or the like extend through these apertures 47 for securely fastening one beam 15a or 15b to another ad jacent beam of an adjacent roof segment, as shown in FIGS. 3-6.
The roof segments 41 of FIG. 5 when placed edge to edge form a resulting joint or seam 71 as shown in FIG. 6. The outer edges of the laminate 51 are bevelled at 73 and insulation material 75 is disposed into the joint or seam 71 to seal the same. Alternatively, a cementitious sealing material may be disposed into joint 71 to provide a tensilely-resistant interlock between the two adjacent roof Segments 4l'of FIG. 6. outer An adhesively-bonded tape 77 or the like extends longitudinally over the joint-71 as shown in FIG. 6 to provide a weatherproof seam such that the entire roof of the structure 11 of FIG. 1 is completely weatherproof.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention there are 10 of the roofing segments 41 forming the structure 11 of FIG. I wherein each of the two beams 15a and 15b of each roof segment 41 subtends a 36 angle, however, more or less roof segments could be used in accordance with the invention whereupon the two beams 15a and 15b would necessarily subtend greater or lesser angles.
In FIG. 6 the laminate 51 comprises an inner loadsupporting layer 67, an intermediate layer 68 of an insulating material and an outer layer 69 of an impervious weatherproof membrane. The inner layer 67 is preferably made of a plywood subdeck having a thickness of aboutone-half inch; however, it may comprise a metal subdeck, if desired. The intermediate layer 68 is preferably composed of a rigid foam of a synthetic polymeric material which has low density, and low heat transmission characteristics. Without limitation the useful materials for use in the practice of the invention as rigid foams include polyurethane resins, vinyl resins such as polyvinyl chloride, copolymers of polyvinyl chloride. and polyvinyl acetate, polystyrene resins and copolymers thereof, epoxy resins, phenolic resins such as phenol formaldehyde, polyethylene resins, acrylic resins, synthetic rubbers and the like.
The thickness of the rigid foam will vary over a wide range of limits and will depend upon the environment to which the top covering is subjected, the density of the foam, the nature of the synthetic polymeric material forming the foam and the insulation requirements of the particular application. Generally, the thickness of the rigid foam for most applications will be within the range of k to about 2 inches or more. The preferred intermediate layer 68 comprises a rigid foam of polyurethane having a thickness of about 1% inches when used in conjunction with a /2 inch layer of plywood. Foam polyurethane is commercially available from a number of sources.
The outer layer 69 is composed of impervious membrane which is weatherproof, resistant to ultraviolet deterioration, and which can sustain some foot traffic. Without limitation the useful materials include pressed hardboard, asbestos-cement sheet, synthetic elastomeric materials such as butadiene, rubber and cellulosic or synthetic fiberous bodies saturated with bituminous materials well-known in the art, and metal such as steel, aluminum and the like. The preferred material for use in the practice of the invention is a synthetic rubber having a thickness of about one-eighth inch. Such materials are commercially available from a number of sources. The preferred materials of the laminate 51, Le, the plywood subdeck, the rigid foam of poly urethane, and the synthetic rubber, are all chemically bonded together with an adhesive such as a rubber cement.
As illustrated in FIG. 2 a roofing cap 79 is disposed over the terminal members 49 of the roof segment 41 and the hub 55. The roofing cap 79 has a generally circular configuration and comprises a laminate composed of the sametype of materials as the laminate 51 hereinbefore described. The roofing cap 79 has a tape (not shown) or the like extending over the joint formed by roofing cap 79 and the roof deck 17 to render the house completely weatherproof.
The side panels 19 of FIG. I extend from the top covering or roof deck 17 to the base 13 and form an enclosure defining the interior of the dome-shaped house 11. As illustrated herein each panel 19 corresponds to each roof segment 41 and extends between structural ele ments 15. In the preferred embodiment of the invention there are 10 side panels with each side panel corresponding to its respective roof segment 41. It will be recognized, however, that more or less side panels could be used in the practice of the invention.
Each side panel 19 as illustrated in FIG. 8 is a planar laminate comprising an outer layer 89 of an impervious weatherproof substance, an intermediate layer 9] of an insulating material and an inner layer 93. Preferably, the outer layer 89 consists of an asbestos material having a facing 97 composed of a thermoplastic material on its exterior for exposure to the environment. Such outer layer materials are readily commercially available. The thickness of such a layer is generally about one-eighth of an inch.
The intermediate layer 91 consists preferably of a rigid foam of a synthetic polymeric material of the classes previously described which have low density and low heat transmission characteristics.
The inner layer 93 consists of an asbestos-type material which forms the facing for the interior of the house 11 in the preferred embodiment of the invention. Such a surface may be painted or covered with conventional wallpaper as desired to achieve the particular interior aesthetic as desired. The three layers of materials heretofore described are preferably chemically bonded together with an adhesive such as rubber cement. Such adhesives are readily commercially available.
The side panels 19 herein are preferably a prefabricated unit of a predetermined size. However, it should be observed that the side panels 19 are not structural members but that the structural elements 15 are the main load-bearing members of the dome-shaped house 11 of this invention. This is a desirable feature of my invention, as the side panels 19 not being load-bearing members may then be removed and reinstalled as desired without affecting the structural integrity of the housing structure 11 of this invention.
As shown in FIG. 1 side panels 19 include windows, doorways, and other openings and the like. Such openings are provided in the side panels in a conventional manner.
In FIG. 9 the side panels 19 when placed edge to edge form joints 101 which are splined together with splines 103a and l03b as shown in FIG. 9. The splines 103a and 1031: are thin elongate metallic strips that cover the joints 101 and that extend from the top to the bottom of the side panels 19. Fasteners or the like 104 at spaced apart intervals along the length of the splines urge the splines tightly against the side panel faces 106 to provide a weatherproof joint. Between the edges 99 of each panel there is disposed an insulating material which is preferably composed of a mineral rock wood substance. Such materials are readily commercially available.
In FIG. 8 side panel 19 is secured to the base 13 by base plate 107. The base plate 107 is disposed between the base 13 and the bottom edge 109 of the side panel 87. The base plate 107 comprises a bottom facelll, opposite side faces 113 meeting the bottom face to form a channel that receives the bottom edge 109 of the side panel 19. The side faces 113 have diametrically opposed lips 115 that extend inwardly of the channel and run along the length of the channel to form a ledge upon which the bottom edge 109 of the panels rest. The base plate 107 includes flanges 117 that extend laterally from the bottom face 111 of the base plate 107 which are used for securing the base plate 107 to the base 13. Preferably the base plate is composed of a structural steel. Bolts 119 and the like secure the flanges and the base plate 107 to the base as shown in FIG. 8.
In FIG. 8 the panel 19 is secured to structural elements with a top plate 127 and an intermediate fixing member 129. The top plate 127 comprises a planar piece of steel which extends between adjacent structural elements and is welded thereto. The top plate 127 of FIG. 8 lies in a plane that is substantially perpendicular to a tangent of the great circle are in which the structural element 15 lies. The intermediate fixing member 129 is preferably composed of a 2 inch X 4 inch wooden beam that has been longitudinally cut into two beams on a bias whereupon a trapezoidal crosssectional configuration is provided as shown in FIG. 8. The intermediate member 129 has a face 131 engaging the top plate 127 and has another face 133 engaging the exterior face 106 of the panel 19. Fasteners or the like 137 secure the intermediate fixing member 129 to the top plate and also fix the upper edge of the panel 19 to the fixing member 129 as shown in FIG. 8. It will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that other techniques for fastening side panel I9 to base 13 and elements 15 are available.
The method of constructing the structure 11 of FIG. I is illustrated in FIGS. and II. The base 13 is formed including the first inner concrete slab 21 and the second outer concrete slab 23 as hereinbefore described.
The hub 55 is placed on and in the center of the first slab 21 as shown in FIG. 10. Three roof segments 41 are placed on the base 13 in a relative tripod arrangement and the terminal members 49 of each segment are loosely fitted to the respective spokes 57 of the hub 55 as shown in FIG. 10. A crane or the like raises or hoists the hub and the three loosely fixed roof segments 41 until each base of the structural members 15a and 15b slide into engagement with the recesses 39 and the anchor bolts 33. The terminal members 49 pivot about spoke 57 as the hub 55 is raised by the crane. The base plate 27a or 27!) of each structural member 150 or 15b is then secured to the anchoring bolts 33 and then, the terminal members 49 of the roof segments 41 are securely fixed to the spokes 57 of the hub 55. The structure assumes a tripod configuration as shown in FIG. 11 which is stable and sturdy. Subsequently the other roof segments 41 are individually lifted with a crane and secured to the hub 55 and the base 13. The abutting side beams 15a and I5b of the roof segment 41 are bolted together to form the structural elements 15 of this invention.
Subsequently, the roofing cap 79 is placed at the apex of the structure over the hub 55 and the terminal members 49 as previously described and secured into place. The joints 71 between the roof segments are filled with the insulating material 75 as previously described and a covering tape 77 is disposed over the roof and to provide a weatherproof roof.
Subsequently, the side panels 19 are installed, each panel being disposed in alignment with each of the roof segments and splined together as previously described to provide a completely closed structure.
It will be observed that the novel method of erecting the house of my invention with the prefabricated components can be achieved very quickly. It has been demonstrated that such a structure can be raised and assembled within a 24 hour period provided the base has already been formed in accordance with this invention.
It should be observed that this rapid installation represents a tremendous savings in the cost of labor and a tremendous savings in time such that the structure can be moved into and lived within a very short period of time. Not only is the structure described herein capable of being erected within a very short period of time, but it is also capable of being demounted and installed at a new site if desired. In this regard the house is mobile as it may very easily be disassembled and reinstalled at a new site.
It will be observed that the floor spacing may be divided into any number of rooms as desired for the particular application to which the novel structure is to be adapted. Desirably the heating and cooling units for the house are centrally located within the center of the dome-shaped structure such that a true central airconditioning and heating system is provided which is a desirable feature of my invention.
It will be observed that virtually little guttering and the like is needed and in fact it has been demonstrated that such guttering which is used in conventional housing is unnecessary with my invention as the water during a rain storm uniformly drains off the roof.
I. A structure comprising:
a. an annulus adapted to rest on the earth as a foundation;
b. a plurality of load bearing ribs extending from one portion of said annulus to a diametrically opposed portion of said annulus; each of said ribs intersecting at a common locus wherein said ribs constitute portions of great circle planes and lie within the great circle arcs that are formed by said great circle planes intersecting a common sphere; each rib being fixedly secured at said common loucus and said annulus so that all of said ribs are interconnected to provide an integral structure;
c. a base adapted to rest on the earth that is concentric to said annulus;
. a roof deck fixedly secured to at least a part of said ribs and extending from said common locus to an approximate small circle that is intermediate said common locus and said annulus; and
e. a vertical side covering extending from said base forming an enclosure defining the interior of said structure; said side covering being fixedly secured to said ribs and side base whereby an integral structure is provided.
2. The structure of claim 1 wherein said vertical side covering comprises a plurality of planer side panels that have vertical edges that are splined together with the adjacent vertical edge of an adjacent side panel whereby an integral structure is provided.
3. A structure comprising:
a. a base; comprising two concrete slabs one of which is an annulus and the otherof which is interior and concentric with said annulus;
b. a plurality of spherically contoured roof segments extending upwardly from said annulus and together conforming to a polar portion of a common sphere; each roof segment having:
i. a pair of load bearing ribs extending upwardly from said annulus beginning at spaced-apart points on said annulus and coverging to a common locus above said base; each rib being fixedly secured at said common locus and to said annulus so that all of said ribs are interconnected to provide an integral structure; each rib having a longitudinal centerline that lies in a great circle are;
ii. a roof deck fixedly secured to at least a part of said ribs to form the roof segments; the ribs of one roof segment being fixedly secured to the adjacent ribs of an adjacent roof segment to form an integral structure;
c. a vertical side covering extending from said roof deck to said concentric base forming an enclosure defining the interior of said structure;
d. first means disposed between the bottom edge of said side covering and said concentric base securely fixing said side covering to said concentric base; and,
e. second means disposed between the upper edge of said side covering and said roof deck whereby an integral structure is provided.
4. The structure of claim 3 wherein said base has recesses at spaced-apart points therealong into which the base of said ribs are disposed and to which said ribs are fixedly secured.
5. A dome-shaped building comprising:
a. an integral base;
b. a plurality of load bearing structural elements each extending upwardly from said base and meeting each other at a common vertex; said structural elements being fixedly secured to said common vertex and to said base so that all of said structural elements are interconnected; said structural elements having longitudinal centerlines that lie approximately in intersecting great circle planes whose line of intersection is substantially perpendicular to said base;
. a roof deck extending over and fixedly secured to said structural elements from the vertex of said structural elements to a small circle intermediate said vertex and said base;
d. a vertical side covering extending from said roof deck to said base forming an enclosure defining the interior of said dome-shaped building; said vertical side covering being fixedly secured to said structural elements and said base;
ev a channel being disposed between the bottom edge of said vertical side covering and said base for securely fixing said vertical side covering to said base comprising:
i. a bottom face engaging said base;
ii. opposite side faces meeting said bottom face to form said channel for receiving the bottom edge of said side covering;
iii. said side faces having oppositely disposed lips extending inwardly of said channel for supporting said side coverings; and,
iv. flanges exterior of said channel extending laterally from said bottom face being fixedly secured to said base; and,
f. a top plate being fixedly secured to and extending between said structural elements; and an intermediate fixing member being fixedly secured to said top plate and the upper edge of said vertical side covering.
6. The dome-shaped building of claim 5 wherein said structural elements lie within great circle are formed by said great circle planes intersecting a common sphere.
7. The dome-shaped building of claim 5 wherein said structural elements comprise two inverted L-beams that are fastened together to form a singular beam having a T-shape.
8. The dome-shaped building of claim 5 wherein said roof deck comprises:
a. an inner supporting layer;
b. an intermediate layer of an insulating material;
c. an outer layer of an impervious membrane wherein said layers are bonded together.
9. The dome-shaped building of claim 5 wherein said side covering comprises a plurality of planar side panels.
10. The dome shaped building of claim 9 wherein said side panels have vertical edges that are splined together with the adjacent vertical edges of an adjacent side panel whereby an integral side covering is provided.
11. The dome-shaped building of claim 5 including a hub disposed at said common vertex; said hub having a plurality of spokes extending radially outwardly from said hub to which said structural elements are securely fixed.
12. A dome-shaped building comprising:
a. an integral base;
b. a plurality of load-bearing structural elements each extending upwardly from said base and meeting each other at a common vertex; said structural elements being fixedly secured to said common vertex and to said base so that all of said structural elements are inter-connected; said structural elements having longitudinal centerlines that lie approximately in intersecting great circle planes whose line ofintersection is substantially perpendicular to said base;
c. a roof deck extending over and fixedly secured to said structural elements from the vertex of said structural elements to a small circle intermediate said vertex in said base;
d. a vertical side covering extending from said roof deck to said base forming an enclosure defining the interior of said dome-shaped building; said vertical side covering being fixedly secured to said structural elements and said base whereby an integral structure is provided; and,
e. said roof deck comprising an inner supporting layer made of wood; an intermediate layer made of polyurethene foam and an outer layer made of synthetic rubber wherein said layers are chemically bonded together.
13. A dome-shaped building comprising:
a. an integral base;
b. a plurality of load-bearing structural elements each extending upwardly from said base and meeting each other at a common vertex; said structural elements being fixedly secured to said common vertex and to said base so that all of said structural elements are interconnected; said structural elements having longitudinal centerlines that lie approxiside covering being fixedly secured to said structural elements and said base whereby an integral structure is provided; said vertical side covering comprising a laminate having an outer layer of asbestos with a thermoplastic facing exposed to the exterior, an intermediate layer of a rigid thermoplastic foam and an inner layer of asbestos wherein said layers are chemically bonded together.
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|US8307605||Mar 24, 2008||Nov 13, 2012||Mccarty Gerald Joseph||Dome kit, structure and method|
|US8973336 *||Aug 20, 2012||Mar 10, 2015||Southern Utah University||Systems and methods for providing rounded vault forming structures|
|US20050022461 *||Aug 17, 2004||Feb 3, 2005||Geiger David S.||Constructing geodesic domes with panels|
|US20060155405 *||Jan 11, 2005||Jul 13, 2006||Zahner L W Iii||Method of creating a dual curve support structure|
|US20080236057 *||Mar 24, 2008||Oct 2, 2008||Mccarty Gerald Joseph||Dome Kit, Structure and Method|
|US20090013613 *||Jul 12, 2007||Jan 15, 2009||Arch-Rite, Inc.||Groin vault ceiling kit|
|US20120297698 *||Nov 29, 2012||Matthew Edwards||Systems and methods for providing rounded vault forming buildings|
|US20120311941 *||Dec 13, 2012||Matthew Edwards||Systems and methods for providing rounded vault forming structures|
|U.S. Classification||52/81.2, 52/82, 52/81.3|
|Cooperative Classification||E04B2001/3288, E04B1/3211, E04B2001/3217, E04B2001/3276|