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Publication numberUS3895185 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 15, 1975
Filing dateDec 3, 1973
Priority dateDec 3, 1973
Publication numberUS 3895185 A, US 3895185A, US-A-3895185, US3895185 A, US3895185A
InventorsRamsey Robert W
Original AssigneeRamsey Robert W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Tree counter code simulator
US 3895185 A
Abstract
Use of a tree counter for translating, storing and displaying Morse or similar code signals.
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1191 7 BEST AVAILABLE 001.

Ramsey July 15, 1975 TREE COUNTER CODE SIMULATOR 3,041,397 6/1962 Ricks 178/82 A 3,500,470 3/1970 Barker et al. [78/26 R [761 Invent: Rbert Ramsey, 2,626 3,643,254 2/1972 Proebsting 178/26 R Edge-o-Lake, Nashvllle, Tenn- 3,668,684 6/1972 Johnson et al. 178/26 R 37217 3,810,154 5/1974 Briant 178/26 R [22] Filed: Dec. 3, 1973 2 App] 420 35 Primary Examiner-Thomas A. Robinson Attorney, Agent, or FirmAbe Hatcher [52] U.S. Cl 178/26 R; l78/l7.5; 178/82 A Y [51] Int. Cl. H03r 13/00; H041 3/00 [58] Field of Search... 178/26 R, 26 A, 82 R, 82 A, [571 ABSTRACT 178/115; 340/347 DD, 324 R, 365 R; 35/5, 6

Use of a tree counter for translating, storing and dis- [56] References Cited I playing Morse or similar code signals.

UNITED STATES PATENTS 19 Claims, 6'Drawing Figures 3,038,030 6/1962 Murray 178/26 A CHARACTOR g g; OUTPUT Q I 33 DOT SWITCH 14 DOT 52 gg ff 0100s V PRINTER 0- AND A COUNTER MATR|XF= 11 OR 3 O ROM CHARACTER DASH SWITCH DISPLAY PULSE PRINT PULSE y .1 7

SPACE PULSE 3 QPATENTEDJUL 1 CHARACTOR T i 4 DOT 2 OUTPUT gg 28 3 w DO 5 [TCH 'NPUT E 5g DIODE PRINTER CONTROL PULFP I AND COUNTER MATRIX OR G PULSE 0R MULTI- W 2? ROM CHARACTER T DISPLAY DASH SWITCH 55% l PRINT PULSE g SPACE PULSE 7 Q DOT SWITCH GATED E H MULTI 8 VgKRATOR pm; [4 R HOT t ooTs 1 1 o a 2i MANGAL |e 23 g ifs: OR OR 5 DASH SWITCH GATED MULTI- ON VIBRATOR o{ FOR- SHOT 15 DOT PULSE ZO oscu LATOR LSPEAKER 3 PRINT PULSE RESET PULSE f SPACE PULSE MTENTEDJUL 15 1975 3.895185 DOT PULSE DASH PULSE RESET PULSE TREE COUNTER CODE SIMULATOR BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates to a communications device suitable for use by handicapped persons. More particularly, it relates to a system for sending, controlling and converting telegraphic codes for visual character display.

2. Description of the Prior Art Conventional printing or display systems using binary type codes such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) or a synchronous code, for example, a system such as depicted in US. Pat. No. 2,840,637, require six bits or six operations for each character for a repertoire of 64 characters, or a 64 character key board. Learning six elements for each character is difficult. Furthermore, systems such as found in US. Pat. Nos. 2,894,067; 2,996,577; 3,196,210, and 3,505,667 assume and require a degree of skill that is certainly greater than a novice or handicapped operator can readily obtain. In addition, such systems would require extensive and expensive alteration to be converted to a single-character readout. Also, the dot-dash detectors of prior art systems increase complexity and require low timing tolerances.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION After extended investigation, I have found a system which has solved these problems. In its broadest aspect, my invention involves use of a modified ring counter circuit for converting Morse or similar code signals to characters and storing them so that they can be read on a scan panel or like board or display unit as desired. The system which I employ uses two switches or inputs, thereby eliminating the need for dot-dash detection. A further advantage of my system is that a handicapped operator can tap out by foot, or otherwise signal the Morse or other code so that the desired message is quickly lit up or displayed. In fact, an operator can soon learn which buttons, for example, to signal, for instance, by pressing a pedal, to cause the desired characters or letters to light up or otherwise appear on the readout panel without even having to know the Morse code. In other words, the operator himself or herself may actually originate the signals. Furthermore, any handicapped person having a yes or no output can operate the machine of the invention, which has the further advantage of being electrically operable.

A still further advantage of my tree counter is that it offers storage of a serial code with fewer, more economical components. My counter offers direct conversion to binary letter codes and is stored in individual characters for direct usage if desired. Timing and control circuitry are greatly simplified over prior art systems. Word and character timing is universal and adjustable to a users needs.

More specifically, my invention may employ a simple three-position switch, viz, left-center-right, left for dot and right for dash. Individual character indicator lamps are arranged in what may be described as an inverted tree configuration, such as depicted in FIG. 6 of the drawing, to be described hereinafter, on a front panel which permits them to be readily observed by the user.

Left and right locations are maintained such that an E may be readily observed as a dot, or one operation of the left switch. Likewise, A may be readily observed upon operating one left switch and then one right switch. With this physical configuration by means of character indicator lamps, for example, an operator does not have to have a rote memorization of the Morse code to operate the communicator. This feature may be further reinforced by using squares around the character lamps to indicate dashes and circles to indicate dots. Colors on the switches and lamps may also be used to greatly reduce learning time.

My invention constitutes an improvement on prior art decoding-storage-readout or like communication, translation or reader systems in that my tree-counter configuration provides a direct, economical light output which advises an operator of the real time status. It also offers storage of a serial code with fewer, more economical components. Conversion with the tree counter offers direct conversion to binary letter codes and is already in individual characters for direct usage, if desired. Timing and control circuitry are highly simplified. The word and character timing is completely universal and adjustable to a users needs. As already suggested, my device is capable of using a threeposition switch, that is, a left-center-right, the left for dot and the right for dash, thus making it ideal for learning and for the handicapped. Dot and dash detectors are eliminated, thereby reducing cost. Multivibrators may be used to send multiple dots and dashes, thereby aiding an operator further. The tree-counter configuration, a read-only memory (ROM), or a diode matrix provides improved means to convert a serial asynchronous telegraphic-type code to a serial synchronous and parallel code for communication functions, enabling use of conventional multicharacter printers or displays.

The control and logic configuration or circuitry provides easy access by an operator to the tree counter for easier learning, storage, display, and communication, for example, when using the Morse code.

According to the invention, gated multivibrators (dot and dash) provide automatic, precisely timed and spaced long or short tones for the aid of the operator. These signals may be adjusted in terms of speed to suit the needs of the operators physical ability and learning level. The system may be adjusted to whatever timing the operators ability or the speed of the incoming signals permits. Also, with my system, two switch inputs may be adjusted toalmost any person who can communicate yes and no if the letter and word space is provided by appropriate adjustable elapsed timing. The control timing and logic circuit employs conventional solid-state logic building blocks.

Dots and dashes may be sent both automatically, for example, upon sending a dot tone, or manually, by the operator pushing the switch by hand or foot, according to the invention. For example, the dot switch, which may be operated automatically, sends one dot and a space. Keeping the dot switch closed sends a series of dots with the required spaces. A change to the dash switch after any number of dots sends a trailing dash, or series, again with the required spaces. The spaces provided by timing in multivibrators are element spaces. That is, they are equal to the space times for the dot and dash elements of a character. At the same time a dot or dash tone is output to the user, a short pulse is sent to a tree-counter circuit such as described hereinafter. These short pulses may be dot, dash, or reset start in any desired combination.

Further, according to the invention, a manual reset may be provided to correct an error by the user before multicharacter display or printing. This is activated by closing both dot and dash switches simultaneously, thereby causing a tone longer than a dash and advising the user that both switches have been closed, also providing a reset pulse to start over in the tree-count storage. This mode can also be used to send a space (blank) to the printer or multicharacter display.

An elapse timer may be used for the printing functions by accumulating time after the last dot, dash, or reset. This elapse time may be equivalent to the character space of the Morse code and also made adjustable for the users needs. The print signal may be fed to the multicharacter display or printer at the end of the elapse time. Accordingly, the tree counter system of the invention, for example, for the character A, which is dot-dash in Morse code, can be implemented by sending a dot which activates the character E, followed by a dash, which moves the tree counter to character A. For A to be printed, the dash must be sent before the character elapse time is completed. Thus, as already suggested, the timing can be adjusted to a length commensurate with the ability of the operator and does not require a high degree of precision.

'At the end of the elapse character time, a tone tic (shorter than a dot) may be sent to advise the operator that a pring has occurred. This permits maximum learning in terms of user proficiency and speed and use by a blind or other seriously handicapped person.

After a pring signal, a reset pulse is automatically sent. This restores the tree counter to a blank/start mode.

Among other features of the invention is the advantage that a second elapse time greater than the character elapse time may be included to provide an automatic space for words if a dot or dash is not sent in the adjustable time. This affords flexible usage. For example, by waiting out the second elapse time, the space or blank is sent followed by a tone tic. If a new character is started before the second elapse time is complete, the space is not sent.

The basic storage or latching circuits of the tree counter system of the invention provide for storage by locking on to the character required and turning on a series circuit indicator light in an individual anode circuit. The on condition of the storage-latching device allows an individual character to be output in electronic terms since the anode pulls to a low voltage through its load, the indicator light or resistor. Other circuits, for example, silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) forming unused characters in this mode, are off, the indicator lamps are off(current low), and the anode voltages are high" for the output. High or low anode voltages may also be used according to the invention to form the unique parallel binary code output and output individual character information.

Gate controlled, storage-latching and turn-off circuitry has a further advantage in that it economically handles the high power required for indicator lamps and storages without complicating interfacing circuitry and logic.

The preceding and other features and advantages of the invention will become more apparent from the following brief description of the drawing and of certain preferred embodiments.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING In the drawing,

FIG. 1 is the block diagram of a system according to the invention. 7 I

FIG. 2 is a schematic depiction of one form of input control and logic according to the invention.

FIG. 3 is a schematic depiction of the circuitry of a representative tree system of the invention.

FIG. 4 depicts diagrammatically a storage circuit simplification of a tree counter such as that shown in FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a diode matrix and logic for a sixbit binary output circuit useful according to the invention.

FIG. 6 is a block diagram showing a tree count sequence according to the invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT In the exemplary embodiment of the invention disclosed in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, dot switch 1 and dash switch 2, as operated, provide full control and operation of the communication system of the invention using telegraphic-type code. Switches 1 and 2 act on control input and logic circuits 3 to perform the necessary operations of the system. More specifically, these switches each act on resistor-capacitor networks 4 and 5 whereby noises such as contact bounces and erratic operations are filtered out by the electrical time constant of the network. Dot imputs on switch 1 causesa gated dot-multivibrator 6 to oscillate, sending a signal to its output 8, a preset, precisely timed dot-mark and space which is adjustable internally in the electronic circuit. If dot switch 1 is opened before the first markspace cycle has ended, only one dot is sent. If dot switch 1 is still closed by the operator at the end of a first dot mark-space cycle, a second dot mark-space is sent and so on. Gated dash-multivibrator 7 and output 9.0perate in a like manner. The dot mark and dash mark are adjusted internally in the electronics of the multivibrators to provide a dash mark longer than a dot mark so that they may be distinguished by the user. The spaces can also be adjusted to suit the user.

Output 8 of dotmultivibrator 6 is also connected to inhibit 11 of the dash-multivibrator. Output 9 of dashmultivibrator 7 is also connected to inhibit 10 of the dot-multivibrator. Inhibits 10 and 11 prevent a dash mark from beginning before the last dot mark-space cycle has ended and prevent a dot mark from beginning beforethe last dash-mark space cycle has ended. Dot and dash outputs 8 and 9 from themultivibrators are also connected to a dot one-shot l2 and a dash, oneshot 13. One-shots 12 and 13 form a dot pulse on dotpulse line 14 anda dash, pulse on dash-pulse line 15. Dot and dash mark-space signals 8 and 9 are also connected to an OR-gate 16 (positive logic) which is output at 17 to a second OR-gate 18, which connects to a tone oscillator l9 feeding a speaker 20. Tone oscillator 19 and speaker 20 function to provide an audible tone with any one or all of the following signals: dot-mark,

dash -mark, long tone reset mark, and tie mark for print before a printout occurs. For example, AND-gate 21 connected to both dot and dash inputs, after noise filtering, acts on a timer manualreset 22, which provides a long tone (by adjustment, longer than a dash) to advise the operator that thissfunction has occurred, this long tone to be provided through OR-gates l6 and 18 to tone oscillator 19 and speaker 20.

A manual reset timer 22 also outputs a signal at 23 through OR-gate 24, to a reset timer 2 5 and one-shot 26, a reset pulse at reset line 27 to reset-TREE-counter 32 tothe starting condition, thus'allowing error correction in the telegraphic code by and for the operator. Output 17 of OR-gate 16 feeda signal to an inverter 28, which sends spaces, in positive logic, to a print-timer 29. This is the elapse time accumulation from the last dot mark, dash mark or long reset mark through OR- gate 16., When adjustable print-timer 29 times out, a signal is sent to one-shot 30, causing a print signal on print line 31 and to a m ulticharacter printer or display 33. This functions to print an extra space,vor, if a dot/- dash input is provided before the print-timer 29 elapses, a new character isprinted or displayed.

Output 17 of OR- gate 16 alsofeeds a signal to inverter 34 whichprovides an elapse time through space-, timer 35 to one-shot36 to result in a space signal on space line 37, and to a multicharacterr printer and display 33. This time is adjusted longer than the printelapse time and may be used to automatically send one space used for a word space.

Print line 31 and space line 37 are also connected to OR-gate 18 and produce the tic, a very short tone, through oscillator 19 and speaker to advise the operator that a print and then a space have occurred.

A connection 38 is provided from print timer 29 to the OR-gate 24 to reset timer 25, one-shot 26 and reset line 27 to TREE-counter 32. This automatically resets the tree counter at the end of the print cycle on a character.

The complete asynchronous operation of the input control and logic is such that all useful communication described above can be performed by an operator using dot switch 1 and dash switch 2, suitable waiting time or elapse time, and necessary adjustments.

I At this point in the configuration, the function flow is asynchronous data. Thus, storage of the asynchronous ,serial code which includes the aforementioned dot pulse 14, dash pulse 15, and reset pulse 27 is required. TREE-counter 32 'of FIG. 1 is also asynchronous in function and performs the data storage or memory. The data from the TREE-counter 32 are output as characters on lines 38 to diode matrix or so-called read-only memory (ROM) 39. The characters are converted to binary code appearing on lines 40 andinput to a printer or display 33. I

Referring next to FIG. 3, the tree-counter configuration disclosed and illustrated features seven similar circuits. These circuits tree-count one at a time in a definite sequence as controlled by dot-pulse line 14, dashpulse line 15 and reset pulse line 27, This is what I prefer to call a tree-count sequence. As each circuit turns on, the last circuit turns off. each circuit turning on latches in its proper sequence and remains on until forced off by the turn-on action of the next count.

Whilethe illustration of circuits in FIG. 3 employs seven circuits, three or more circuits are useful in tree counting according-;:to. theiinvention. In' FIG. '3, seven and may be used with nine storage circuits 43, 42s, 4211, 42r, 42w, 42d, 42k, 42g, and 420 of FIG. 4. See also Tables I and II which follow. These may be employed so i as to form 63:characters on a binary output, using a trated in FIG. 5.

a In using a tree counter according to the invention,

one may employ the seven circuits of FIG. 3, sequencing or counting through each ,circuit one at a time, starting at the outset at circuit blank 41. Each count turns-on the next circuit and turns off the last circuit. The next circuit to be turned on is selected by a logic function inherent in the on circuit and the dot or dash pulse lines 14 or 15. A reset pulse on line 27 will return the on to the blank circuit 41 from any other circuit. Each circuit is interconnected to perform the tree counting or sequences upon command of pulse lines 14, 15, and 27. With respect to blank circuit 41, the circuit contains a gated controlled latching device 44, with a gate or input 45, and anode 46, and a cathode 47. The anode to cathode is the major electric path of gated controlled latching device 44. Device 44 is off at the outsetand turns on by action of an input pulse at gate 45. This also latches electric-currentwise, thus holding until force d to release by reducing the major currentto zero. Capacitor 48 passes a reset pulse on line 27 to gate 45 at the outset, turning on blank 41, latching the major current. path, plus potential 49, through indicator lamp 50, anode 46 tocathode 47 of the device.44 to ground 51 zero potential. Character indicator lamp 50 and device 44 form a major power path, thus providing the useful functions of direct character indication of blank, Without interfacing, performing the storage of this character by a latching action (each circuit does the same). Also blank is output at terminal52 for other uses. This output is low because voltage or potential drop through indicator lamp 50 acts as a load resistor caused by the on current. Before blank is on, the lamp, acting as a pull-up resistor, causes the voltage at terminal 52 to be high because the current is zero in the'off case.

The other circuits of FIG. 3 contain gated-controlled latching devices 441', 44e, 44a, 44n, 44t, and 44m for like purposes. They also contain indicator lamps 501', 50e, 5011, 50n, 50!, and 50m for idividual character indication. Each circuit also contains output terminals 521, 52e, 52115211, 52: and 52m.

The tree counter of the invention has the inherent ability in terms of power and configuration to directly indicate the character stored and to output this infor' mation or data for further use. Each circuit has its own and T 421 circuits are readied for a following count. I

421', A 42a, N 4211 and M 42m circuits are not readied because resistors 56, 57, 58 and 59 are high due to anodesiof circuits E 42e and T 421 being high. Therefore,

circuits,421', 422, 42a,.4l-;.42n, 42:, and 42m are shown with blank 41 on, a dot pulse on line 14 will pass through diode 60e andcapacitor 61e, turning on an E 42e cirucit or character. A dot pulse does not pass through 'diodes 601', 60n, or 62 as they are reversebiased in terms of the high level of voltage carried by resistors 56, 58, 64, and 65.

In like manner, when the blank is on at the outset, selector resistors 57, 59, 64, and 65 allow only the T 421 circuit to be turned on with a dash pulse on line 15, the diodes 60a, 60m and 63 not passing the pulse. Only diode 60r and capacitor 61! pass the pulse. In like manner, the selection with E 42e on becomes 421 with the next dot, or A 42a with the next dash. With T 421 on the next selection becomes N 42n, with the next dot, or M 42m with the next dash. Diodes 601, 60a, 6011, and 60m and capacitors 611, 61a, 6ln, and 61m are used in these counts in the manner already described.

Reset pulse line 27 is not prevented from turning on blank 41 circuit at any stage of the count, thereby resetting the count from any character. The count may be stopped at any character to allow the elapse timer to perform a print of the desired character followed by the reset.

The tree-counter of FIG. 3 ends at the I 421', A 4211, N 42n, or M 42m (second count level) and may recycle by a third count level back to blank 41. After the third count level, the seven circuits of FIG. 3 will sequence as before. This is performed by resistor 65 blocking dot and dash pulses through diodes 62 and 63 and capacitor 66 by resistor 64 also being high when E 4212 or T 421 are on. When the count reaches I, A, N or M, diode 67, 68, 69, or70 pull resistor 64 low and thus allow diode 62 or 63 to pass a dot or dash, thereby turning on blank 41 through capacitor 66. The count then can recycle as before.

This recount feature is intended to implement the 63- character repertoire of Tables I and II, which follow, and is used in conjunction with a nine-character storage such as that of FIG. 4 to perform this. This feature is useful in a data management scheme according to the invention.

TABLE I 81 1 13 A BLANK N T M 80 START 1 E A (BLANK) N T M s 11 4 s v 3 u 1= u 7 2 R L R w P w 1 1 D 6 B D x K c K Y o 7 Z o Q O 8 O 9 :11

TABLE ll 81 1 E A BLANK N T M 110 START 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 s 8 16' 24 32 40 4s 56 u 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 R 17 1s 19 20 21 22 23 w 25 2s 27 2s 29 311 31 1) 33 34 35 36 37 3s 39 K 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 G 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 o 57 5s 59 60 6l 62 63 The configuration of FIG. 3 has also a turn-off function of the last character or circuit. Every circuit has a capacitor connection (anode-to-anode) which performs the turn-off function. With blank 41 on, the anode-to-anode capacitor 71e is charged such that if E 42e turns on, the voltage at anode 46 is forced low,

thereby turning off blank 41. All of these circuits function in a like manner, using turn-off capacitors 710, 7 l t, 711, 71a, 7111 or 71m during counting and turn off ca pacitor 721, 72a, 72n or 72m during reset. Accordingly, only one circuit in FIG. 3 is on at a time.

The nine storage circuits of FIG. 4 are illustrative of an implementation of the data management scheme of aforementioned Tables I and II. These circuits are like those of FIG. 3 except for the interconnection configuration, the nine circuits being start 43, S 425', U 4211, R 421', W 42w, D 4211, K 42k, G 42g, and O 420. Each circuit contains gate-controlled latching devices 74, 74s, 7411, 74r, 74w, 74d, 74k, 74g, and 740 which are respectively used on FIG. 3. Indicator lamps for nine circui'ts Start 75, S 75s, U 7511, R 75r, W 75w, D 75d, K 75k, G 75g, and o 750 are also used.

Referring again to FIG. 4, at the outset, a reset pulse on line 27 causes start 43 to turn on through capacitor 73 (at the same time Blank 41 of FIG. 3 turns on). The selector resistors 76s, 7611, 76r, 76w, 7611, 76k, 76g, and 760 of the storage circuits are connected to anode output terminals I 521', A 52a, N 52n, and M 52m of FIG. 3, so that the storage circuits of FIG. 4 count only at a third level of dot-and -dash pulses on lines 14 and 15 respectively. The dot-pulse line 14, dash-pulse line 15, and reset-pulse line 27 of FIGS. 3 and 4 are common. Therefore S 425' will turn on if I 421 is on, the selector resistor 76s being low, and a dot-pulse is sent online 14. S 42s remains on until reset by start 43 circuit.

If I 421' is on after the second level count, only selector resistors 76s and 7611 of FIG. 4 are low. Therefore, a dot on line 14 at the third level count will turn on only S 42s of FIG. 4 through diode 77s and capacitor 78s. Likewise, a dash on line 15 at the third level count will turn on only U 4211 of FIG. 4, through diode 7711 and capacitor 7811. The circuit S 42s or U 4211, once turned on, will remain on until reset.

lf'A 42a is on after the second level count, only selectorresistors 76r and 76w of FIG. 4 are low. Therefore a dotfon line 14 at the third level count will turn on only R 42r-of FIG. 4 through diode 771' and capacitor 78r. Likewise a dash on line 15 at the third level count will turn on only W 42w of FIG. 4 through diode 77w and capacitor 78w. The circuit R 42r or W 42w once turned on, will remain on until reset.

If N 42n is on after the second level count, only selector resistors 76d and 76k, of FIG. 4 are low. Therefore, a dash on line 15 at the third level count will turn on only K 42k of FIG. 4 through diode 77k and capacitor 78k. The circuit D 42d or K 42k once turned on will remain on until reset.

If M 42m is on after the second level count, onlyselector resistors 76g and 760, of FIG. 4, are low. Therefore, a dot on line 14 at the third level count will turn on only G 42g of FIG. 4 through diode 77g and capacitor 78g. Likewise, a dash on line 15 at the third level count will turn on only 0 421), of FIG. 4 through diode 770 and capacitor 780. The circuit G 42g or O 420 once turned on will remain on until reset.

Also as S 425', U 4211, R 421', W 42w, D 42d, K 42k, G 42;; or O 420 turns on, Start 43 is turned off by capacitor 79s, 7911, 79r, 79w, 7911, 79k, 79g, or 790. These capacitors also turn off S, U, R, W, D, K, G, or

O on reset when start 43 turns on.

At the third level count, the tree counter of the configuration of FIG. 3 returns to blank 44 as previously explained, and will tree count again through E, I, A, T,

N, and M. Thus, counting through Levels I to 5, two circuits are always on, one in FIG. 3 and one in FIG. 4, describing the 63 character repertoire of Tables I and II aforementioned.

A stop count circuit (not shown) may be included to limit the tree count at Level using the output of Start 43, I 421', A 42a, N 4211 and M 42m of FIG. 3 and FIG. 4 in conjunction with a logic gate configuration to fur- The intersection of the two character circuits that are 5 ther input inhibits on lines and 11 of FIG. 2. on describes the desired character of the 63-character repertoire. For example, if character I is desired. two Th 16 i di lamps f h i i i FIG 3 d dots are Input y the Operator and the end of the FIG. 4 display to the operator the status of the charac- L l 42i and Start 75 are AS 18 Confirmed y ters stored. Changes or corrections may be made be- Table I aforementioned, row 80 is start and column 81 10 f th h cte i rinted or di layed on a multiis I. Therefore, the character assignment in this particu- Character te lat instance would be I at this intersection. This combination forms a binary output of 1 according to Table II Further, the panel board may be arranged in a manwherein is shown a representative binary output code ner which greatly simplifies the learning of a code such for'a tree counter according to the invention, and by as Morse, and the need for rote memorization ofa code the configuration of FIG. 5. by the user is eliminated, as will be seen more clearly As a further example, if H is desired, four dots are from a study of FIG. 6 and Table III, which follows and input by the operator, thereby counting to circuits S which shows one tree counting sequence for a full or 42s and E 420 which are on. The row 80 and column general tree counter according to the invention.

TABLE III TREE COUNTING SEQUENCE FOR FULL TREE COUNTER OUTPUT COUNT LEVEL (NO. OF DOTS ORDASHES IN CHARACTER) ASCII C HARAC MORSE- START lst 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th CODE TER CODE A (BLK), E, A. I B (BLK), T, N, D, B. 2 C (BLK), T, N, K, C. 3 D (BLK), -T, N, D. 4 E (BLK), E. 5 F (BLK) E, I, U, F 6 G (BLK), T, M, G. 7 H (BLK), E, I, S, H. 3 I (BLK), E. l. 9 J (BLK), E, A, W, J. 10 K (BLK), T, N, K. 11 L (BLK), E, A, R, L. 12 M (BLK), T, M. 1 N (BLK), T, N. 14 0 (BLK), T, M, O. 15 P (BLK), E, A, w, P. 16 Q (BLK), T, M, G, Q. 17 R (BLK), E, A, R. 1 s (BLK), E, I, S. 19 T (BLK), T. 20 U (BLK), E, I, U. 2l v (BLK), E, I, s, v. 22 w (BLK), E, A, w. 23 X (BLK), T, N, D, X. 24 Y (BLK), T, N, K, Y. 25 Z (BLK), T, M, G, .*Z. 26

1 (BLK), E, A, W; J, 1 49 2 (BLK), E, I, U, 2 50 3 (BLK), E, I, S, V, 3 SI 4 (BLK), E, I, S, H, 4 52 5 (BLK), E, I, S, H, 5 53 6 (BLK), T, N, D, B, +6 54 7 T, M, G, "*7 55 8 (BLK), T, M, O, 8 56 9 T, M, O, 9 57 (BLK), T, M, o, 48

(BLK), E, A R, i 46 m (BLK), T, M. G. z. 44 (BLK), E, I, U, 63 Other special characters ca use the remaining combinations. XX (BLK) None (BLK). 32

81 intersection become character H ofTable I, wherein is given a typical character assignment for a tree counter according to the invention. The binary output shown in Table II is 16 for the H assignment. It should be noted a count level of 0, l, 2, 3, 4, or 5 will define all 63 character assignments of Table I and all binary outputs of Table II.

A two-character indication of FIG. 3 and FIG. 4 is di rect for blank, E, T, I, A, N, M, S, U, R, W, D, K, G, and 0, often used letters. Other letters become obvious when using a simple memory aid. For example, H, being dot-dot-dot-dot in Morse code is formed by SE, the S being dot-dot-dot and the E being dot. It would only be necessary to remember that H was S followed I herein above to the desired character. As one circuit Further, it should be noted that all printer and multi character displays 33 have special functions such as bells, line space, erase, back space, etc. These can be.

implemented by using outputs of special character assignment such as those shown in Tables I, II, and III as hereinabove.

From the preceding description it can be readily seen that combining FIGS. 2, 3, and 4 forms a 63-character system of unique economy whereby two circuits may always be on so as to define a character in the manner indicated in the pattern of Tables I and II. Of course, the circuitry may be extended or reduced to any desired count level or character repertoire.

Referring again to FIG. 5, and additionally to FIG. 3 and FIG. 4, using diode matrix 82 and 92 connected to the anodes of an individual character output of FIG. 3 and FIG. 4 results in direct and economical conversion to parallel binary data such as those shown in Table II, with a unique representation for each character to be used for data transfer according to the invention.

With respect to the aforementioned converting tree counter output to binary code, FIG. 5 shows a major current path for circuits I 42i, E 426, A 42a, Blank 41, N 42m, T 42! and M 42m of FIG. 3 output to a diode matrix 82. This diode matrix is further output on 3-bit binary lines 83, 84 and 85. These binary lines are connected to three NOR gates 86 and through three inverters 87 to lines 88, 89, and 90. These lines are onehalf the representative special binary code, namely line 88 bit 1, line 89 bit 2, and line 90 bit 4. The other inputs of NOR gates 86 are connected through diode 91 to start circuit 43, via line 80. If start circuit 43 is on, gate controlled latching device 74 conducting, then diode 91 allows NOR gates 86 to control lines 88, 89 and 90 via diode matrix 82. Diode matrix 92 is not in use when circuit start 43 or S 42s is on. When start 43 is off, gates 86 and diode matrices 82 no longer control binary lines 88, 89, and 90, bit 1, bit 2, and bit 4 as line 80 is high. With start 43 off, inverter 93 and line 81 allows the three NOR gates 94 to control binary lines 96, 97 and 98, bit 8, bit 16, and bit 32 by diode matrix 82 through the three inverters 95. The diode matrix 92 can control binary lines 88, 89, and 90 at any time through drivers 99. The configuration of FIG. 5, the stored output of the 16 latching circuits, diode matrices 82 and 92, NOR" gates 86 and 94, diode 91, inverter 93, drivers 99, and inverters 95, and 87 provide a binary output such as represented on Table II herein above. The data remain present until the circuits are reset. Then the binary data reverts back to a blank binary code. This special binary code may be converted to standard binary data such as ASCII with a read-only memory. I

The 6-bit binary data may be converted by a read only memory 39 to standard binary data required on lines 40 of FIG. I of the particular print or multicharacter display 33 used.

Referring now more specifically to the full tree counter of FIG. 6, the count starts at Blank (BLK) 41 and progresses through the sequence per Table III turns off, a new one turns on. The. count or sequence is the same as for the tree counter shown in FIG. 3 for circuits Blank (BLK) 41, E 42e, T 42!, l42i, A 42a, N 42n, and M 42m.

In Table IV herein above, each circuit indicated in the left column permits selection of the corresponding circuit on the next right column, per the dot or dash signal input on the next count.

Each of the circuits may be the same as the basic circuits of FIG. 3. Alternatively, other storage devices such as flip-flops with a simple logic turn-off may be used according to the invention. Indicator lamps of the tree counter of FIG. 6 may be arranged on the panel board so as to aid learning, for example, the dots being a left operation and dashes a right operation as shown by arrows 114 and 115, respectively.

The output terminal of the tree counter of FIG. 6 may be connected to a diode matrix of any specific binary code desired, for example, the ASCII already mentioned.

In the representative tree counter system which I have found particularly useful according to the invention of FIG. 6, the tree-counting sequence is as follows:

I. A reset pulse (automatic from the control or at user choice) sets the start/blank storage/latching device and lamp on and the data output lines are in the electronic configuration of the blank code for the multicharacter printer and display device used.

2. The next input (dot or dash) pulse feeds all /z-dot and /2-dash) gate controlled circuits, but only one acts on the circuit readied (programmed) by the logic resistor. In this particular example, only the E and T circuits are readied. Thus, if a dot is pulse, the E turns on, and, if a dash is sent, a T turns on. When the E or T turns on, the circuit action also turns off the start/blank circuit. Thus, either E or T is stored, and, if the print time elapses either E or T is printed. This result is followed by an automatic reset t0.start/ blank position caused by the control timer.

3. The second dot or dash selects either [or A if the, first element-pulse was a dot, or either Nor M if their; element pulse was a dash. Thisturning off the E or T insures that only the desired letter is on and only the desired individual letter is output to the printer or multicharacter display.

4. The third, fourth, and fifth dot or dash selects a character based on previous dot and dashicor'nbi -nations in like manner. Simple calculation shows five count levels of dots and dashes in a 63-character repertoire which is adequate for most 'applications. However, the circuitry may be extended or reduced to any desired count levelor character repertoire. I i y t A 63-character treecounter such as'explain ed herein above may be simplified by usingthe seven characters of dot-dash countlevels" twice and adding eight or nine storage circuits at'a third count' level. This involves simply splitting the start. and blank indicator and circuits and meansthatsize, cost and circuitry can thus be reduced. Such a simplified version requires only 15 or 16 circuits. I

ln such a simplified tree counter (special treecounter) there are two characters or indications at all times. Thus characters areformed by two lights. A is formed by start'and A beingon. B (which'is dash-dotdot-d'ot) is formed by D, and E being ong'whereas D is dash-dot-dot followed by E, which is' dot. Thus B is formed by a simple memory aid.

Seven tree counting circuits according to the system of the invention, assuming Morse code, include blank count level); E and T (1st count level); and l, A, N and M (2nd count level). Nine storage circuits may be represented by start, S, U, R, W, D, K, G, and 0. Except for the start circuit which is used at the outset of the counting cycle, nine storage SCR circuits are used only after the third count level of dots and dashes.

The individual character outputs may be interfaced directly to some available printers or multicharacter displays, or a read-only memory (ROM), may be used to convert to the code required such as ASCll shown in Tables I and ll, herein above.

Tables I and ll show the assignment for 63 characters in terms of 16 storage latching device circuits. The circuits of the tree counter (I, E, A, Blank N, T, and M) and the other circuits (Start, S, U, R, W, D, K, G, and 0) provide 63 characters. The letters, numbers and punctuation of the standard Morse code are shown at the proper combinations of the two circuits that are on. For example, start/blank is on after a reset or at the outset. This yields blank from Table l and outputs a 6-bit binary 4 similar to that depicted on Table ll. Other characters are formed by other combinations. An asterisk or star hereinafter referred to as a miscellaneous character, indicates that other symbols may be assigned to correspond to the type printer or multicharacter display used. Table 1 below shows these unique 6-bit data in negative logic after the l6-line output of the tree count-storage circuits passes through two 3-bit diode matrices and a simple logic circuit. The first 3-bit matrix outputs l, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 in binary code for the l, E, A. blank, N, T, and M circuits respectively. The S circuit switches the logic to outputs 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, and 56 on the l, E, A, blank, N, T, and M respectively, as shown in the drawing to be described hereinafter. U. R, W, D. K, G, 0, add to the above first 3-bit by 8, 16,24, 32. 40, 48 and 56 respectively in the second 3-bits. This 6=bit output may be converted directly to the 6-bit code standard used in the printer with a ROM.

While the invention has been described in terms of preferred embodiments, the claims appended hereto are intended to encompass all embodiments which fall within the spirit of the invention.

Having thus'described my invention and certain preferred embodiments thereof, I claim:

l. A systernfor converting no more than three different signals into a stored representation of at least seven characters comprisingsensing means responsive to said signals for discriminatingbetween said signals and storing characters indicated by said discriminating between said signals, storing means responsive to said sensing means for'holding a character represented by one of said signals if the same signal or a second different signal is not sensed within a predetermined time following said sensing of said one signal, further storing means responsive to said sensing means for holding a character represented by a second of said signals or a character represented by sensing said one and-then said second signal following 'said sensing of said one if another signal is not sensed within the same or a different predetermined time, a plurality of additional storing means responsive to said sensing means for holding additional characters represented by one or more of said signals in any particular order of said one or more of said signals aftersaid predetermined time has elapsed, correction means associated with said plurality of sensing and storing means for erasing the holding of one or more or all of said characters and additional correction means associated with said plurality of sensing and storing means for resetting to blank by erasing all characters held prior to said erasing, said system permitting storage of at least 7 characters by said sensing and discriminating between said no more than three different signals.

2. The system of claim 1 additionally having means for indicating said stored characters upon a display panel at the time of storage or subsequent to said storage.

3. The system of claim 1 wherein said stored characters are output via electrical lines to a diode matrix where they are converted to a binary code and input to a printer or display.

4. The system of claim 1 wherein the at least two different signals comprise a dot and a dash.

5. The system of claim 4 wherein said means for storing characters indicated by said dot comprise a gated dot multivibrator having a preset, timed dot-mark and space-mark output, said means for storing characters indicated by said dash comprise a gated dash multivibrator having its own preset, timed dot-mark and space-mark output, said output of said dot multivibrator being connected to an inhibit of said dash multivibrator and said output of said dash multivibrator being connected to an inhibit of said dot multivibrator, said outputs of said dot multivibrator and said dash multivibrator being connected to respective dot and dash oneshots, respective pulse lines for pulsing dots and dashes from said one-shots thereon, said dot and dash outputs being connected electrically to means for producing sensible signals for dots, dashes, erasure and resetting to a blank and a spacing tic.

6. The system of claim 5 wherein said sensible signals are audible.

7. The system of claim 5 wherein said sensible signals are visible.

8. The system of claim 5 wherein said sensible signals are both audible and visible.

9. The system of claim 5 wherein said dot and dash outputs are connected to said means for producing sensible signals by an OR-gate arrangement connected to a tone oscillator which feeds a speaker.

10. The system of claim wherein said dot and dash outputs are connected to said means for producing sensible signals by an OR-gate arrangement connected to lights on a display panel for flashing characters representing one or more of said dots and dashes according to a particular order of one or more dots or dashes or of one or more dots or dashes followed by one or more additional dots or dashes.

11. The system of claim wherein said signals are Morse code signals.

12. The system of claim 10 wherein said characters comprise letters of the Arabic alphabet and a blank.

13. The system of claim 10 wherein said characters comprise letters of the Arabic alphabet, a blank, a miscellaneous character and numbers 1 through 9.

14. The system of claim 10 wherein the characters comprise letters of the Arabic alphabet, a blank, miscellaneous character, numbers 1 through 9, a period, a comma and a question mark.

15. The system of claim 10 wherein said characters comprise l5.

16. The system of claim 10 wherein said characters comprise 63.

17. A process for reception, storage and display of Morse or other code which comprises transmitting code signals via respective gated multivibrators, thereby causing them to oscillate in the order of reception of signals indicating transmission of dots and dashes, thereupon sending signals to their respective outputs for dots and dashes, by means of timed inhibits preventing a dash from being stored before a predetermined dot space cycle has ended and preventing a dotv acters are visibly displayed by passing them via electrical lines through a tree-counter to a diode matrix where they are converted to a binary code which is input to a printer or display.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4333091 *Apr 17, 1981Jun 1, 1982Zenith Radio CorporationCommand buffers for electronic code keyer
US4706067 *May 15, 1986Nov 10, 1987Hauck Lane TSwitch actuated communication device
US4779079 *Sep 6, 1985Oct 18, 1988Hauck Lane TMulti-purpose computer utility arrangement
US5216423 *Apr 9, 1991Jun 1, 1993University Of Central FloridaMethod and apparatus for multiple bit encoding and decoding of data through use of tree-based codes
US5608395 *Jun 22, 1994Mar 4, 1997The Hugh Macmillan Rehabilitation CentreSimplified computer access system
Classifications
U.S. Classification341/66, 178/82.00A, 341/79, 178/17.5
International ClassificationH04L13/00, H04L13/18, H03M5/00
Cooperative ClassificationH03M5/00, H04L13/188
European ClassificationH03M5/00, H04L13/18C