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Publication numberUS3895593 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 22, 1975
Filing dateSep 24, 1973
Priority dateSep 24, 1973
Publication numberUS 3895593 A, US 3895593A, US-A-3895593, US3895593 A, US3895593A
InventorsAlvin Edward Moore
Original AssigneeMoore Alvin E
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Light-weight, durable, water-traversing vehicle
US 3895593 A
Abstract
A boat, aircraft or space craft, adapted for travel over water, having buoyant wall and deck frames that include elongated, boat-bracing beams (longitudinal stringers or optionally transverse ribs), having holes or sockets in their faces, and sealed, buoyant bottles or the like, each having a pair of necks (or a neck and a bottom) that are strongly glued in opposite holes of a pair of the boat-bracing pieces. The holes preferably are sockets, recesses or depressions that do not extend thru the stringers or ribs. The beams may be of metal, but preferably are of waterproofed "Masonite" or other pressed wood, or of strong, molded or extruded plastic containing sufficient pores or reinforcing fibers for frictional holding of nails, or of cedar, cypress or other wood. Preferably the beams are curved in the direction of their length. On their outer and inner edges metal or strong-plastic mesh (preferably expanded-metal lath, hardware cloth and/or poultry-type fencing) is nailed and glued. And on this mesh outer and inner layers of stucco (Portland cement, epoxy or other cement mixed with fine aggregate or fibers) are applied in pasty condition and allowed to set. Between these stuccoed skins, foamed plastic, from poured-in-situ liquids, imbeds the bottles. The vehicle is curved in fore-and-aft direction, and optionally may also be curved vertically (i.e., barrel-curved). The bottle-holding holes may be on each side of each beam and may be staggered, preventing interference of the holes and bottles on the opposite beam sides. Preferably, the boat includes a pair of side floats, each having a flat, fore-and-aft inner surface and a curved outer surface; and near the inner surface of each float a bilge piece or fin is supported, retractable in shallow water to a higher position in the float. At higher speeds the inclined-bottom floats ski upward toward the water's surface. Propulsion is preferably by air propeller, but optionally by waterjet.
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[ July 22, 1975 United States Patent [191 Moore pair of the boat-bracing pieces. The holes preferably LIGHT-WEIGHT, DURABLE,

WATER-TRAVERSING VEHICLE are sockets, recesses or depressions that do not extend thru the stringers or ribs. The beams may be of metal,

but preferably are of waterproofed Masonite or m u Mo .L MN a B 1 r mt R mm 4.. m 0 .mm .m AD n o t n e V n l N 7 other pressed wood, or of strong, molded or extruded plastic containing sufficient pores or reinforcing fibers Miss. 39520 [22] Filed: Sept. 24, 1973 for frictional holding of nails, or of cedar, cypress or other wood. Preferably the beams are curved in the App! 399952 direction of their length. On their outer and inner edges metal or strong-plastic mesh (preferably expanded-metal lath, hardware cloth and/or poultry-type fencing) is nailed and glued. And on this mesh outer m $3 M4 lb 13 I 6B 4" C ML Um UN 55 and inner layers of stucco (Portland cement, epoxy or other cement mixed with fine aggregate or fibers) are applied in pasty condition and allowed to set. Between 5 2 1 6 6U M $2 9 %6 00 6 5 0H 6 6 ..n1 0 r. a e S f 0 M e i F l. 8 5

[56] References Cited these stuccoed skins, foamed plastic, from poured-in- UNITED STATES PATENTS situ liquids, imbeds the bottles. The vehicle is curved 3 596 622 8,197] Moore 114/69 in fore-and-aft direction, and optionally may also be 3718295 2/1973 curved vertically (i.e., barrel-curved). The bottleholding holes may be on each side of each beam and Moore Primary Examiner -Trygve Blix may be staggered, preventing interference of the holes and bottles on the opposite beam sides. Preferably, the

boat includes a pair of side floats, each having a flat, fore Assistant Examiner-Jesus D. Sotelo -and-aft inner surface and a curved outer surface;

[57] ABSTRACT A boat, aircraft or space craft, adapted for travel over water, having buoyant wall and deck frames that inand near the inner surface of each float a bilge piece or fin is supported, retractable in shallow water to a higher position in the float. At higher speeds the include elongated, boat-bracing beams (longitudinal stringers or optionally transverse ribs), having holes or clined-bottom floats ski upward toward the waters surface. Propulsion is preferably by air propeller, but optionally by waterjet.

sockets in their faces, and sealed, buoyant bottles 01 the like, each having a pair of necks (or a neck and a 28 Claims, 16 Drawing Figures bottom) that are strongly glued in opposite holes of a PATENTED L 2 2 SHEET LIGHT-WEIGHT, DURABLE, WATER-TRAVERSING VEHICLE This invention pertains to a light-weight, strong, water-traversing vehicle, little subject to damage in crashes, and having sufficient buoyancy in its walls and decks to prevent its sinking in the unlikely event of a leak. Either of the two disclosed inventive forms may be only for water-surface travel or may be a flying boat, seaplane or space vehicle. In some respects the present invention comprises improvements of the inventors prior US. Pat. No. 3,596,622 of Aug. 3, 1971.

This invention has, among other purposes, the following objectives: (1) a relatively light-weight but extremely strong vehicle, adapted to traverse water at least part of the time of its travel; (2) such a vehicle having walls including framework that comprises: strong beams, having holes extending at least partly thru each beam; and glass, plastic or metal bottle members, each having opposite ends that are glued in the holes, and skins fixed to outer and inner edges of the beams; (3) vehicle framework as in (2) above, each of the bottle members comprising a pair of used bottles having their bottoms glued together and their necks in the beam holes; (4) vehicle framework as in (2) above, each of the bottle members being a single, moldformed bottle having two relatively small necks, one of which is integrally closed; and (5) a vehicle including side floats, each comprising: beams; gas-containing, strength-providing receptacles fixed to the beams; a hollow inner portion; and a retractable bilge fin supported within the floats interior. Other objects and the specific structure of the invention will be apparent in the following specification and the accompanying drawings.

IN THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a top plan view of one form of the invention, partly broken away at a plane a short distance above the main deck to illustrate internal structure, showing foam plastic as so far having been formed only around the float bottle members, and showing a retractable bilge fin and its braced housing that extend above the main deck (in the general manner of FIG. 11).

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary sectional view on an enlarged scale from the line indicated by the arrows 22 of FIG. 1, showing two types of the bottle members, imbedded in foam plastic.

FIG. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view on an enlarged scale from the line 3-3 of FIG. 1, showing one form of the joints between end-to-end-joined beams.

FIG. 4 is a longitudinally sectional view of an optional, molded, glass or plastic form of the bottle members.

FIG. S'is a fragmentary sectional view on a scale enlarged from that of FIG. 1, sectional from the plane 55 of FIG. 1, showing two of the staggered bottle members, having necks glued in sockets in a beam, imbedded in foamed plastic between stuccoed skins and flanked by boat bumper means.

FIG. 6 is an elevational view of the vehicle before installation of the bumper partly broken away, and mostly in section from a plane comparable to that indicated at 6-6 in FIG. 1, but showing the retractable bilge fin and its housing as optionally being entirely below the main deck.

FIG. 7 is a fragmentary sectional view of a pair of beams (upright ribs or deck beams) and two bottle members, each comprising a single, preferably used bottle, having a neck fixed in a hole in one beam and a bottom fixed in a hole in the other illustrated beam.

FIG. 8 is a sectional view of another form of the bottle members, comprising staggered, sealed pipes, having ends glued to beams.

FIG. 9 is a fragmentary sectional view indicating the foam-plastic-imbedded bottle members as having ends extending thru holes which are apertures thru beams.

FIG. 10 is a top plan view of a second form of the invention (in which the beams are transverse ribs), partly broken away to illustrate internal structure, showing foamed plastic as so far having been formed only in the floats.

FIG. 11 is a sectional view, partly broken away and on an enlarged scale, from the plane 11-11 of FIG. 10, before application of the foaming-plastic liquids and installation of the bumper means.

FIG. 12 is a fragmentary sectional view on an enlarged scale from the plane 1212 of FIG. 11, illustrating one form of the joints between end-to-end-joined beams. FIG. 13 is a fragmentary view similar to FIG. 12 but showing a second form of the joint between beams.

FIG. 14 illustrating one form of the retractable bilge fin, is a sectional view (partly broken away) from a middle plane of the fin.

FIG. 15 is a fragmentary sectional view of the bilge fin from the plane 1515 of FIG. 1 or FIG. 14.

And FIG. 16 is a fragmentary sectional view, similar to FIG. 15, showing an alternative form of the bilge fin. I

One form of the invention is shown in FIGS. 1 and 6 and a second, optional form is shown in FIGS. 10 and 11. Each of these forms comprises rows of juxtaposed bottle members each member being fixed to and between oppositely positioned beams and having ends that are glued in holes in the beams. Preferably, each beam has holes in each of its faces, these holes being staggered, the axis of each hole in one face being spaced from axes of holes in the opposite face; and the bottles of each row that are glued to the holes of one of the faces are thus staggered in relation to the bottles that are glued to the opposite face.

THE BUOYANT, STRENGTH-PROVIDING HOLLOW MEMBERS In each of the forms the bottle members (sealed, aircontaining receptacles) may be made of glass, plastic, fiber-reinforced plastic, or thin metal. Optionally, these gas-containing, sealed hollow members may comprise: used or new bottles of a commonly known shape (indicated at 1 in FIG. 2 and 2 in FIG. 7); a pair of the bottles (shown at 4 in FIG. 2), having their bottoms glued together with epoxy putty or silicone or other rubber cement as indicated at 5 (or if the bottles are thermoplastic or metallic they optionally may be welded together), thus forming a bottle member having opposite necks that are glued with epoxy putty or other adhesive in holes of opposite beams; a single bottle, as at 2 in FIG. 7; an integral, double-necked, molded, glass or plastic bottle as shown at 6 in FIG. 2, or 7 in FIG. 10; or a cylindrical element of glass, plastic or metal as illustrated at 8 in FIG. 8, 8' in FIG. 9, 9 in FIG. 13, and 10 in FIG. 14. When made of thin metal (for example, of aluminum, aluminum alloy or very thin steel) the receptacles optionally may be inflated with air or helium. Glass or plastic bottle members of the double-necked type shown in FIG. 2 at l or 6 or 12 in FIG. 4 are currently preferred.

The bottles 6 of FIG. 2 and 12 of FIG. 4 are preferably made in a mold; and when they are of glass they are blown in accordance with known glass-blowing technique. The bottle 12 (illustrated as of plastic, but optionally of glass) has one integrally closed end (14) and another end (16) which has a small opening 17. When made by centrifugal molding both of these ends may be closed. Use of this double-necked type of bottle member (4, 6, 12) has an advantage over use of the singlenecked bottle 2 of FIG. 7 because the two relatively small necks fit into relatively small holes in the beams. When the hollow members have open ends these ends are preferably sealed by bits of epoxy or other adhesive 18 FIGS. 2, and 7). In accordance with the preferred method of assembly of the hollow members and beams: epoxy putty, epoxy liquid or other adhesive is placed in each hole or socket in a beam, filling half or more of the socket; the open neck or other open hollowmember end is forced into the socket and adhesive; and the portion 18 of the glue goes into the open end. Also there is peferably sufficient clearance around the hollow-member end for adhesive to be forced around this end.

THE BOAT-BRACING, HOLLOW-MEMBER-HOLDING BEAMS As exampled in the drawings, these beams may be straight or curved. They may be of extruded aluminum alloy, thin steel or other metal, but preferably are of: waterproofed Masonite or other pressed wood; strong, molded or extruded plastic (preferably containing sufficient pores or reinforcing fibers for frictional holding of nails); or cedar, cypress or other wood. The hollow-member-holding holes in the boat-bracing members optionally may extend all the way thru the beams (as exampled at 19 in FIG. 9 and 20 in FIG. 13). In FIG. 9 the vehicle is indicated as curved in at least one direction, but optionally it also may be curved in a direction normal to that of the illustrated curvature (in other words, the load-holding body may be barrelcurved). In this event, and when standard bottles of a single length are utilized, it is necessary to provide bottle'holding holes that extend all the way thru the beams, because the bottle-member ends at the points of lesser bulge of the barrel-curved body necessarily must project farther into and thru the holes than the extent of projection at points of greater bulge. These bottle-member ends preferably are the smaller necks of double-necked bottle members.

THE BOAT SKIN MEANS Exterior and interior skin means are fixed to exterior and interior edges of the beams. Although these skins may comprise thin, solid, sheet plastic or metal, they preferably are of stucco on mesh. This stucco in each instance optionally may comprise: Portland cement (preferably a mixture of Portland cement and lime) and fine aggregate or fibers (as indicated at 22 in FIG. 5); or epoxy, liquid rubber or other plastic cement or putty (as indicated at 24 in FIG. 9). This stucco may be troweled and/or sprayed on the mesh 26. After it is se it is sanded to form a smooth, streamlined surface, an then coated with two or three coats of waterproofing paint. When the cement comprises Portland cement this coating preferably comprises one or two coats of STA-DRI concrete paint, topped by epoxy enamel. The mesh 26 preferably is expanded-metal lath (of steel or aluminum alloy), but optionally it may be hardware cloth alone, hardware cloth covered with a ply of poultry-fence wire, two or more plies of metal fencing, or of strong plastic. In anyevent, the mesh should be sufficiently resilient to bend in a curve between beams. When the beams are of the type that frictionally hold nails, the mesh is nailed or screwed to them; but when they are of extruded metal the mesh is attached to them by screws extending into screw holes. In any event, the mesh preferably is further secured to the beams by bonding material (epoxy putty, other adhesive, or optionally by welding or brazing if the beams are metallic).

THE CABIN AND FLOAT MEANS Although the crafts bottom may be substantially flat or deep-V-shaped, it preferably has at least side floats. In each of the two forms a central float and a pair of lateral floats are shown. Each of these floats is illustrated as having beams and beam-supported hollow members which extend below the main cabin area. Each of the lateral floats have a curved outer surface which in effect is a continuation downward of the upper, curved, side surface of the boat and has a flat; preferably vertical, pair of fore-and-aft inner surfaces (28). These surfaces are those of the skins on two parallel sets of rows of beams and hollow members.

Between these two sets there is a third, straightsurfaced, fore-and-aft set of the beams and receptacles; and between the two inner fore-and-aft sets of rows a retractable bilge fin or bilge piece is rather closely housed in shallow water. This fin preferably bears against the sides of its housing via vertical bearing strips of bronze, smooth plastic or the like. The housing and bilge piece are very strong, to resist wrecking tendency of waves and grounding.

The fin may comprise steel or aluminum-alloy tubes (imbedded within light-weight concrete 30 or strong, foamed plastic 32, within a skin or stuccoed mesh, nailed or screwed to rectangularly arranged beams. At least four of these orthogonally arranged beams are necessary, the outer elements 33, 34, 35 and 36. These beams may be made of any of the above-described beam materials. As exampled in FIGS. 14 and 15, the forward upright beam 34 is made of molded plastic, reinforced by fibers. But this forward beam optionally may be a metallic or strong-plastic pipe, as shown at 34A in FIG. 16. As illustrated in FIG. 14, the fin is further strengthened by other beams (38 and 39).

The beam-held hollow members optionally may be any of the above-described types of gas-containing receptacles; but as illustrated in FIG. 14 they are pipes (10) of metal or strong plastic of the type shown at 8, 8' or 9. They may have sealing caps 41 at only one end of each tube as shown (the other end being sealed by epoxy or other bonding material entering the pipe from the glue in its socket), or both ends may be capped or sealed only with the bonding material.

In FIGS. 6 and 11 the fins are shown as entirely or nearly entirely retracted into their housings. The fins are thus retracted when in shallow water and the three floats are then sufficiently submerged in the water to float the craft at relatively slow speed. But on moving out into deep water the fins are lowered and serve as direction-stabilizing keels, while at higher speeds the the like.

floats ski upward until their bb ttoihs or very near the water surface,This skiin g is facilitated by the inclination (indicated at 42) of'theibottoms of the floatsto the direction of travel, causing a positive angle of atduring forward translation of the cfaft',"

Two optional means for retracting'and lowering the stabilizing keels are disclosed. The one shown in FIGS. 6 and 11 is usable when the fin is not buoyant. lt comprises: a cable, rope or chain (44); a drum 45 on which the cable or other flexible element may be wound; and means for rotating the drum. As shown in FIG. 6 this drum-driving means comprises a drumshaftand the motor and reduction gearing 46. The two motors for the fins in the two side floats maybe simultaneously or separately operated, at" the will of the "operator. As shown in FlG. 11 the drum-rotating structure comprises a manually operable crank 48 and a handle 49, for which the motor 46 optionally maybe substituted. When the fins are used with the "cable-type of tinoperating mechanism they are provided-"with sufficient weight to be heavier than water by i'r'nb'edding the hollow elements 50 in concrete 30 or, when foam plastack of the bottoms on the water (or'air if airborne) j tic is the matrix around the hollow' elements, these elements are relatively heavy fore xarnple cdmprising pipes 54 that are of steel (preferablythinrie'r than oridinary water pipes but thicker than'cornmon tin -can material) or of plastic and filled with concrete, sand or An alternative type of fin operatlng mechanism, which does not necessitate a heavier-than-water fin, comprising a rack and pinion, isusable' when there is sufficient room above the retracted iin for the rack. A pair of racks, 56, are illustrated in 14;fhe showing of their top portions being broken"a'way. These racks are simultaneously or separately operated-by pinions and a pair of pinion-rotating motors similar to the motor and gearing 46. l

Preferably, the space between thesuter curved wall "of each float and its internal, vertical partition is filled with foamed plastic and helium ballon's'57 (FIG. 1) that are imbedded in the plastic. Also"optionally, balloons of the type set forth in the inventors prior U.S. Pat. No.

3,596,622 may be provided in'the top part of the cabin, aiding in stabilizing the vehicle against rolling, pitching and capsizing.

Hatches, doors, portholes arid wind'ows are provided at appropriate locations. For instancerhatches exampled at 58 may be provided thru any of the decks; doors exampled at 59 may be placed'in any of the vertical walls; and windows or portholes like 60 may be installed to provide interior lightand Ventilation. A ladder is fixed to the bulkhead or wart aatacem to and beneath each hatch.

A somewhat resilient bumperorbuffer '(61') preferably extends entirely around thebriaftl-As' indicated in FIG. 5, this may comprise lengths of fubb'er hose 61A of the type used in fire-fighting equipmentfp'referably imbedded in resilient foamed plastic, within a waterproof skin. The ends of each of these lengths are sealingly and streamlinedly joined'at'the' stern by'epoxy or marine screw pr opeller, driven by an outboard or inboard engine, it preferably is propelled by known, wa-

ter-jet type of propulsion means or by the air propeller 62 driven by aneng'ine or other motor (64) in the forward portion of the elevated, central part of the cabin.

Each form of the vehicle may be steered and contro'llediri pitch attitude by known airplane controls, indicated at 66 in FIG. 10.'An alternative or supplemental type of steering control may be effected by separate manipulation of the retractable fins. For example: when steering the vehicle to starboard the port or left fin 68 is elevated and the propeller 62 (having its cen- -ter of thrust substantially in the vertical plane containing the vehicles longitudinal axis) pulls the craft to the rightian'd when steering it to the left the starboard fin 69 is raised. Optionally, this steering may be done by electrically connecting a steering wheel in the top cabin part 70 with meters 46 for their controlled operation.

THE CURRENTLY PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The-form of the invention shown in FIGS. 1 and 6 comprises substantially horizontal, fore-and-aft stringers and transverse deck beams that are rigidly connected to the elongated stringers. Each of the sets of joined stringers that are at the same level preferably consists of a plurality of end-to-end-joined beams that 25:

"(72 and 73), bolted or riveted to the abutted ends of the stringers. When, as is preferred, the craft is at least 30 feet long, the curved outer stringers at each level are four in number, 74, 74A, 75, 75A; and four pairs of the splicing plates thus are used, two of these pairs being located'at or'near the vertical plane 66. But when the vehicle is less than 30 feet in'length the stringer elements 74 and 74A may be integral, and likewise the elements-75 'and 75A may be in one piece.

The-straight stringers 77 and 79 also may be in two abutted and united sections. The ends of the members 77, which closely fit the inside edges of the curved outer stringers, are epoxybonded (or welded) to these edges, and are reinforced by and between top splicing plates 72A and lower plates that are bolted to the stringer ends and these top plates. And similarly the stringers 79 are united to the curved outer stringers by bonding material, the upper plates 72B and lower plates that are bolted to them.

The'boat-bracing frame of the upper cabin portion or bridge70 and the lower similar framework of the bulkheads 81 and bf the middle floats 82 comprise pairs of stringers, 84 and 85. Each of these stringers optionally may be unitary or, like 74 and 74A may be composite, comprising two pieces, end-joined by bonding material and plates. Each pair of the beams 84 and 85 are endjoined at 86 and 87 by bonding material and plates of the above-described types. The stringers that are above and below transverse deck beams preferably are beveled, asat 88, for extra strength and ease of fastening to the deck beams.

Before the final vehicle assembly, bottle members (or other hollow elements) preferably are bonded in subassembly operation in sockets on one side of all the stringers excepting: the first set above the main lower deck (L); the first set below this deck; and the first set above the main upper deck (U). And preferably also in sub-assembly the angled'brackets 89 are fastened by bonding material and bolts or screws to the ends of the transversebea'ms; and these beams and hollow membets are formed into units, each comprising two parallel beams that are joined by bottle members or the like which have their ends bonded in holes on one side of each of the beams, for the time being leaving empty the holes on the other sides of the beams.

THE FINAL ASSEMBLY OF THE INVENTION SPECIES OF FIGS. 1 AND 6 comprises the following steps, described with reference to the specific form of FIG. 6 (in these steps, double-necked bottle members are referred to, but other hollow members may be substituted for them):

1. Two parallel, forward, main-deck beams 90 and the bottles 90A that are glued to and between their oppositely-facing sockets are laid in a beam-positioning fixture. The forward one of these short beams has no sockets in its forward face, and is normal to the longitudinal axis of the planned vehicle, and a little abaft its eventual forwardmost bow portion.

2. Epoxy putty or other pasty adhesive is placed in the sockets at the rearward face of the after beam of step (1), these sockets having been left empty in the sub-assembly operation. Necks of separate bottle members (the forward neck of each of these members) are now placed in these after sockets and in the ahdesive, the bottle members being held with their axes horizontal by portions of the fixture. The rearward necks of these members are temporarily free.

3. A second set of main-deck beams and hollow members is positioned in the fixture substantially aft of the forward set. Pasty adhesive is placed in the sockets at the forward face of the forward beam of this second set and the set is moved forward until these adhesivepacked sockets are forced around the said rearward necks and the glue is in position to seal the necks in place.

4. Steps (2) and (3) are repeated until the last set of main-deck beams and bottle members is installed, a little forward of the rearmost portion of the vehicle.

5. The longitudinal stringers above the main deck these being the curved longitudinal members 91 and the straight stringers 92 and the curved stringers 93, 94, etc., including the curved outer member 75 75A (FIG. 1) are longitudinally arranged on the transverse beams and fastened to these beams by epoxy, the brackets 89, and bolts, U-bolts, nails or the like. These longitudinal stringers are also fastened to each other by epoxy putty and the splicing plates 72, 72B. This proce dure makes a very strong basic, frame structure.

6. The first sets of stringers and bottle members above the lower main deck are installed and glued in place. Each of these sets comprises a string (74, 79, 84, 85, etc.) and a row of bottle members 94A, the necks of which have been sub-assembly-glued to the sockets at the lower face of the associated stringer. In the frame-assembly operation the bottle members thus depend below the associated stringer. Epoxy, silicone rubber sealant or other adhesive is placed in the upper sockets of the stringers 91, 92, 93, 94, etc.; and into these sockets, in each stringer, the lower free ends of the bottle members are fitted, down into the adhesive. Then the stringers of this set of stringers and bottle members above the main deck are securely fastened together by epoxy and the plates 72 and 72A.

7. Steps like step (6) are now performed, building the wall framework up to the lower line of the beams of the upper deck U. I

8. The sub-assembled pairs of transverse beams 95 and the bottles 95A that are glued to and between their oppositely facing sockets (these upper units being similar to those of and 90A) are now installed and fastened to the adjacent stringers by epoxy, brackets 89, and bolts, U-bolts, nails or the like.

9. The partially-built framework is now turned upside down and construction of the three floats is begun.

10. The two lateral-float curved stringers 96, the two curved stringers 97 of the middle float and the straight stringers 98 are positioned on and fastened to the beams 90 by brackets 89, epoxy and bolts or nails. These stringers have no upper-face sockets; and their bottom sockets (those at the stringer faces that are toward the operator in the upside-down condition of the frame) are empty.

1 l. The last-named sockets are nearly filled with epoxy or other adhesive. The units that comprise the stringers 99 and 100 of the lateral floats and the depending bottle members that are glued to them and the units that comprise the middle-float stringers 102 and the depending bottle members that are between them are now installed in tiers in the above-described manner, until the level of the transverse float beams is reached.

12. The short transverse side-float beams 104 and the bottle members between them are now installed and glued together in the manner of step (1), these beams being fastened to the stringers 99' by brackets '89, adhesive and bolts or nails. And the beams 106 and the bottle members between them of the middle-float deck are also installed and fastened in the manner of step (l).

13. Outer skins are applied to the outer edges of the stringers 99 and 100, to the stringers 102 and to the beams 104 and 106; inner skins are applied to inner edges of the stringers 102 and beams 106; and skins are applied to the edge surfaces 108 of the beams 90 and to the surfaces 28; These skins are preferably of mesh and stucco of the above-described type.

14. The interior space of the lateral floats, between stringers 99 and 100, is filled with foamed plastic. (The beams 104 and 106 are of different widths in depth, providing for the skiing incline 42.)

IS. The pairs of vertical bearing strips for the retractable fins are epoxy-glued in place one strip of each pair being adjacent to the stringers 100, and the other strip of the pair being placed (during sub-assembly) on the sub-assembled units that comprise stringers 108 and 109, the short transverse pieces 110, and the bottle members that are' glued to these stringers and pieces. (The pieces 110, like 106, are of varying widths in depth.)

16. The sub-assembled units of step (15), including skins around the elements 108, 109 and 110, are fastened by brackets 89, epoxy and bolts to the beams 90.

17. The retractable fins are installed.

18. The framework is now reversed into its normal position in use and the beam-and-bottle-member framework of the cabin portion 70 (which is shaped like the middle float) is made in the manner of steps l to (8).

19. The exterior and interior skins that are above the lower main-deck beams are formed preferably of mesh and stucco, as above described. 20. Foamedplastic liquids are inserted thru temporary holes in the skins and around all the bottle members above the floats, and also around the bottle members of the middle float and those of the lateral floats which were not previously imbedded in foamed plastic in step (14). The foaming liquids go thru beam holes 111 and thus to all spaces between the skins.

21. Installation of the above-described bumper, glued to outer middle surfaces of the skin, completes the vehicle.

THE EMBODIMENT OF FIGS. AND 11 The main difference between the invention form of FIGS. 10 and 11 and that of FIGS. 1 and 6 is the fact that in the species of FIGS. 10 and 11 the beams of the vehicle walls are upright ribs instead of horizontal stringers and the bottle members 7 (or other hollow elements) have horizontal axes and ends that are glued in holes in the ribs. The upper ends of the upright ribs 112 and 1 13 are fastened by epoxy putty or other bonding material, angled brackets and between pairs of the splicing plates 114 and 115 to the parallel main-deck beams 116; and the lower ends of the ribs 112 are similarly fastened to the parallel lower float beams 117. Middle parts of the ribs 112 and 113 are fastened by strong adhesive and the plates 1 14 and 118 to the short beams 119, and are connected by the plates 120 to the lower main-deck beams 122. The interior ends of the parallel deck beams 116 and 122 are fastened by epoxy putty or other strong, pasty adhesive and plates 114 to the long ribs 124. The ribs and other beams have holes 111, thru which foaming-plastic liquids go into all spaces between the skins.

The tops and the bottoms of these long ribs are joined by parallel, transverse, deck beams 125 that are like beams 95, 106 and 126. Optional middle deck beams, 127, are also shown in FIG. 11. Each adjacent pair of the parallel deck beams 116, 117, 122, 125 and 127 and the parallel ribs 113 and 128 are connected by bottle members or other hollow strength-providing members (129) that are strongly glued in beam sockets in the above-described manner. The bottle members or other receptacles 7 on the concentric, non-parallel ribs 112 and 124 optionally also may be connected by sockets containing glue and receptacle ends; but as exampled in FIG. 10 these members 7 have their ends glued in holes extending all the way thru the ribs.

The ribs 112 are radially positioned about five centers of curvature. The middle planes of the bow ribs have radii 130 that are centered at the point 131. The middle planes of the ribs on the port or left side have radii 132 that are centered at the point 133. Middle planes of the starboard-side ribs have radii that are centered at 135; those at the left of the stern have radii 136, centered at 137; and those at the right of the stern have radii 138 that are centered at 139.

Straight fore-and-aft float-wall beams are exampled in FIG. 10, shown at the numeral 28 as pipes of metal or plastic (optionally of thin resilient steel or resilient plastic or inflated, air-pressure-stiflened flexible tubes of the type used in plumbing). They are fastened by epoxy putty and metallic pipe strap or metal bars and screws, bolts or the like to inner edges of the ribs and- /or to the expanded metal or other material of the strong inner boat skins. But preferably, and as indicated in FIG. 11, the straight fore-and-aft float parts comprise upright ribs of the above-described type and the hollow elements 129.

The beam joints comprising the pairs of plates 115, I18 and 120 are like the joint of FIG. 3, comprising a similar pair of plates 72 and 73. But the joints between the concentrically-arranged ribs (112 and 124) and the parallel beams (comprising the pairs of plates 114) are optionally made as illustrated in FIG. 12 or FIG. 13. In FIG. 12 the transverse deck beam (116, for instance) has abutting linear contact with and is bonded to the upright rib 112 (or 124), by epoxy putty or the like. And this joint is braced by the parallel plates 114A and 1 14B, which are fastened by epoxy putty or other adhesive and by bolts or the like to the beam and rib. In FIG. 13 the end portions of the beam 116 and rib 112 overlap slightly and are glued together with epoxy putty or the like, 140. Here, only one plate, 142, bolted separately to the beam and rib, braces the joint.

Within the spirit of the invention, various changes in the specific structure illustrated may be made. For example: the design of the compartments in the invention form of FIGS. 10 and 11 may be like that of FIG. 6; and the outer configuration of either of the disclosed forms may be barrel-curved, or straight-sided, or only slightly curved at the sides, bow and stern.

In the following claims, unless otherwise specified: the word boat signifies a vehicle that traverses water only or traverses water and flies in the air or a hovercraft or space craft adapted to traverse water and the air; the word holes means an opening into and thru an element or an opening or depression into but not thru an element; socket means a hole or depression extending partially thru an element; the term bonding material signifies adhesive, welding, brazing, solder or the like; gaseous material means gas, gas-cellcontaining foamed plastic, or gas mixed with insulating fibers or other particles; gas means any pure gas, air or any other mixture of gases; plastic: any type of synthetic or natural plastic, including rubber; stucco: aggregate or fibers mixed with cement (Portland cement or Portland cement mixed with lime, lime, epoxy, or other cement); and the term rod-like elements means nails, bolts, screws, or the like.

I claim:

1. A vehicle adapted to traverse water, including:

deck structure, having load-containing space above sidewall framework, connected to said deck structure, comprising: a plurality of fore-and-aft sidewall beams of vehicle-strength-providing material. including pairs of spaced-apart, oppositelypositioned beams, each pair having spaced-apart. opposite surfaces of the two beams and opposite holes that extend into said material from said sur faces, each of said holes at one of the surfaces 01 the two beams opening toward and aligned with 2 similar, opposite hole in the other of said twc beams;

hollow members of vehicle-strength-providing material, connecting and bracing said opposite beams each of said hollow members having flanged end: extending into and braced in an aligned pair of sair opposite holes; and securing means, holding sair flanged ends in said holes and said hollow member in vehicle-strength-providing assembled relation; lower water-traversing structure, fixed to said decl structure, comprising: a plurality of lower-structun beams of vehicle-strength-providing material, in cluding pairs of opposite, spaced-apart beams hav ing a plurality of opposite holes that extend int said material from opposite-beam surfaces of eacl pair of said lower-structure beams, each of sail last-named opposite holes at one of said oppositebeam surfaces opening toward and aligned with a hole in the other of said opposite-beam surfaces; lower-structure hollow members of vehiclestrength-providing material, connecting and bracing said opposite lower-structure beams, each of said lower-structure hollow members having ends extending into an aligned pair of said last-named opposite holes; and securing means holding said ends of the lower-structure hollow members in said last-named holes and in vehicle-strength-providing assembled relation;

waterproof, vehicle-strength-providing, exterior skin means, connected to outer portions of said sidewall framework and said lower structure; and

vehicle-strength-providing, interior skin means, connected to inner portions of said sidewall framework.

2. A vehicle adapted to traverse water, including:

deck structure, having load-containing space above sidewall framework, connected to said deck structure, comprising a plurality of sidewall beams of vehicle-strength-providing material, including pairs of spaced-apart, oppositely-positioned beams, each pair having spaced-apart, opposite surfaces of the two beams and opposite holes that extend into said material from said surfaces, each of said holes at one of the surfaces of the two beams opening toward and aligned with a similar, opposite hole in the other of said two beams;

hollow members of vehicle-strength-providing material, connecting and bracing said opposite beams, each of said hollow members having ends extending into and braced in an aligned pair of said opposite holes; and securing means, holding said ends in said holes and said hollow members in vehiclestrength-providing assembled relation;

lower water-traversing structure, fixed to said deck structure, comprising: a plurality of lower-structure beams of vehicle-strengthproviding material, including pairs of opposite, spaced-apart beams having a plurality of opposite holes that extend into said material from opposite beam surfaces of each pair of said lower-structure beams, each of said last-named opposite holes at one of said opposite beam surfaces opening toward and aligned with a hole in the other of said opposite-beam surfaces; lower-structure hollow members of vehiclestrength-providing material, connecting and bracing said opposite lower-structure beams, each of 3. A vehicle as set forth in claim 2, in which said lower structure includes a pair of separated, side floats.

4. A vehicle as set forth in claim 2, in which: each of said hollow members comprises a bottle, having a neck of smaller cross-sectional area than that of its middle portion; and at least one of each aligned pair of said opposite holes has a cross-sectional area of a size that is in the neighborhood of that of said smaller crosssectional area.

5. A vehicle as set forth in claim 4, in which said securing means comprises bonding material, set from previous shapeless condition.

6. A vehicle as set forth in claim 5, in which said bonding material comprises epoxy.

7. A vehicle as set forth in claim 4, in which said bottle is of glass.

8. A vehicle as set forth in claim 7, in which said bottle is a used bottle of the beverage-containing type.

9. A vehicle as set forth in claim 7, in which: one of each opposite pair of said aligned holes is a socket, extending partially thru the thickness of a beam; said bottle has a bottom portion of larger cross-sectional area than that of said neck and is seated in said socket; and said securing means comprises adhesive, set from previous shapeless condition, on the bottom wall of said bottom portion and on sides and closed end of said hole.

10. A vehicle as set forth in claim 2 in which: each of said hollow members is a bottle member, having a pair of necks each of which is of smaller cross-sectional area than that of the bottle members middle portion; and each hole of each pair of said opposite holes has a cross-sectional area of a size that is in the neighborhood of the size of said smaller cross-sectional area.

11. A vehicle as set forth in claim 10, in which said bottle member is composite and comprises two bottles having their bottoms fastened together.

12. A vehicle as set forth in claim 10, in which said bottle member includes: two bottles of glass, having adjoining bottoms; and bonding material, set from previous shapeless condition, between and strongly uniting said bottoms.

13. A vehicle as set forth in claim 10, in which said bottle member is unitary and of integral material, set from previous plastic condition.

14. A vehicle as set forth in claim 13, in which said integral material is glass.

15. A vehicle as set forth in claim 2, in which said stringers are parallel.

16. A vehicle as set forth in claim 2, in which the said material of the hollow members comprises glass.

17. A vehicle as set forth in claim 2, in which each of said upright hollow members comprises a neck portion at each of its ends which is smaller in cross section that its middle part.

18. A vehicle as set forth in claim 2, in which: the said sidewall beams are arranged in units of end-to-endjoined beams; and said framework includes fastening means, bracingly joining ends of the beams of each unit.

19. A vehicle as set forth in claim 2, in which: the said arterial of the sidewall and lower-structure beams is of a type which frictionally holds nails; and the said exterior skin means includes: mesh on outer surfaces of said beams; rod-like elements, penetrating said beam material and fastening said mesh to the beams; and stucco comprising cement on said mesh, set from previously plastic stuccoingcondition. V

20. A vehicle as set forth in claim 19, in which the said interior skin means includes: mesh on inner surfaces of said beams; rod-like elements, penetrating said beam material and fastening said last-named'mesh to the beams; and stucco comprising cement on said lastnamed mesh, set from previously plastic condition.

21. A vehicle as set forth in claim 19, in which: said cement comprises Portland cement; and said stucco further comprises inert fragments mixed with said cement.

22. A vehicle as set forth in claim 2, in which: each of said beams has other holes, extending entirely thru the beam, in vehicle construction adapted for passage of foaming, poured-in-situ foamed-plastic materials; said exterior and interior skin means comprise material capable of resisting yielding outward under the pressure of foaming foamed-plastic materials; and the said vehicle includes foamed plastic, set from previously fluent condition, between each adjacent pair of said beams, in said other holes, and between said hollow members and said exterior and interior skin means.

23. A vehicle adapted to traverse water, including:

deck structure, having load-containing space above sidewall framework, connected to said deck structure, comprising: a plurality of sidewall beams of vehicle-strength-providing material, including pairs of spaced-apart, oppositely-positioned ribs, extending in planes that are transverse to the vehicles fore-and-aft axis, each of said pairs having spacedapart, opposite surfaces of the two ribs and opposite holes that extend into said material from said surfaces, each of said holes at one of the surfaces of the two ribs opening toward and aligned with a similar, opposite hole in the other of the said two ribs;

hollow members of vehicle-strength-providing material, connecting and bracing said opposite ribs, each of said hollow members having ends extending into and braced in an aligned pair of said opposite holes; and securing means, holding said ends in said holes and said hollow members in vehiclestrength-providing assembled relation;

lower water-traversing structure, fixed to said deck structure, comprising: a plurality of lower-structure beams of vehicle-strength-providing material, including pairs of opposite, spaced-apart beams having a plurality of opposite holes that extend into said material from opposite-beam surfaces of each pair of said lower-structure beams, each of said of said'ribs has a pair of planar surfaces that are wider thanrthe maximum cross-sectional dimension of a said hollow member along a plane normal to its axis and has a median plane between said planar surfaces; and the said median planes of each of a plurality of groups of said ribs divergingly radiate from a common line of intersection of the planes.

25. A boat framework, including: a beam of boat-strength-providng material, having opposite surfaces and two sets of holes, extending into said material from said opposite surfaces, the

axes of the holes of each of said sets being spaced from the axes of the holes of the other of said sets; hollow members of boat-strength-providing material,

each having a maximum dimension across its perimeter which is equal to at least two-thirds of the width of said beam; each of said members having a beamward end extending into and fastened in one of said holes and another end free-in ambient air; gaseous material in said hollow members; and

bonding material, set from previously shapeless condition, fastening said beamward ends in the holes of one of said sets;

the holes in the other of said sets being empty, and in boat-framework assembly being adapted to hold bonding material and another group of hollow members, fastened to said beam by said last-named bonding material.

26. A boat-framework unit as set forth in claim 25,

in which said two sets of holes are in zigzag arrangement, the axis of each hole of one of said sets being spaced from holes of the other set.

27. A boat-framework unit as set forth in claim 25, in which said beam has other holes, extending entirely thru the beam, adapted for passage from one side of the beam to the other of foaming, poured-in-situ foamedplastic materials during boat construction.

28. A vehicle, adapted to traverse water, including:

desk structure, having load-containing space above it, including: numerous spaced-apart deck beams of vehicle-strength-providing material, extending transversely to a vertical plane containing the vehicles fore-and-aft axis, each opposite pair of said beams having spaced-apart, opposite surfaces of its two beams and opposite holes that extend into said material from said surfaces, each of said holes at one of said surfaces opening toward and aligned with an opposite hole in the other of said two beams; hollow members of vehicle-strengthproviding material, connecting and bracing said opposite pair of beams, each of said hollow members having ends extending into and braced in an aligned pair of said opposite holes; and securing means, holding said ends in said holes and said hollow members in vehicle-strength-providing assembled relation;

sidewall framework, connected to said deck structure, including: fore-and-aft sidewall beams of vehicle-strength-providing material, connected to said deck beams, each pair of said sidewall beams having spaced-apart, opposite surfaces of the two beams and opposite holes that extend into said material from said last-named surfaces, each of said 16 last-named holes at one of the surfaces opening towork in vehicle-strength-providing assembled rela- Wal'd pp hole at the other of Said lasttion; waterproof, water-traversing means, below named surfaces; hollow members of vehicleand connected to Said deck beams;

strength-providing material, connecting and bracing said sidewall beams, each of said hollow members having ends extending into and braced in an aligned pair f Said lastmamed holes; and Securing means, connected to inner portions of said framemeans, holding said last-named ends in the holes Workand said hollow members of the sidewall framewaterproof, exterior skin means, fixed to outer portions of said sidewall framework; and interior skin

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3596622 *Jan 27, 1969Aug 3, 1971Moore Alvin ELight-weight wreck-resistant vehicle
US3718295 *Dec 29, 1970Feb 27, 1973Moore ABarrel-curved, wreck-resistant cabin
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5020175 *Feb 27, 1990Jun 4, 1991Kirkpatrick Paul AMulticompartment cushion comprising recyclable plastic bottles
US5314067 *Jun 12, 1992May 24, 1994Sara StrockBottle connection system
US5694877 *Jun 24, 1996Dec 9, 1997Hvide Marine IncorporatedShip docking vessel
US6387172Apr 25, 2000May 14, 2002United States Gypsum CompanyGypsum compositions and related methods
US6481171Nov 1, 2001Nov 19, 2002United States Gypsum CompanyGypsum compositions and related methods
Classifications
U.S. Classification114/65.00R
International ClassificationB63B43/10
Cooperative ClassificationB63B2231/62, B63B43/10
European ClassificationB63B43/10