US 3895584 A
A transportation system including a network of tracks for remotely-controllable vehicles to run over, having intersections each enabling vehicles to be driven from one track to another track, and each comprising a junction track associated with vehicle detector means, signalling means and a computer for controlling vehicles on or approaching the junction track. A length of the junction track may be designated as queueing space sufficient to accommodate a predetermined maximum number of vehicles Q, and the computer may include means for maintaining a record of the number of vehicles q currently allocated to the queueing space, and a list of turn priorities for given destinations, and means for sending turning command signals to any vehicle whose destination gives it a turn priority greater than q, provided that q is less than Q.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1 Paddison l l July 22, 1975 TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS 3.748466 7/l973 Sihlcy et a] i, 246/187 B  Inventor: Denys Ian Paddison, Godalming Primary Emmmer M Henson wood Jr.
England As'siiviunl Ex miinerReinhard J. Eisenzopf  Assignee: British Secretary of State for Allorm'). Agent or Firm-Elliott I. Pollock Defence, London England 22 Filed: Feb. 6, 1973 (57] ABSTRACT A transportation system including a network of tracks [2|] Appl' 330l49 for remotely-controllable vehicles to run over. having intersections each enabling vehicles to be driven from 30 Foreign Appncaiion priority Data one track to another track, and each comprising a Fch 10 1972 United Kingdom H 6382/72 junction track associated with vehicle detector means.
signalling means and a computer for controlling vehi-  Us CL 104/88; 246/63 R; 246/187 B cles on or approaching the junction track. A length of 51] Int. Ci. BblL 21/04 the rack may be dcsgnaled F  Field of Search H 104/88; 246/63 R '87 B space sufficient to accommodate a predetermined 246/187 C 632 maximum number of vehicles 0, and the computer may include means for maintaining a record of the [5b] Reierences Cited number of vedhiclles qfcurrentlv allocaed to thedque uemg space, an a 1st 0 turn priorities or given estina- UNITED STATES PATENTS tions. and means for sending turning command signals 3334-377 2/1966 'f l 346/63 C to any vehicle whose destination gives it a turn priority 222 5; a] greater than q, provided that q is less than 0. 1676mm) 7/1972 Jauquct 246/63 C [2 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures PI ["1 I I I i i H i JE \a E LINESFROM TXl,
U2. ANPI P'ITO D5 5 r P3 O2 i COMPUTER F 402 I i: iii Hm w i'x'res ii iaa 2 J1 I a u ii an 4 r i I g l I i I g i i (1 I P7 E\ i a u:- d o d u h ,4 a J; J .i ;--"1 i 1 i i i l 1 52 T2 PATENTEDJuL22 ms 3.895584 SHEET 4 COMPUTER TXP PATENTEDJUL22 ms 13.895; 584
SHEET 5 58 5| s 2 A I SERIAL TO B'STABLE RECEIVER"PARALLEL I I I CONVERTER ADDRESS DETECTOR CIRCUITS s 4 I INSTRUCTION DECODER CIRCUITS III-,5 II
-s GUIDE WHEEL 53552 7 c L ACTUATORS APPARATUS 5 DATA TRANSMITTER FIG.5
PATENIEDJULZZ ms 3.895584 SHEET 7 ANY VEHICLES AT DETECTORS GEI' MESSAG E YES mom Di STORE IT i ITO 5 UPDATE LISTS OF VEHICLE 8 LOT ALLOCATIONS SIGNALS SENT VIA SI.S2 OR PROCESS MESSAGES (FIG. 7B)
MESSAGES STORED ENTER VEHICLE IN IS T2 LIST: SEND QUEUE HEAD CORRESPONDIN SPECIFIC SLOT SLOT ON T2 ALLOCA ED FREE SIGNAL T0 SET ITS BISTABLE PUT q=q I A EXAMINE OUEUE SLOTS IN TI2 LIST;
||= SLOT (J) ALLOCATED,(J+I) FREE, J
SEND one sa T0 VEHICLE ALLOCATION TO (.1); UPDATE n2 LIST.
TRAN SPORTATIUN SYSTEMS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to transportation systems, and particularly to transportation systems in which comparatively small. remotely-controllable vehicles are driven over a network of tracks. Such systems have been proposed as an answer to problems of urban and suburban transportation. offering the advantages of greater convenience than most conventional omnibus or train services, greater economy than conven tional taxicabs. and a prospect of allowing a greater traffic capacity in a given space than conventional road transport.
To achieve a high traffic flow rate, it is desirable that vehicles should be able to move in a regular stream (in which the individual vehicles move with substantially the same speed as each other, matching their speed to the speed of the stream which is generally maintained at chosen speed) over at least a major part of each jour ney. To facilitate this. various systems have been suggested in which vehicle control signals have been linked to and synchronized with periodic master timing signals. Difficulties and complications arise, however. because many essential operations in the system are in herently asynchronous. For instance. loading and unloading operations will require vehicles to be taken out of. and fitted back into the traffic stream. It is difficult to make arrangements for the merging of traffic streams consistent with any plan for the completely synchronous operation of all traffic streams in a very busy system. The problems and difficulties involved are not too serious if the utilization factor (that is the number of vehicles actually travelling on the track divided by the total number of track spaces available) is low. However in urban situations. where there is a great demand for transport facilities and space is at a premium. it is desirable to attempt to satisfy the maximum demand with tracks occupying the minimum amount of space; it will therefore be advantageous to operate the system as near as possible to its theoretical maximum capacity. increasing the number of vehicles in use and reducing the amount of free track space not occupied by any vehicle. This greatly increases the difficulties of the merging and control processes. especially if it is desired to use the highest possible utilization factor while maintaining a good traffic flow rate and retaining a good degree of versatility in the choice of routes and stopping places to suit individual requirements.
One suggested solution. which can be called the chess-playing or complete-schedule method. is to have a computer arranged to keep track of the positions of all vehicles in the system and to tabulate their predicted positions at a series of times sufficient to complete all their journeys; before any vehicle is allowed to join or rejoin any traffic stream, predictions of its proposed journey are compared with the tabulation, and it is not allowed to start until all these predictions fit into unoccupied spaces in the tabulation. This arrangement has the disadvantage that the amount of computing required increases approximately according to a power of the size of the system. and it is very inflexible.
Congestion at a popular destination could for in stance in this arrangement prevent persons setting out on their way to it. instead of allowing them the option of getting the nearest uncrowded station. or approaching the destination by an alternative route. An even more important disadvantage of any system attempting to achieve completely synchronous. completely scheduled operation of all traffic streams with a high utilization factor is the disruption of the scheme which is liable to be caused by a fault in any vehicle or part of the control system. While vehicles and control systems can be made highly reliable. it will be uneconomic if not impossible to ensure absolute reliability. and in any system of practically useful size some possibility of breakdowns should therefore be accepted and allowed for. In a complex system with many junctions and completely scheduled operation. any breakdown is liable to have extensive repercussions; places which should become vacant do not become vacant. and places are reserved for vehicles unable to come into them because of obstruction. The whole schedule has to be re-planned and places reallocated taking into account the effects of the fault. The amount of computation required for such reallocation rises as a power of the size of the system. and with a high utilization factor in a system of only moderate complexity it is likely to require the whole system to be brought to a standstill while a new schedule is worked out. The probability of such a standstill. with the accompanying waste and annoyance which it would cause, in effect places an economic or tolerance limit on the complexity and utilization factor of any system of completely synchronized traffic streams.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION These disadvantages can be avoided by a control system which is convenient for both synchronous and asynchronous operation. does not attempt complete scheduling or prediction of the whole route of every journey. and accepts a possible need for asynchronous operations or queueing at any junction. This kind of system. hereinafter called a Cabtrack system. allows more freedom in route selection and modification; it can be arranged to direct vehicles around any obstruction or congested area.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a transportation system wherein remotely controllable vehicles can be controlled to form separately synchronized traffic streams on different tracks. and to make controlled transfers from one stream to another at interseetions. by control apparatus which can operate as a plurality of self-sufficient, comparatively simple decoupled parts, regardless of the complexity of the system as a whole.
According to the present invention, there is provided a transportation system comprising a plurality of tracks and a plurality of remotely controllable vehicles constructed to run over the said tracks. wherein the said tracks comprise at least a first main track, a second main track and a junction track by which vehicles may be driven from the first main track to the second main track. and the system also comprises first signalling means for sending control signals to vehicles on the first main track such that all vehicles on a continuous extended length thereof receive the same control signals to cause the said vehicles to proceed in a first regular traffic stream along the said first main track. means for sending signals to selected ones of the said vehicles to divert them on to the junction track, second signalling means for sending control signals to vehicles on the second main track such that all vehicles on a continuous extended length thereof receive the same control signals to cause the said vehicles to proceed in a second regular traffic stream along the said second main track, third signalling means for sending control signals to vehicles on the junction track to control their progress on the junction track and to make them responsive to signals derived from the second signalling means at selected times, further means for sending control signals derived from the second signalling means to vehicles on a part of the junction track to cause the said vehicles to match their speed to the speed of the said second regular traffic stream. a plurality of vehicle detector means for detecting the passage of vehicles on the first main track. the second main track. and the junction track and receiving data signals from said vehicles, and computer means connected to the vehicle detector means and to the first, second and third signalling means for controlling the transfer of selected vehicles from the first main track to the second main track.
The first signalling means may include a first induc tive signalling cable incorporated in or mounted on the first main track, the second signalling means may include a second inductive signalling cable incorporated in or mounted on the second main track, and the third signalling means may include a third inductive signalling cable incorporated in or mounted on the junction track. The said further means may include an extension of the second inductive signalling cable incorporated in or mounted on apart of the junction track. The further means may also, or alternatively. include a connection for applying control signals of the second signalling means to the third signalling cable.
Preferably the system comprises a network of main tracks and a plurality of intersections for connecting different pairs of the main tracks, each of the intersections comprising a junction track associated with equipment comprising vehicle detector means, a third signalling means and computer means for controlling vehicles on or approaching the junction track. Preferably for control purposes the system is operationally divided into parts, wherein each part includes one intersection with associated equipment as hereinbefore specified, and is capable of substantially self-sufficient operation without reference to the computer means and vehicle detectors in other parts of the system; hence a standard form of computer means can be provided for each part. regardless of the size and complexity of the system as a whole.
In a typical part of such a system which includes a junction track by which vehicles may be driven from a first main track to a second main track, a length of the junction track may be designated as queueing space sufficient to accomodate a predetermined maximum number of vehicles 0, the vehicle detector means will include a first vehicle detector for ascertaining the des tination of each vehicle on the first main track as it approaches the junction where the junction track diverges from the first main track, and the computer means may include means for maintaining a record of the number q of vehicles currently allocated to the queueing space. maintaining a list of turn priorities for given destinations, and allocating to each vehicle a turn priority selected from the list according to the destina tion of the vehicle, comparing the allocated priority with the number q, and sending turning command signals to any vehicle which is allocated a turn priority greater than q. provided that q is less than Q. Alternatively or additionally the computer means may be ar- 4 ranged to send signals to prevent any vehicle which is allocated a priority less than q from turning on to the junction track.
The list of turn priorities for given destinations in each computer means will generally be predetermined according to the relative positions of the destinations concerned, relative to the intersection controlled by the computer means. Thus a zero turn priority will generally be given for any destination which can be reached in minimum time by continuing on the first main track past the intersection. A high turn priority will be given for any destination if turning at the controlled intersection will lead the vehicle on a significantly shorter route to its destination than a turn at any subsequent intersection; the priorities given will he in proportion to the saving in journey time involved. However, the computer means may include provision for modifying the list of turn priorities in response to signals from computers in other parts of the system, or from a central control. For instance, at an intersection where vehicles may turn left, some of the turn priorities may be temporarily increased in response to signals indicating congestion at the next intersection allowing a left turn; and signals indicating a temporarily obstructed line may be arranged to increase most of the turning priorities by an amount related to the number of opportunities for avoiding the obstruction which exist in the network between the obstruction and the intersection controlled.
In systems in which vehicles are moved independently over predetermined tracks, it is common prac tice to divide the tracks notionally into sections which may be marked or identified in various ways, and to determine or refer to the present locations of vehicles in the system by reference to the sections. In a novel control system which is preferred by the applicant, each vehicle is allocated to and associated with a section of track. hereinafter called a slot, in which it can come to rest safely; each moving vehicle in such a system will therefore be allocated to a slot in advance of the vehicles actual position by an amount depending on the speed of the vehicle. The nature and advantages of such a system are explained in co-pending patent application Ser. No. 186,754, now US. Pat. No. 3,790,779, which is incorporated herein by reference.
EX EM PLARY DESCRIPTION Embodiments of the invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, of which:
FIG. I is a schematic diagram, or map, of an idealized transportation system,
FIG. 2 is a diagram of a transportation system de signed to suit an actual environment,
FIG. 3 is a schematic, larger scale diagram or map of a typical intersection of a system as shown in FIG. 1 or FIG. 2,
FIG. 4 is a schematic, larger scale diagram or map of a typical loading and unloading station,
FIG. 5 is a schematic circuit diagram of apparatus provided in each vehicle,
FIG. 6 is a diagram of a model track used in experimental trials of the system and FIGS. 7A and 7B are flow charts illustrating the computer functions used to control the intersection of FIG. 3.
FIG. I shows an idealized network of one-way tracks. for vehicles running in the direction of the arrows; the dots indicate stations where vehicles may be loaded or unloaded, preferably in side-tracks which the main track by-passes as described hereinafter with reference to FIG. 4. Where two tracks cross at right angles. for instance at X in FIG. 1, it should be understood that the tracks will be at different levels. and traffic on either track will not interfere with traffic on the other. however at every crossing two one-way junction tracks (shown as arcs, for instance I) are provided. to enable vehicles to transfer from one track to the other The network shown comprises two loops elongated in a north-south direction. crossing two loops which are elongated in an east-west direction. with two junction tracks at each crossing. Clearly a network of this kind, where journeys may start and finish at any desired stations, and any route consistent with the one-way restrictions may be followed, offers a versatile and effective transportation system suitable for urban transport, and may be extended as required by prolonging some of the loops or adding more loops. Clearly the network could be distorted to conform to topographical features and transportation needs.
It may be noted that while the system of FIG. 1 is clearly only a simple example of the kind of system conceived as suitable and desirable for satisfying urban transport demands. it is considerably more complex than any systems known to have been operated with a high utilization factor on a completely-scheduled control scheme; it is thought that the number of junctions involved even in this scheme would probably make a completely-scheduled form of control become difficult or unsatisfactory with a utilization factor of the order of 2571.
FIG. 2 shows schematically the main tracks of a hypothetical network planned, as part of an assessment study. to satisfy transportation needs in an actual city area; junction lanes would also of course be provided, as in FIG. 1 for instance, but they have been omitted from FIG. 2 for the sake of simplicity. The squares on FIG. 2 represent loading and unloading stations of the kind shown in FIG. 4. FIG. 2 is presented solely as an illustration of the degree of complexity and versatility which is contemplated and is considered to be made feasible by the present invention.
FIG. 3 shows a plan view of a typical intersection where a southbound track Tl crosses an eastbound track T2, including a junction track T12 and associated equipment for allowing and controlling cars required to go from the track T] to the track T2. The broken lines on the tracks represent inductive signalling cables which are incorporated in. or mounted on. the structure of the tracks. A signalling cable 51 is mounted on the track T1 and is extended into the entrance end of the junction track T12, up to a point P3 such that the rear of any vehicle reaching P3 will be clear of the track TI. The cable S1 is connected to receive vehicle control signals from a transmitter TXI. Another signalling cable S2 is similarly mounted on the track T2 and is extended some way into the exit end of the junction track T12. up to a point P5. The cable S2 is connected to receive vehicle control signals from a transmitter TX2. A third signalling cable 512 is mounted on a length of the junction track T12 between the point P3- and the point P5. A part of this length between points P4 and P5 is designated as queueing space. The cable S12 is connected to receive vehicle control signals from a transmitter TXIZ.
Five vehicle detector units, D1 to D5 inclusive, are coupled to more localized inductive signalling loops, which are mounted in vertical planes beside the tracks at various places. D1 is connected to a loop adjacent to the track Tl between points P1 and P2 upstream from the place where the junction track T12 diverges from the track Tl; D2 is connected to a loop adjacent to the track Tl2 near to the point P3; D3 is connected to a loop adjacent to the track T12 downstream from the point P3", D4 is connected to a loop adjacent to the track T12 near the point P5, and D5 is connected to a loop adjacent to the track T2, at a point P7 upsteam from the point P6 where the track T12 merges with the track T2. A computer C12 has input connections (not fully shown) from the transmitters TXI, TX2 and the vehicle detector units D1 to D5 inclusive, and has output connections for sending control signals to the transmitters TXl, TX2, TXI2 and the vehicle detector units DI to D5. The outgoing and returning conductors of the signalling cables S1, S2 and S12 are crossed over at regular intervals, so that receiving apparatus in each vehicle can check on the progress of the vehicle by do tecting and counting phase reversals which occur in the signals induced in the receiving apparatus whenever the vehicle crosses a signal cable crossover, according to a known technique in the art. It should be understood that FIG. 3 is schematic and not drawn to scale.
In operation of the system, vehicles will proceed southbound on the track TI and eastbound on the track T2. The vehicles on the track T] will normally proceed at a steady rate governed by the repetition rate of pulses applied to the cable 81 by the transmitter TXl, and the vehicles on the track T2 will normally proceed at a steady rate governed by the repetition rate of pulses applied to the cable 52 by the transmitter TX2. The pulses from TXI may be quite independent of the pulses from TX2, and in general there need not be any kind of synchronization between the two pulse trains, although they may have the same nominal repetition rate and for the sake of convenience they may be derived from a common source in some way which could give them a predetermined relative timing.
The vehicles which use the tracks of the system herein described will each carry receiver apparatus for receiving signals from the signalling cables (for instance Sl, S2, S12) in the track on which it runs, and control apparatus for controlling the speed of the vehicle in response to these signals; details of suitable control apparatus are given in the aforesaid U.S. Patv No. 3,790,779. The control apparatus is arranged to count slot-increment command pulses received via the signalling cables, to count pulses generated in the vehicle when it passes marker devices in the track (including the crossovers of the signalling cables hereinbefore mentioned, but possibly also or alternatively including marker devices of some other type not shown) and to derive a signal called a position-lag signal which is adjusted according to the difference between the results of the two counts. The control apparatus includes a servo-system for controlling the speed of the vehicle, so that the position-lag signal bears a predetermined relationship with the speed of the vehicle and corresponds to the distance required to decelerate the vehicle to a stop safely and satisfactorily. In the planning and operation of the transportation system as a whole, and in the control of all the vehicles travelling over a typical intersection of the kind shown in FIG. 3, each vehicle is notionally associated with a slot or part of the track in which it can safely be brought to rest if the signals from the signalling cables cease to be received; thus each vehicle is associated with a slot which is in advance of the vehicles actual position by a variable distance which depends on the vehicle's speed and is also therefore related to the current value of the vehicles position-lag signal.
Each vehicle also carries apparatus for communicating data concerning the vehicle to any of the vehicle detectors such as D1 to D when it comes within range of the detectors inductive signalling loop. Thus when a vehicle comes to the point P1. signals representing its destination and the present value of the position-lag signal in its control apparatus are sent to the detector D1 and thence to the computer C12. The signals may also indicate a serial number of the vehicle. and the time of its arrival at P1 may also be sent to the computer C12.
The length of the track T12 between P4 and P5 is designated permissible queueing space and is sufficient to hold a predetermined number of vehicles O. The computer C12 is arranged to maintain a record of at least the total number q of vehicles currently associated with the slots (that is to say track lengths for one vehicle) which comprise the queueing space, and also to maintain what is effectively a tabulation of a set of GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CONTROL ACTIONS AT AN INTERSECTION When the computer C12 receives signals from the detector unit D1 indicating the arrival ofa vehicle at P1 and indicating the desired destination of the vehicle. it selects a corresponding turn priority from the tabulation. and compares it with the number (q) of vehicles currently associated with the queueing space slots. If the selected turn priority is greater than q, and q is less than Q. the computer sends a turning command signal to the vehicle. either through the transmitter TX] and cable S1 or through the detector unit D1. Signals representing the serial number of the vehicle may be sent as a part of the turning command signal to ensure that the turning command will be obeyed only by the vehicle for which it is issued; alternatively if the signal is sent through the inductive loop connected to the detector D1 the serial number may be omitted if the loop is so short that there is no chance of its signals being received by another vehicle. the computer action taking less time than the vehicle will take to pass the loop. If the selected turn priority is less than q, or if q Q indicating that the queueing space is fully allocated to vehicles ahead of the vehicle now being considered, the computer will send a go-straight on command signal to the vehicle to prevent it from turning on to the junction track T12.
The turning or prevention of turning is controlled by the placing of guide wheels on the vehicle; each vehicle has two left-side guide wheels which can be engaged with the left-hand side of the track, and two right-side guide wheels which can be engaged with the right-hand side of the track. mechanically interlocked so that they cannot engage both sides of the track at once. A preferred construction for these guide wheels is described in a co-pending patent application Ser. No. 254,778 which is incorporated herein by reference. In the case of the intersection shown in FIG. 3, where the junction track T12 diverges from the left-hand side (as seen looking forward from a vehicle going southward on the track T1), the vehicle should engage its left-side guide wheels with the left-hand side of the track in response to a turning command signal. and this will cause it to follow the left-hand side onto the junction track T12. On the other hand, a go-straight-on signal should cause engagement of the right-side guide-wheels and cause the vehicle to follow the right-hand side of the track T1 past the intersection. A vehicle which goes straight on will remain and continue under the control of the pulses from the transmitter TX], at least until it comes to another intersection where it may be directed to turn towards its destination.
When a vehicle has turned on to the junction track T12, it continues to receive signals from the cable S1 until it is clear of the track T1; then the serial number of the vehicle and the present value of its position-lag signal is communicated via the detector unit D2 to the computer C12. These signals are used to confirm that the vehicle has turned safely and is clear of the track T1; if they are not received within a predetermined time. the computer C12 may act to cause the signals on the cable S1 to be interrupted. at least locally. in case the vehicle is blocking the junction. The signals from D2 are also used to confirm, or correct if necessary. the computer's record of the slot associated with the vehicle. At this point P3 or thereabouts the vehicle leaves the region controlled by the cable S] and comes onto the region controlled by the cable S12.
The speed control signals used in the system may be of several alternative types, namely specific signals, group signals, or general signals. The specific signals contain a code indicating the number of the vehicle for which they are intended. and only the vehicle con cerned will respond to them. The general signals will. on the other hand. be acted upon by all vehicles which receive them; they may have a similar form to the specific signals but with a code representing all vehicles instead of a vehicle serial number. The group signals contain another code word, and will be acted upon by vehicles which have been made responsive to that code word. Thus a specific signal may be sent to a particular vehicle to cause it to switch into a mode responsive to group signals containing a particular code word, either for a specified number of signals. or until a further specific signal is caused to cancel the arrangement. Signals sent on the main track signalling cables such as S1 and S2 will usually be general signals. whereas more we cific signals will be required on the signalling cables in the junction tracks (S12 for instance). Group signals may be used to reduce the number of specific signals which have to be sent.
The signals sent by the transmitter TX12 via the cable S12 will be varied under the control of the computer C12 to govern queueing actions which may be required on the junction track between P3 and PS. The need for queueing actions on the junction track and the amount of delay involved will clearly depend on the occurrences of gaps in the traffic flow on the track T2. This traffic flow is monitored by the detector D5, which sends to the computer CI2 an indication of the passage of each vehicle together with an indication of the current value of its position-lag signal. which is related to its speed. From these signals. the computer C12 discovers when a gap will occur at the merging point; more precisely. its action is to deduce when a slot at a predetermined part of the track S2 between P7 and P6 is not allocated to any vehicle; then it sends a specific signal via TXIZ and $12 to any vehicle allocated to the slot at the head (exit end) of the queueing space, to make that vehicle responsive to general command signals on the cable S2, at an appropriate time to ensure that if the vehicle responds normally to the signals on the cable S2 it will match its speed to the speed of the vehicles on the track T2 and will arrive at the merger point in time to fit in to the gap in the traffic stream which corresponds to the un-allocated slot. (This action is more fully described in the next section). The detector D4 is provided to check that the vehicle has matched its speed and its timing is correct, and to initiate appropriate emergency action to stop the vehicle, or turn it on to an escape route (not shown) if these conditions are not satisfied.
The computer C12 causes suitable signals to be sent through the transmitter TXI2 and the cable S12 to cause each vehicle arriving on the junction track to be allocated to the highest available (not already allocated slot in the queueing space, and to add one to this allocation whenever a vehicle is enabled to leave the head of the queue. If continuous traffic on the track T2 does not allow a safe exit for a vehicle allocated to the head of the queue. that vehicle will come to rest in a specified slot-length of the track just before P5. and subsequent vehicles will come to rest in consecutive slot lengths behind it. On the other hand, if an opportunity for a safe merging into the traffic on the track T2 arises before the vehicle allocated to the head of the queue has actually come to rest, it will be made responsive to signals derived or relayed from the general command signals on the cable S2, and will proceed onto the track T2 without stopping on the junction track T12.
It should be noted that the system herein described does not interfere with. or modify in any way, the progress of the main streams of vehicles going straight on past the intersection on the main tracks T1 and T2;
such vehicles proceed at speeds determined entirely by the signals from the transmitters TXl and TX2 respectively, with no perturbations which could complicate the control required at subsequent intersections. The system has the advantage of being very simple to under stand. simple to put into practice. and simple to analyze and yet it is very versatile and can be readily adapted to suit various situations. For instance it is not limited to any particular number queueing spaces. and the list of turning priorities and the arrangements for modifying this list in various circumstances can be altered as desired quite easily. One each main track, the traffic can be kept moving in a steady perfectly synchronous stream with vehicles leaving it and joining it at intersec tions. and if desired (for instance to minimize conges tion in some area) the speed of any such stream can be reduced by reducing the repetition rate of the signals sent by the corresponding transmitter (eg TXl or TX2), without requiring any specific adjustment of any merging operations which may be already in progress when the change is made.
This arrangement, with queueing spaces on the junction tracks, also has the advantage that the control of a junction track will correspond to the control of operations in the preferred form of station having platforms on by-passed tracks as hereinafter described, so that the control apparatus for an intersection may be basically similar to the control apparatus for a station. The development work on apparatus for intersection control will therefore assist the development of apparatus for station control. and the similarity makes the system easier to understand and control.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF COMPUTER ACTIONS For a full description and appreciation of the simplicity and versatility of the system, it is desirable to consider in greater detail the actions by which the computer C12 keeps account of the vehicles in the area under its control and the track slots allocated to them. These are surprisingly simple. The tracks under the control of the computer CI2 are notionally divided into slot lengths. which are given numbers for reference in the calculations. One slot length, at the merger point P6 for instance. is given an arbitrary number, and consecutive slot lengths on the tracks leading up to this point are given consecutive numbers leading up to this number. For instance a slot length beginning at P6 may be arbitrarily numbered 100. and if the length of junction track TI2 from P2 to P6 comprises say 88 slot lengths, these slot-lengths from P2 to P6 may be numbered consecutively from I2 to 99. Similarly if the track T2 between P7 and P6 comprises say 52 slot lengths. they may be numbered consecutively from 48 to 99. The queueing space between points P4 and P5 on the track T12 will comprise several slot-lengths; to make the illustration definite, suppose that they are slots 49 to 54 inclusive. (Note that there will be some distinct but similarly-numbered slots on the track T2, somewhere between P7 and P6.)
When a vehicle having a serial number v first comes within operating range of the inductive loop connected to the detector D5, it must be at a known position, say slot forty-eight on track T2, and the current value of its position-lag signal will indicate how far ahead of its actual position is the slot to which it is allocated. that is to say the slot in which it will come to rest if it receives no more control signals. The detector D5 will send to the computer signals indicating the serial number v and the current value of the position-lag signal 3; the computer will then in effect make a record of the number v associated with the allocated slot number, in this case (48 g) since the detector is at slot forty-eight. As the vehicle advances on the track T2, its speed will be controlled so that its slot allocation increases in accordance with a count of slot-incrementing signals which it receives from the line $2; the computer C12 also receives these signals. and adds one to the allocated slot number stored in its record for each vehicle which should respond to the signal.
Thus the computer CI2 in effect creates a tabulation of the serial numbers and slot allocations of vehicles on the track T2. Each entry in this tabulation is initiated by signals 1' and 48 g when the vehicle concerned passes D5; thereafter the slot allocations are incremented appropriately according to the signals on the cable S2. When a vehicle passes the point P6, the entry relating to it may be discarded. The signals on the cable S2 will normally be general signals. to which every vehicle on the track will respond in the same way. and clearly general signals should cause all the slot alloca tions in the tabulation to be equally incremented.
Similarly the computer also creates another tabula tion of the serial numbers and slot allocations of vehicles on the track T12, in which each entry may be initiated or confirmed by signals from the detector D2, and the slot allocations are appropriately incremented in accordance with the control signals transmitted to the vehicles either through the cables S1. S12, S2 or through the detector units and their inductive signalling loops. The incrementing in this case will be slightly more involved, as specific signals will be and group signals may be involved; cleariy a specific signal for a particular vehicle should only affect the entry for that particular vehicle, and a group signal should only affect the entries for vehicles which have been made responsive to the group code contained in the group signal. Specific signals which may be used to make particular vehicles responsive to, or non-responsive to. a given group code should also operate logic circuits to make the corresponding tabulation entries liable or not liable to incrementing by group signals including the given group code. (It should be noted that the system could be operated with specific signals and general signals only; the arrangements required for dealing with group signals should be regarded as an optional complication which may or may not be adopted in any particular embodiment or intersection in the system).
The tabulation relating to vehicles on the track T12 will clearly show how many vehicles are allocated to slots between P3 and P5 or to slots between P4 and P5; either of these numbers may be taken as the number q hereinbefore mentioned, depending on whether the track between P3 and P4 is regarded as permissible queueing space or as space which should not normally be used for queueing. The slot at the head of the queueing space (at P5) will have a known number, say fiftyfour in this case. When this slot is not already allocated to a vehicle. the computer should send specific signals via the transmitter TX12 and the cable S12 to the leading vehicle on the track T12 (that is to the vehicle with the highest slot allocation less than fiftyfour), to increase its slot allocation to fifty-four. The computer should then send specific signals to the next vehicle to increase its slot allocation to fifty-three. and so on.
The length of track between P5 and the point P6 where the tracks T12 and T2 begin to merge together must be at least long enough to ensure that, ifa vehicle is initially at rest at the point P5 and is then enabled to receive and respond to the general signals on the cable S2, it will reach a steady speed corresponding to the rate of these general signals (and therefore matching the speed of the traffic on track T2) before it reaches the merge point P6, indeed sufficiently in advance of the merge point P6 to enable this matching to be checked and to enable emergency stopping or diverting action to be taken before the merge point is reached if the matching is unsatisfactory. It follows that any vehicle which is made responsive to the general signals on the cable S2 when it is allocated to any slot up to P5 should in response to those signals match the speed of the traffic on T2, and if its tabulated slot allocation is incremented according to the signals on S2, this tabulated slot allocation should represent a slot ahead of its actual position by an amount corresponding to the rate of the signals on S2 and equal to the position-lag distances of the vehicles already on the track T2. before it reaches the merge point P6. It follows that successful merges can be arranged by making any vehicle allocated to slot fifty-four on the track T12 responsive to the general signals on the line S2 when and only when the corresponding slot fifty-four on the track T2 is not allocated to any vehicle. Hence the computer will be arranged so that when the tabulation of vehicles on Tl2 contains an entry for slot fifty-four and the tabulation of vehicles on T2 does not contain any entry for slot fifty-four, it will send a specific signal to the vehicle indicated in the entry for slot fifty-four of track T12, to make it responsive to the general signals on the cable S2 (if it is not near enough to S2 to receive these signals directly, but they can be relayed to it via TXl2 and T12 the preferred arrangement is described hereinafter). At the same time, the computer should add an entry for this vehicle to the tabulation of vehicles on T2, to mark the place allocated to it in the traffic stream on T2. The next signal on $2 increments the slot allocation of the vehicle, making slot fifty-four on the track T12 available for the next following vehicle; the computer will then send specific signals or a group signal to increase the slot allocations of the queued vehicles by one, thereby advancing the queue.
In the preferred arrangement for providing general signals, group signals and specific signals, and for controlling the responsiveness of the vehicles. every signal sent to a vehicle contains an address part and a function part. The address part may be either the serial number of a specific vehicle, or one of two alternative group code words. The receiver apparatus in each vehicle contains decoder circuits for detecting and responding to only those signals with appropriate address parts. These circuits include a bistable circuit which can be set to a one state or reset to a zero state by given signals, and gate circuits operated by the bistable circuit, connected so that when the bistable is set the gate circuits will respond to and pass signals containing a first one of the two group code words, and when the bistable is reset the gate circuits will respond to and pass signals containing the second group code word. All general signals on the cable S2 will contain the first group code word, and will therefore affect all vehicles whose decoder bistable circuits are set. Any one of the following commands may be represented by a corresponding instruction code word in the function part of a signal:
select right guide wheel select left guide wheel transmit data (Including vehicle serial number and its current position-lag) reset controller counters set decoder bistable reset decoder bistable count one slot increment command pulse The receiver apparatus is constructed to distinguish the instruction code words and initiate the appropriate response to each command.
As shown in FIG. 5 it includes a receiver 51 for detecting signals transmitted by the inductive signalling cables and by any of the vehicle detector units and 13 local signalling loops within range. The signals are converted from serial to parallel form by a conventional converter 52 and are applied to address detector circuits 53 and instruction decoder circuits 54. These are simple logic circuits. responsive to signals representing prescribed codes or numbers.
Outputs of the address detector circuits are connected to inhibit or enable the instruction decoder circuits S4. Separate outputs from the instruction decoder circuits control guide wheel actuators 55, a data transmitter 56, the speed control apparatus 57. and the bistable circuit 58. The speed control apparatus 57 provides the data transmitter 56 with a digital position-lag signal. and the bistable circuit 58 has outputs connected to control two of the address detector circuits 53. A third address detector circuit is set to enable the instruction decoder circuits to respond to any specific signals including the prescribed serial number of the individual vehicle.
When a vehicle enters the junction track it is sent a signal to reset its bistable circuit. thereby inhibiting it from any response to the general signals which are relayed from the cable S2 (or transmitter TX2) on to the cable S12. When it can safely be allowed to leave the queueing space and proceed to the merge point P6. it is sent a signal to set its bistable circuit once more. thus making it again responsive to the general slotincrementing command signals.
If the detector D5 should detect the passage of a vehicle having a position-lag signal substantially different from the value of position-lag which should correspond to the rate of the general signals on S2, it should act to inhibit any mergers on the track T2 and divert the vehicle concerned to a maintenance area.
Clearly the actions required to control turns. queueing. and mergers. as hereinbefore described. have been shown to require only simple logical procedures. and the maintenance of the slot allocation lists requires only a list processing procedure. ofa kind known in the data processing art. so that it is unnecessary to describe them in any further detail. A suitable program for performing the described actions in a satisfactory sequence is represented by the flow charts FIGS. 7A and 7B.
The reliability and safety of the system can clearly be increased by incorporating redundant components, providing a separate monitoring system. and other established techniques. The detectors D3 and D4 may be regarded as optional: if provided. they may be used as a part of a monitoring system. The signals need not be transmitted by inductive signalling loops and cables as described; clearly any other convenient means for signalling to moving vehicles on predetermined tracks could be used. Leaking wave guides or transmission lines. conductor rails. or optical signalling apparatus could be utilized. lnstead of forming a tabulation of vehicle numbers and slot numbers. the computer could have a store in which one address is allocated for each slot in the length of track controlled; each vehicle num ber can then be entered at an appropriate address. and moved from one address to the next whenever the slot allocation of the vehicle is incremented.
PREFERRED FORM FOR STATIONS As hereinbefore mentioned. stations in the system are preferably provided on sidings which are by-passed by the main track. so that the main traffic stream may be unaffected by loading and unloading operations. FIG. 4 shows a plan view of the arrangement of a typical station and equipment associated with it. The station is served by a track TP which leaves and rejoins the main track Tl. At a point P10 the track TP divides into two parallel tracks serving separate platforms P1 and P2; each of these tracks comprises a deceleration length DN and an input queue space 10. The two parallel tracks merge into one at a point P1] beyond the platforms and continue forming an output queue space 00 between points P11 and P12 and an acceleration length AN before rejoining the main track T1 at P13. A transmitter TXP is connected to signalling cables (not shown) mounted on the track TP between P10 and P12. Detector units D11 and D15 inclusive. the transmitter TXP. the signalling cable S1 (not shown in FIGv 4, but mounted on the track Tl) and ticket transducers and other monitoring devices (not shown) in stalled on the platforms P1 and P2 are all connected to a computer CP which will monitor and control vehicles on the track TP. The detector unit D11 is on the main track T1 upstream from the divergence of the track TP; D12 is on track TP upstream from P10; D13 and D14 are on the two platform tracks at the beginning of their deceleration lengths; and D15 is on the acceleration length AN. Clearly the operation of a station track may have many features in common with the operation of a junction track. Signals from D11 are used to form a tabulation of the vehicles passing on the main track; other signals from D11 indicate any vehicles whose destination is the station shown such vehicles should be sent a turning command signal unless the input queueing spaces are fully allocated already. A tabula tion of the vehicles on the station track TP is derived from signals from the detector D12. At P10. vehicles may be directed to whichever platform track has more unallocated slots at its platform and in its input queue. or may be directed to form batches for the two plat forms alternately. Specific signals are initiated and sent via the transmitter TXP to allocate vehicles to the highest available places in the input queue and at the platforms. When a vehicle has been allocated to the platform slot at which it is to stop. its allocation will not be increased until it has come to rest at the allocated platform slot. time has been allowed for unloading and reloading. and a positive indication has been received indicating that the vehicle is in a ready-to-go condition with all doors closed.
Vehicles may be loaded and given new destinations (for instance by inserting a ticket in a ticket transducer device) at the platform slot; alternatively control signals from a central control may be communicated to empty vehicles. to cause them to leave for other stations where the demand for vehicles is liable to exceed the number of vehicles available. It is arranged that a vehicle departure from platform P1 will temporarily inhibit any vehicle departure from platform P2 and vice versa. to prevent collisions at P11. Vehicles leaving the platforms are given signals sufficient to allocate them to the highest available slot (that is the slot nearest to P12) in the output queue. The main signalling cable of the main track T1 (not shown in FIG. 4) is extended from P13 up the station track TP to the output queue region. and as in the case of a junction track a vehicle allocated to the head of the output queue is transferred to the control of this signalling cable when a corresponding slot on the main track is not allocated. Like 1 the detectors D3 and D4 in FIG. 3. the detectors D13. D14 and D15 may be regarded as optional. and if they are provided they may be used as part of a monitoring system.
EXPERIMENTAL TRIALS The operation of an intersection as hereinbefore described with reference to FIG. 3. and the operation of a simple station with only one platform track has been checked by running model vehicles on a model track under the control of a Honeywell type 316 computer. To save space and expense. the model track was formed as shown in FIG. 6. For the experiments relating to the operation of a station this was treated as a station like FIG. 4 but with only one platform track. with the tracks TI and TP curved to form an almost complete oval and the track at P13 connected by a short length of track to the track at D1]. For the experiments relating to the operation of an intersection, the model track was considered equivalent to an intersection like a mirror image of FIG. 3 with the south end ofTI connected to the west end of T2 and the east end of T2 connected by a short length of track to the north end of T1. Thus on the model the outer track is the main line. and the inner track is the platform track in station experiments or the junction track in intersection experiments. The computer was controlled by the program given in the Appendix to this specification; this is written in the Honeywell DAPI6 language. which is described in Honeywell Document No 130071629, M-l0l8 DAP-lfi Manual" (December 1966 Persons skilled in the art will realise that some of the instructions in this program relate to parameters of the model track such as the number of slots and the positions of the vehicle detectors. but clearly any real intersection or station could be controlled similarly.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF NEAREST KNOWN PRIOR ART The nearest prior art known to the Applicant is contained in two papers Automated Network Personal Transit Systems by H. Bernstein. and Development Simulation of an Urban Transit System" by A. V. Munson Jnr. and T. E. Travis. of The Aerospace Corpora tion. El Segundo. Calif.
The paper by Bernstein suggests some of the advantages of a transportation system using remotelycontrolled vehicles on prepared guideways, each guideway being used by vehicles going in one direction only,
with stations on siding lines. He states the desirability of running traffic at constant velocity on the main lines. and accelerating cars to this velocity on local access lines before merging them into gaps in the main traffic stream. He also suggests the use of local intersection computers to determine routing instructions for partic ular vehicles and to control manoeuvres required for traffic control according to information provided by wayside sensors located at the entry to the local computer's control zone. He suggests that routing instructions would be based on tabular information stored t I 500- 577D (ill JMP JMP amp within the local computer for determining whether each car should turn or not, according to its destina tion. and that the routing instructions might be modified by signals from a central computer. These arrangements are represented in FIG. 6 of the drawings accompanying Bernstein's paper. which may be compared with the Applicant's FIGS. 1 and 3.
The paper by Munson and Travis describes a computer simulation of an intersection and traffic thereon in a system of the sort described by Bernstein. This clearly shows that. though there are some similarities between their conception and the applicant's system, there are also some differences of fundamental impor tance.
In the system of these prior papers. all manoeuvering adjustments of vehicle speeds required to allow traffic streams to merge safely are applied to vehicles on a main-line, non-turning track. The traffic on junction tracks apparently continues unchecked at a constant velocity, which must therefore be common to all the traffic streams in the system.
In this prior art system. the necessary manoeuvres are applied to vehicles in a main-line traffic stream; since this main-line traffic stream will comprise all vehicles bound for all subsequent intersections and destinations. one would expect it normally to comprise more vehicles than any typical sub-group of vehicles desiring to join or to leave the main track at a given intersection. The more congested a traffic stream is. the more difficult it is to apply manoeuvres to it without repercussions and the more likely it is that it will be impossible to form a gap at a desired point in the stream with allowable manoeuvering distance provided Munson and Travis results, in their FIG. 2. show this to be a significant probability in practical conditions envisaged. It is noted from the latter part of their section 2.4 that the reported simulation did not adequately allow for vehicles which would be prevented from joining the main stream by the impossibility of forming a gap in the main line traffic to receive them immediately.
The applicants system is thought to be simpler and more satisfactory because the main-line traffic does not need to be adjusted to allow mergers. The necessary adjustments are made in the traffic on the junction track. which will generally be less congested. By allow ing opportunities for queueing on the junction track. the applicants system allows more opportunities for mergers to be used and makes diversions less likely. It is more versatile since it does not require the speeds of traffic on the two intersecting main lines to be equal or to have any other specific relationship.
The disclosures referred to do not in any way suggest or anticipate the applicants arrangement of signalling means claimed hereinafter, the applicant's arrangements for allocating vehicles to sections in which they may safely come to rest. the applicants arrangements for allowing queueing on the junction tracks and comparing the tabulated turning priorities with the number of vehicles already allocated to the queueing space. or the applicant's use of group signals and receivers provided with decoder units.
1 i I? Pinion/Mu isl l' ion lXlllrlFvllW m1 lirlAl 7U0 503 2600 JMP 600 ISO 1 2700 JMP 700 400 505 3535 JMP 535 17 18 APPENDlX COMPUTER PROGRAM USED FOR EXPERIMENTAL TRlALS-Cntinued 507 3100 JMP 100 1717 24000 1115 0 510 41000 LL]. 0 1720 3706 JM? 1706 51 1 2100 JMP 100 1721 27733 IMA 1733 512 3754 JMP 754 1722 15740 400 1740 514 3600 JMP 600 1724 73732 1.111: 1732 516 2724 MP 724 1726 27733 IMA 1733 517 3066 JMP 66 1727 141206 ADA 521 3007 JMP 7 1731 3710 .1112 1710 522 3014 JMP 14 1732 177776 0111* 1776 1 1 3 3 M 3 1733 264 DAG 264 524 3031 MP 31 1734 23420 CA5 1420 527 2274 JMP 274 1737 12 04c 12 530 65 M 65 1740 260 DAC 260 531 1 DAC 1 1741 0 111.7
532 2 DAC 2 1742 0 111.7
533 3 DAC 3 1743 0 111.7
534 4 DAC 4 1744 0 111.7
536 6 DAC 6 1746 0 111.7
537 7 DBL. 1747 0 111.7
545 177773 0111* 773 1 1 0 FLT 547 177771 01111 771 1 1 1 57 0 HLT 550 100062 77716 17 0 HLT 551 177660 010* 660 1 1 7 0 HL-T 552 36 DAG 36 1762 0 HLT 553 74 DAC 74 6 0 L 556 0 111,7 1766 0 HLT 557 0 111,7 1767 O HLT 560 1700 D40 1700 1770 0 HLT 551 (1 111,7 1771 O HLT 5 2 g m- 1772 0 BLT 571 44 DAC 44 574 A DAG a 2000 101000 1100 576 1700 1:140 1700 200:; 50776 STA 577 1700 DAC 1700 I76 1 1 2004 24000 [RS 0 2005 3003 JMP 2003 2006 72545 1.011 545 2007 45076 1.04 2076 1 1 1700-1777 2010 120503 JST=1 503 1700 2556 JMP 556 01 1 24000 IRS 0 1701 41 77 LGL 1 2012 3007 1m? 2007 1705 1 1733 STA 1733 016 10777 574 777 1705 140040 cm; 2017 10061 STA 61 1707 27733 IMA 1733 0 30020 OCP 20 1710 57740 SUB 1740 1 1 2021 4061 1.04 61 1712 3726 JMP 1726 2023 100400 SPL 1713 55740 ADD 1740 1 1 2024 3021 3 11 2021 1714 27733 IMA 1733 2025 5075 1.04 2075 1715 157 10 ADD 17 10 2026 11.0503 JST-k 503 19 20 APPENDIX COMPUTER PROGRAM USED FOR EXPERIMENTAL TRIALS-Continued 20 5077 L04 2077 2141 44717 LDA 717 a 1 2030 12050 1 -JST* 503 2142 1000/ 5Z3 2031 L 53 2143 120500 J5T1= 500 20.32 10764 STA 764 2144 4000 LDA O 2033 10770 STA 770 21115 41472 LGL 6 0 51 L 2146' 15232 ADD 2232 2035 10776 STA 776 2147 3211 JMP 221 1 2036 1400 0 C 2150 2310 JMP 310 2037 10061 STA 61 2151 33176 STX 2176 2040 3mm L1 11 2100 2152 11 177 STA 2177 2041 1 100 10 0111-1 2153 6560 ANA 560 2042 10764 STA 764 21 4 10772 STA 772 2043 117535 L139 755 2155 5177 L04 2177 2044 10776 STA 776 2155 1 0477 LGR 1 2045 5100 1,011 2100 2157 7174 ANA 2174 2046 0 H11? 2160 10773 STA 773 2047 0 HLT 2161 5177 L04 2177 2050 4536 1.04 536 2162 7173 ANA 2173 2051 120502 JSH 502 1 771 STA 774 2052 101 100 S41 2164 5177 LDA 2177 2053 305 M 2350 2165 7172 ANA 2172 2054 4531 LDA 531 1 404 1,93 12 2055 10770 STA 770 2 7 10775 STA 775 2056 140040 C114 2170 13176 L071 2176 2057 725 17 L111: 5117 2171 103150 3719* 2150 2060 50732 STA 732 J 1 172 3 00.3 11 0 2061 24000 1115 0 2173 m G 10 2062 3060 1MP 2060 2174 17 PAC 1'] 2063 10777 STA 777 2175 Q HLT 2064 10061 574 61 2176 177775 D1 11* 2775 1 1 2065 3042 J71? 2042 2177 1 103 s 75 2066 177602 0111* 2602 1 1 (1)2200-22770 2067 7174 AG 764 2200 453 1, 53 2070 1 11601 STA* 2601 2201 120502 JST=1= 502 2071 1 11706 STA-k 2706 2202 72543 L072 543 2072 1 11606 5TA* 2606 2203 100100 SLZ 2073 1 11603 574* 2603 2204 361 1 JMP 2611 2074 1 1 1605 5171* 2605 2205 40477 1.611 1 2075 1 1 1611 5711* 261 1 2206 24000 IRS 0 2076 0 ML? 2207 3203 JW? 2203 2077 1 11612 5771* 61 2 2210 3223 JMP 2223 221 1 1 1212 STA 2212 I 12100-21771) 2212 30230 0GP 230 2100 101000 NOP 2213 5233 LDA 2233 2101 4776 L114 776 2214 120503 dST* 503 2102 101400 SW1 2215 4761 LDA 761 2103 3050 1MP 2050 2216 120502 .JST* 502 2104 30020 0GP 20 2217 120517 JST* 517 2105 0 2020 5:;1 2220 72761 LDX 761 2106 31 1 1 JM? '?1 1 f1 2221 S0717 STA 717 a 1 21117 1552 LDA 552 2222 3200 0M? 2200 21 1O 31 12 JMP 21 12 2223 72540 LDX 540 21 1 1 4553 LDA 553 2224 101 SLN 21 12 10760 STA 760 2225 32766 STX 766 21 13 4061 LDA 61 2226 40477 1.138 1 2114 16760 SUB 760 2227 101 100 SLN 2115 100400 SPL. 2230 32765 STX 765 2116 3200 JMP 2200 2231 3300 J14? 2300 21 17 10061 STA 61 2232 30130 00? 2120 16760 SUB 760 2233 131604 INA 1604 2121 101400 SM! 2234 4531 LDA 531 2122 31 17 J14? 21 17 2235 10763 STA 763 2123 4777 LDA 777 2236 72762 LDX 762 2124 141206 ASA 2237 44577 LDA 577 1 1 2125 10777 STA 777 2240 100100 51.2 2126 141206 ASA 2241 120500 JS'H 500 2127 10770 STA 770 2242 141206 ASA 2130 101004 SST 2243 101400 5111 2131 3200 JMP 2200 2244 120500 dST* 500 2132 120514 JST* 514 2245 140100 55? 2133 21620 JST 2620 2246 50642 STA 642 1 1 2134 3200 JMP 2200 2247 140040 CRA 2135 4000 LDA 0 2250 50577 STA 577 1 2136 140407 TCA 2251 3355 J-"IP 2355 2137 10761 STA 761 2252 72762 LDX 762 2140 10000 STA O 2253 44577 LDA 577 1. 1
21 22 APPENDIX COMPUTER PROGRAM USED FOR EXPERIMENTAL TRIALS-Continued 225 100400 SPL 2365 5375 LDA 2375 2255 120500 'JS'H 500 2366 101000 N0? 2256 3355 1M? 2355 2367 16762 SUB 762 2257 155 1 LDA S54 2370 101 100 SMI 2260 10755 STA 755 2371 120500 JST* S00 2261 305'.) JWP 2050 2372 323 4 JMP 2234 2262 1 10003 STA* 3 2373 0 HLT 2263 1 10002 S'I'A'k 2 2374 20 DAG 20 226 1 0 HL/f 2375 40 DAG 10 21165 5263 LDA 2263 2376 0 HLT 2266 14772 A01. 772 2377 0 HLT 2267 120503 .151 S03 2270 1767 LDA 767 2271 1l1206 AOA 2273 3355 MP 2355 2400 2052 MP 52 2274 5262 1.04 2262 2401 100004 SR1 2275 14772 400 772 2402 3414 JMP 2414 2276 120503 057* 503 2403 30030 001 30 2277 3355 JMP 2355 2404 141206 404 2300 72543 1.0): 543 2410 30730 002 730 2301 44723 1.04 723 ,1 241 1 131030 1114 1030 2302 100040 SZE 2412 3411 .mP 2411 2303 3307 JMP 2307 2413 103400 3110* 2400 2304 24000 1115 0 2414 16536 5115 536 2305 3301 JMP 2301 2415 101040 5112 2306 102507 JMP=I= 507 2416 3500 JMP 2500 2307 120501 357* 501 2417 14536 400 536 2310 140040 034 2420 15430 400 2430 2311 50723 574 723 1 2421 11433 574 2433 2312 4000 1.04 0 2422 72544 1.011 544 2313 14534 400 534 2423 45435 1.04 2435 1 2314 10771 574 771 2424 120523 1157* 523 2315 101000 NOP 2425 24000 IRS 0 2316 101000 N0? 2426 3423 JM? 2423 2317 4775 1.04 775 2427 3440 JMP 2440 2320 101000 NO? 2430 130260 INA 260 2321 100040 520 2431 106612 4114* 612 2322 120505 057* 505 2432 151330 574* 2330 1 2323 44574 1.04 574 1 1 2433 130262 104 262 2324 16773 $00 773 2434 120306 057* 306 2325 22540 045 540 2435 120316 JST* 316 2326 23347 045 2347 2436 120322 JST* 322 2327 120500 357* 500 2437 120305 357* 305 2330 120500 357* 500 2440 4532 1.04 532 2331 10762 574 762 2441 120504 357* 504 2332 10000 574 0 2442 15476 400 2476 2333 44577 1.04 577 1 2 3 41474 LGL 4 2334 6560 4114 560 2444 10000 STA 0 2335 16772 500 772 2445 5435 1.04 2435 2336 101040 SNZ 2446 120523 057* 523 2337 3350 JMP 2350 244'! 4532 LDA 532 2340 4764 1,134 7 1 2 150 120504 J51* 50 1 2341 101040 5103 2451 1 1000 ADD 0 2342 3750 JMP 2750 5 4147'! LGL 1 2343 4772 1.04 772 5 10000 STA 0 2344 15374 ADD 2374 2 15 1 5436 LDA 2 136 231 5 50577 STA 577 ,1 2455 120523 JST* 523 2346 3355 J74? 2355 2456 4531 LDA 53! 2347 3 D45 3 2 157 120504 JST=1= 504 2350 4771 1.04 771 2460 14000 ADD 0 2351 22532 045 532 2461 41474 MEL 4 2352 3360 JMP 2360 2462 10000 STA 0 2353 102512 0111 512 2463 5437 1.04 2437 2354 3252 JMP 2252 2464 120523 JST* 523 2355 100002 5110 2465 4532 1.04 532 2356 120515 357* 515 2466 120504 1157* 504 2357 3100 JMP 2100 2467 14000 400 0 2360 4573 1.04 573 2470 41477 1.01. 1 2361 101000 NOP 2471 141206 404 2362 16762 SUB 762 2472 3510 JMP 2510 2363 100400 SPL 2473 0 111.7
236 1 120500 JST* 500 2474 0 BLT