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Publication numberUS3895488 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 22, 1975
Filing dateJan 10, 1974
Priority dateJan 25, 1973
Also published asDE2303586A1, DE2303586B2
Publication numberUS 3895488 A, US 3895488A, US-A-3895488, US3895488 A, US3895488A
InventorsKoch Christian
Original AssigneeSiemens Ag
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Gas turbine
US 3895488 A
Abstract
Disclosed herein is an improvement for a gas turbine which has been adapted to burn fuel processed by catalytic or non catalytic type gas converters. This adaptation has resulted in the reduction of the harmful polutants being emitted to the environment. The improvement, recognizing that a turbine operating with such processed fuel runs at considerably high combustion chamber temperatures, calls for the positioning of heat exchange mechanisms in the path of the exhaust gases emanating from the turbine's decompression unit. These mechanisms preheat the fuel and air needed in the conversion process. Additionally, heat exchange mechanisms are positioned about and between the reaction chambers in the gas converter. Part of the exhaust gases are routed through these facilitating the gas conversion process. Further, mixing means are provided wherein the preheated air cooperates with the exhaust gases to reduce the heat of the latter before they pass via the turbine's decompression unit into the environment. An alternate improvement calls for the placement of a water vaporizer in the path of the exhaust gases. Water supplied thereto is vaporized and then supplied to the gas converter for reaction with the fuel in a known way.
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ni Sta S Patent 1 191 1 i Koch p, g

1 1 July 22, 1975' i5 1 GASTURBINE [751 inventor: Christian Koch, Numberg- Grossgrundiach, Germany [73] Assigne'e: Siemens Aktienge'seiischait, Munich,- Germany 1 v [22] Filed: Jan. 10,1974

2 1] App1.No.:432,422

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data Jan. 25, 1973 Germany ..L 2303586 [52] US. Cl. 60139.46; 60/39.?1; 60/39.53;

[5 1] Int. Cl F02c3/20; F02c 7/08 [58] Field of Search 6039.46, 39.12, 39.18 B;

[56] References Cited r UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,401,285 5/1946 Woodward et a1. so/39.46

2,650, i 90 8/1953 Steinschiaeger .60/39.46

2,735,265 2/1956 Eastman 60/39.46

2,777,288 1/1957 Giinka 60/39.46

3,020,715 2/1962 ,Thomsen 60/39.]2

3,248,453 4/1966 Beyrard 23/288 R 3,738,103 6/1973 Rudolph ..60/39.i8 B a,

Primary Examiner-William L. Freeh Assistant Examiner- L. .ihcasaregoia, Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Kenyon & Kenyon Reiiiy Carr & Chapin Disciosed'herein is an improvement for a gas turbine ABSTRACT which has beenadapted to burn fuei processed by cataiytic or non catalytic type gas converters. This adap- 1 tation has resulted in the reduction of the harmful poiutants being emitted to the environmentThe improvement, recognizing that a turbineoperating with suehproeessed iuei runs at considerably high combustion chamber temperatures, calls for the positioning of heat exchange mechanisms in the path 01 the exhaust gases emanating from the turbine's decompression unit. These mechanisms preheat the fuel and air neededin the conversion process. .Additionaiiy, heat exchange mechanisms are positioned about and betweenthe reaction chambers in the gas converter. Part of the exhaust gases are routed through these facilitatingthe gas conversionprocess. Further, mixing means arei'provided wherein the preheated air cooperates with the'exhaust gases to reduce the heat of the iatter befor e theypa ss via thefturbine's decompression unit 'into the environment. Anaiternate improvementcails for the placement of a water vaporizer in the path of the'exhaust gases. Water suppiied thereto is vaporized and the'nsuppiied to the gas converter for reaction with the fuel in a known way.

5 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure GAS TURBlNE BACKGROUND OF'THE INvENT oN g The present invention,concernsgas turbines an more particularly turbinesjwherein there is complete;

uniform combustion of the liquid fuel supplied thereto.

The health of the world's population is being endan-- combustion chamber and discharging from the decompression turbine is higher also.

1 it is therefore an object of this invention to combine a suitable gas converter with said gas turbines to substantially reduce the concentration of harmful compotreats and in the turbines exhaust gas.

gered more and more by iacreasing'airpollution. This is a particularly serious probleminthe thickly settled} areas. Exhaust gases not only from motor vehicles with internal-combustion engines. but also those emanating from stationary gas turbines contribute to this pollution problem. This is so primarily, because of, the nonuniform evaporation and inadequate intermixing'of the hydrocarbons and the combustion air.. resulting in inr complete combustion. The consequencer'of this is an burned or at best only partially burned hydrocarbons,

lt is'another object of this invention to provide an improved gas turbine which is supplied fuel gases from the gas convertertherebyachieving complete and uniform combustion.

it is still another object of this invention to provide a gas turbine which is more eiliclent than prior art turbines in that exhaust gas heat is recycled through the system prior todischarge into the environment to precarbon monoxide. condensation 'products,'j benzpy-;

renes, tarysoot and'aldehydesiz'lfhese are given off to it; ,1 ,20 The harmful secondary effects caused bythese exthe air via the exhaust gass haust gases can be reduced quite cons iderablyby the g use of a gas converter. Such aconverter is described in the German Offeniegungsschrift 2",lO3;008, German Offenlegungsschrift 2,135,650 which w'asnot prep ubiished and U.S. pat. appiicatiomSer. No. 372,4222 in heat the fueland air before they pass through the gas converter and combustion chamber respectively.

1 I SUMMARY oF'TIIE INVENTION in satisfaction of these objects and of others more readily apparent with a reading of the hereinafter disclosed invention, an improved gas turbine is provided which employs as its fuel the'reformed gas product of a gasconverter. The-compressed air required for combustionis preheated in a suitably arranged heat exthese gas converters. the fuel containing liquid hydro-fl f carbons is first evaporated, .vaporizedor atomizedQand the gaseous or vaporousfuel thus obtained isconducted over a catalyst for conversion into agas mixchange by the exhaust gases. The liquid fuel which is processed and converted to the reformed gas by the gas converter is also preheated and vaporized by the heat fof the "exhaust gases in a'suitable exchanger. Finally,

ture. This latter mixture, so-called reformed-gas, con-' tains carbon monoxide. carbon dioxide, methane andg /or hydrogen. The conversion of the fuel into the fireformed gas can be made relatively soot free by feeding back a portion of the exhaust gas from the combustion. chamber of the enginefed with the reformed gas and mixing this exhaust gas with an oxygen-carrying gas such as air and passing this mixture together with the fuel through the converter. u

The gas converter employs perforated, sintered Dueto the combination of exhaust gas heat utilizathe conversion of the vaporized liquid fuel into the reformedgas by the gas converter. is facilitated by the lprovision of heat exchangers surrounding'and interposed between the reaction chambers of the converter.

" Part: of the heat of the exhaust gases is given up to the conversion process through these exchangers.

ytionf and higher combustion temperatures in the arq rang'ement according to theinvention, a particuiarly great increase in the efficiency is obtained, sothat an 40 blocks havinga multiplicity of closely spaced passage" holes. They may be ofa non-catalytic type as described in the German Offenlegungsschriftj2,l32,8l9 or they can be of the catalytic type such as described in greater detail in the German Offenlegungsschrift 1,939,535. Where the catalytic type sintered blocks are employed, catalytic conversion of the hydrocarbons is obtained.v

As noted above, stationary gas turbines are also large polluters of the environment. it has been".recognized that asuitable way of materially reducing theemission of harmful pollutants by the gas turbines is an arrangement employing the gas converterdescribed in the preceding patent applications, in suitable fashion wherein the reformed gas generated bythe'converter becomes the fuel for'the' gas turbines. V

A gas turbine usually consists of a compressor forthe air required for combustion, a combustion chamber and a decompression turbine. The amount of air required for the combustion process in the gas turbine, including the excess air required for maintaining the maximum combustion temperature. is provided by the compressor.

A gas turbine operated with such reformed gases and compressed air can be run at considerably high combustion chamber temperatures than the conventional gas turbines. Therefore, the temperature of the exhaust gases entering the decompression turbine from the overallefficiency of more than 40 percent can be achieved. Mixing means are also provided for'eooling I the exhaust gases resulting in a temperature compatible with the decompression turbine design. Further, in yet another embodiment of this invention, a steam generator is placed in' the path of the exhaust'gases exiting from the decompression turbine; Water is converted to water vapor. which is in turn supplied to-:the gas converterwhere it reacts with the preheated fuel instead of the exhaustfgases to achieve conversionof the vaporized fuel to these-called reformed gas.

BRIEF DESCRlPTlON OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1'. is a schematic representation of the subject invention DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED I EMBODIMENT combustion and routes that compressed air to the remainder of the system through line 8. The compressor and decompression turbine 4 are shown connectedtogether by line 31, which represents the common shaft upon which both would rotate in a standard turbine de-,

heat exchanger 6 is heated by its passage therethrough'] in a manner soon to be described. it exitsthe exchanger 6 via duct 32at which point it splits, aportion thereof being supplied to a mixing'chamber 7 and yet another portion thereof being supplied along line8'to combustion chamber 3. h e a The liquid fuelis supplied to heat exchanger via duct 33. The fuel is vaporized in the heat exchanger nisms within the gas converter itself. Such mechanisms are represented by reference numerals 14, 15, 16 17 and 18. Although it need not be, gas converter 2 is preferably of the multi-stage design with a plurality of reac* tion chambers such as 19, and 21. Heatexchange mechanisms l4, l5 and 16 surround the reaction chambers 19, 20 and 21 while exchangers 17 and 18 are interposed between 19 and 20, and 20 and 2], respectively; The part of the exhaust gases that go through the heat exchangers l4, 15, 16, 17 and 18 gives off heat energy to the gas mixture flowing through the converter.

This facilitates the conversion of the vaporized fuel inline 9 to the reformed gas supplied to the combustion chamber. The exhaust gases exit'from heat exchangers 14, l7, 15, 18 and 16 via ducts 34'.,35', 36', 37' and 38 .respectively. These are combined through a suitable manifold arrangement and supplied by way of line 23 to mixing chamber 7. 4

Mixing chamber 7, as noted earlier, is also supplied by the compressed air exiting from heat exchanger 6. Although preheated, this air is less than the temperature of the exhaust gases in line 23. Within mixing chamber 7, the compressed air exiting from heat exchanger 6 extracts some of the heat from the exhaust gases in line 23. The exhaust gases, reduced in temperature, are supplied to the decompression turbine 4 via line 11.

The decompression turbine directs the exhaust gases, exiting therefrom by line 12 through the heat exchange devices 6 and 5. As they passthrough the exchangers, the exhaust gases preheat both the air andthe liquid fuel prior to their use in the remainder or balance ofthe system.

Once past the heat exchangers 6 and 5, the exhaust gas exits to the outside environment via duct or exhaust pipe 12'. I

In an alternate embodiment of the subject invention. a steam generator 24, shown in phantom may be inserted in the path of the exhaust gases emanating from the decompression turbine. Water is supplied thereto by line 39. The heat of the exhaust gases converts the water to steam, which is then routed to the gas converter 2 through line 25. in this arrangement the exhaust ga's fed to the converter 2 is completely or par- .tially replaced (through suitable valving, not shown) by the steam, which thereafter reacts with the fuel in a well-known conversion process.

It can also be appreciated that changes in the above embodiment can be madewithout departing from the scope of the present invention, and that other variations of the specific arrangement disclosed above. can be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the invention as defined in the appended claims.

" What is claimed is:

l. ln'combination with a gas turbine having a compressor, a combustion chamber, a gas converter and a h, decompression turbine for complete and uniform combustion of the liquid fuel supplied thereto. the improvement which comprises:

a. a first heat exchange means positioned in the path of the exhaust gases emanating from said decompression turbine, said first heat exchange means adapted to receive the air exiting from said compress'or, said compressed air being heated by the exhaust gases passing through said first heat exchange means;

b. means for supplying said heated compressed air to said combustion chamber;

c. a second heat exchange means positioned in the path" of the exhaust gases emanating from said decompression turbine, said second heat exchange means adapted to receive said liquid fuel, said liquid fuel being vaporized by the heat of the exhaust gases passing through said second heat exchange means; g

d. means for connecting said second heat exchange means to said gas converter for supplying said vaporized liquid fuel to said gas converter; and

e.a gas converter comprising:

1. a plurality of reaction chambers;

2. heat'exchange means in working relationship with each of said reaction chambers;

3. heat exchange means interposed between said reaction'chambers; and

4. means for conducting a portion of the exhaust gases from said combustion chamber to each of said heat exchange mechanisms in said gas converter, whereby the heat of said exhaust gases given off in the gas converter heat exchange means facilitates the gas conversion process.

2. The improved gas turbine of claim 1 further comprising:

a. a mixing chamber;

b. means forsupplying a part of said heated compressed air to said mixing chamber;

c. means for routing the exhaust gases conducted to said heat exchange mechanisms in said gas converter, after passing through said latter heat exchange mechanisms, to said mixing chamber, said mixing chamber adapted such that the heated, compressed air flowing in said supply means cooperates with the exhaust gases routed to the mixing chamber to thereby cool said exhaust gases; and

d. means for connecting said mixing chamber to said decompression turbine, said latter connecting means transferring said cooled exhaust gases.to

said decompression turbine.

3. The improved gas turbine of claim 2 further comprising:

a. means for vaporizing water, positionedin the path of the exhaust gases emanating from said decompression turbine; y b. means for supplying water to said M vaporizing means", and c. means for connecting said vaporizing means to said gas converter to therebysupply said gas converter with vaporized water for reaction with said vupor- 1Q ized liquid fuel. 4. The improved gas'turbine of claim 1 further comprising: r

a. means for vaporizing water. positioned in the path plurality of reaction chambers.

It i i i i

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2401285 *Jun 13, 1945May 28, 1946Hiram W WoodwardGas turbine system
US2650190 *Jun 5, 1950Aug 25, 1953Steinschlaeger MichaelCarbonization of peat with the utilization of excess heat to produce surplus power
US2735265 *Sep 28, 1954Feb 21, 1956 Bois eastman
US2777288 *Apr 2, 1952Jan 15, 1957Carl GlinkaProcess and apparatus for the generation of mechanical energy from solid fuels having a high water content
US3020715 *May 8, 1957Feb 13, 1962Alfred M ThomsenMethod of improving the thermal efficiency of a gas producer-gas turbine assembly
US3248453 *May 12, 1961Apr 26, 1966Synthese Et D Oxydation SynoxyProcess and apparatus for oxidizing hydrocarbons
US3738103 *Aug 24, 1970Jun 12, 1973Metallgesellschaft AgPower plant process
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4932204 *Apr 3, 1989Jun 12, 1990Westinghouse Electric Corp.Efficiency combined cycle power plant
US5048284 *Jul 11, 1989Sep 17, 1991Imperial Chemical Industries PlcMethod of operating gas turbines with reformed fuel
US5133180 *Dec 27, 1990Jul 28, 1992General Electric CompanyChemically recuperated gas turbine
US5431007 *Mar 4, 1994Jul 11, 1995Westinghouse Elec CorpThermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system
US5595059 *Mar 2, 1995Jan 21, 1997Westingthouse Electric CorporationCombined cycle power plant with thermochemical recuperation and flue gas recirculation
US5685156 *May 20, 1996Nov 11, 1997Capstone Turbine CorporationCatalytic combustion system
US5704206 *May 23, 1995Jan 6, 1998Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki KaishaCoal burner combined power plant having a fuel reformer located within the coal furnace
US5873236 *Mar 21, 1997Feb 23, 1999Hitachi, Ltd.Fuel reforming apparatus and electric power generating system having the same
US6178738 *Dec 10, 1998Jan 30, 2001Asea Brown Boveri AgMethod of operating a gas-turbine group by directing a fuel/water mixture to the combustion chamber
US6199363 *Dec 15, 1998Mar 13, 2001Asea Brown Boveri AgMethod for operating a gas turbogenerator set
US6242819 *Jun 8, 1999Jun 5, 2001AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT KüHNLE, KOPP & KAUSCHGas expansion turbine for low power output
US6453658Feb 24, 2000Sep 24, 2002Capstone Turbine CorporationMulti-stage multi-plane combustion system for a gas turbine engine
US6684642Jun 17, 2002Feb 3, 2004Capstone Turbine CorporationGas turbine engine having a multi-stage multi-plane combustion system
US8858223 *Sep 21, 2010Oct 14, 2014Proe Power Systems, LlcGlycerin fueled afterburning engine
Classifications
U.S. Classification60/39.461, 60/730, 60/39.511, 60/736, 60/39.53
International ClassificationF02C3/24, F02C3/20
Cooperative ClassificationF02C3/20
European ClassificationF02C3/20