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Publication numberUS3896102 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 22, 1975
Filing dateApr 25, 1974
Priority dateApr 25, 1974
Publication numberUS 3896102 A, US 3896102A, US-A-3896102, US3896102 A, US3896102A
InventorsFloyd E Naylor
Original AssigneePhillips Petroleum Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Preparation of polybutadiene
US 3896102 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [191 Naylor PREPARATION OF POLYBUTADIENE [75] inventor: Floyd E. Naylor, Bartlesville, Okla.

[73] Assiguee: Phillips Petroleum Company,

Bartlesville. Okla.

[22] Filed: Apr. 25, 1974 211' Appl. 1%.; 463,978

[52] US. Cl 260/94.3; 252/429 C [51] Int. Cl. C08d 1/14; C08d 3/08 [58] Field of Search 260/943, 94.2 M, 429 C [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,050,513 8/1962 Zelinski et al. 260/943 July 22, 1975 3.066.129 11/1962 Farrar 260/943 3,223,694 12/1965 Farrar 3,361,730 1/1968 Naylor 260/943 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 657.765 2/1963 Canada 260/943 Primary Examiner-William F. Hamrock {57] ABSTRACT 10 Claims, No Drawings l PREPARATION OF POLYBUTADIENE BACKGROUND.

The invention relates to a method and a catalyst for polymerizing l',3-butadiene. In another aspect it relates to a method and a catalyst for the production of transpolybutadiene.

It is known that polymers of dienes, such as 1,3- butadiene, are very useful polymeric materials. Polybutadiene is produced with multifarious properties, many of which can be determined by the polymerization process and/or catalyst. For example, catalysts can be chosen to produce either a cis or trans polybutadiene, and in general, the higher the trans content of polybutadiene the more resinous it is. High trans polybutadiene is an elastic, tough, crystalline, thermoplastic solid whereas a high cis polybutadiene is a rubbery material. Although there are a number of processes and catalysts known for polymerizing 1,3-butadiene, there'is still a demand for new catalysts and processes which are useful to polymerize 1,3-butadiene.

It is an object of the invention to produce polymers.

Another object of the invention is to produce polymers of 1,3-butadiene.

Another object of the invention is to produce trans polybutadiene.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a novel catalyst for the production of polybutadiene.

Other objects, aspects, and advantages of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon studying the specification and the appended claims.

SUMMARY In accordance with the invention a polybutadiene is produced by contacting 1,3-butadiene under polymerization conditions with a novel catalyst comprising: (a) an organoaluminum hydride; (b) an organolithium or organosodium compound; (c) a titanium halide component; and (d) an ether.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The organoaluminum hydride employed in the catalyst system of the present invention is represented by the general formula R AlH wherein R is an alkyl, cycloalkyl, and combinations thereof, such as alkylcycloalkyl, containing from about I to 16 carbon atoms, a is an integer from I to 2, b is an integer from 1 to 2 such that the sum of a plus b equals 3. Examples of such organoaluminum hydrides include dimethylaluminum hydride, diethylaluminum hydride, ethylaluminum dihydride, methyl isopropylaluminum hydride, cyclohexylaluminum dihydride, ethyl cyclohexylaluminum hydride, methyl 4- ethylcyclohexylaluminum hydride, didodecylaluminum hydride, ethyl hexadecylaluminum hydride, and eicosylaluminum dihydride.

The organolithium or organosodium compound suit- 2 butyllithium, cyclohexyllithium, 4-butylcyclohexylsodium, 4-cyclohexylbutyllithium, dilithiomethane, 1,4-disodiobutane, I, l O-dilithiodecane, 1,20-dilithioeicosane, 1 ,4-disodiocyclohexane, 1 ,4-disodio-2- butene, 1 ,8-dilithio-3-decene, diphenylethane, and 1,2-disodio-1 ,S-diphenyloctane.

The titanium halide component of the catalyst system is selected from the group consisting of titanium tetrachloride and molecular iodine, titanium tetrabromide and molecular iodine, or titanium tetraiodide with or without molecular iodine.

The ethers suitable for use in the invention are represented by the general formula R"OR"' wherein R" and R are alkyls or cycloalkyls containing from about 1 to 12 carbon atoms per R or R' group and wherein the ether contains up to 20 carbon atoms per molecule. Nonlimiting examples include dimethyl ether, diethyl ether, di-n-butyl ether, methyl ethyl ether, methyl dodecyl ether, ethyl cyclohexyl ether, dicyclohexyl ether, n-octyl n-dodecyl ether, and mixtures thereof.

The catalyst composition, on a mole raito basis, varies widely. Generally, the mole ratio of the organolithium or organosodium compound to the organoaluminum hydride is in the range of from about 1:1 to 1:3, although good results were obtained employing a mole ratio ranging from about 1:1 to 1:1.5. The mole ratio of the titanium tetrahalide in the titanium halide component of the catalyst to the organoaluminum hydride is in the range of from about 1:1 to 0.1:1, although good results were obtained with a mole ratio ranging from about 0.5:1 to 0.2:1. The mole ratio of titanium tetrachloride or titanium tetrabromide to the molecular iodine is in the range of from about 1:1 to 01:1, but good results were obtained employing a mole ratio ranging from about 0.5:1 to 0.33:1.

With respect to the quantity of ether employed in the catalyst system, the amount varies widely and depends upon the choice of ether and to a lesser degree upon the relative importance of conversion versus trans content of the polymer. Although many ethers are suitable for use in the invention, methyl ethers have the greatest effectiveness per unit weight. Also initially increasing the amount of ether increases both the conversion and trans content; however, generally a point is reached beyond which additional ether will increase trans content but reduce conversion. Normally, though, the amount of ether present during the polymerization is in the range of from about 0.01 to 30 parts by weight per hundred parts by weight butadiene.

Generally, the polymerization mixture contains a diluent. Diluents suitable for use in the process are compounds which are not detrimental to the polymerization process. Suitable diluents include paraffmic and cycloparaffinic hydrocarbons and mixtures thereof. Examples of such diluents include n-hexane, n-heptane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, and cyclohexane. The inventive process is operable over a broad range of concentrations of butadiene in the diluent. For example, normally the concentration of butadiene in the diluent is in the range of from about I to 200 weight percent, but a range of from about 5 to 50 weight percent has been used successfully.

The total quantity of catalyst required to effect polymerization of the 1,3-butadiene to polymer can be determined readily by one skilled in the art and depends upon the trans content desired and the particular con- 1,2-dilithio-l,2-

ditions such as temperature, impurities, molecular weight desired and the like. Normally, the total quantity of catalyst expressed in gram millimoles of the organoaluminum hydride per hundred grams of butadiene varies in the range of from about 0.3 to 30; however, a more economical range of from about 0.5 to has produced good results.

The trans content of the polymer produced employing the inventive catalyst system varies considerably. Normally the polymer produced has a substantial trans content, such as for example, between 60 to 95 percent; however, a polymer with a trans content outside this range can be made with the present catalyst system.

Polymerization can take place in a wide range of temperature. A convenient range in which effective polymerization can be obtained is 0 to 120C, with good results obtained employing a range from about 30 to 80C. Also the polymerization pressure varies widely. The polymerization reaction can be carried out under autogeneous pressure or at any suitable pressure sufficient to maintain the reaction mixture substantially in the liquid phase. Generally the pressure will thus depend upon the particular diluent being employed and the temperature at which the polymerization is carried out. However, higher pressures can be employed if desired by using a suitable method such as the pressurization of the reactor with the gas which is inert with respect to the polymerization reaction.

Various materials are known to be detrimental to the catalyst of the invention. These materials include carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water. It is usually desirable, therefore, that the reactants and catalysts be freed of these materials as well as other materials which may tend to inactivate the catalyst. Furthermore, it is desirable to remove air and moisture from the reaction vessel in which the polymerization is to be conducted. Upon completion of the polymerization, the polymerization mixture is then treated to inactivate the catalyst and to recover the polymer. A suitable method for accomplishing this result involves steam stripping the diluent from the polymer. In another suitable method a catalyst-inactivating material, such as an alcohol, is added to the mixture so as to inactivate the catalyst and cause precipitation of the polymer. The polymer is then separated from the alcohol and diluent by any suitable means, such as decantation or filtration. It has been found to be advantageous to add an antioxidant, such as 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenol to the polymer solution prior to recovery of the polymer.

Polymers can be compounded by methods as known in the art. Compounding ingredients, such as fillers, dyes, pigments, curing or crosslinking agents, softeners, reinforcing agents, and the like, can be used in the compounding operation. In manufacturing finished articles, the polymer can be molded or extruded. They can be advantageously employed in the manufacture of items such as insulating wires and cables, including such for underwater service, battery cases, and golf ball covers.

Illustrative Examples The polymerizations were carried out under nitroger in capped beverage bottles employing anhydrous reactants and conditions. The bottles were tumbled in a constant temperature bath for the stipulated polymerization times and at the stipulated temperatures. Following polymerization, 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenol (1 part by weight per hundred parts of monomer) was added in a 50/50 volume toluene/isopropyl alcohol solution, the polymer solutions were filtered, and the polymers were coagulated by adding the filtrates to isopropyl alcohol. The polymers were then collected by filtration and dried at reduced pressure. Polymers thus produced were thermoplastic in character.

Shown immediately below are definitions of abbreviations and terms employed in the following working examples. Also included are descriptions and references for analytical and evaluation methods employed.

m.p. Melting point, C

f.p. Freezing point, C

mhm. Gram millimoles per hundred grams monomer phm. Parts by weight per parts by weight monomer a. Inherent Viscosity (I.V.) was determined using tetrahydrofuran instead of toluene by the process shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,278,508, column 20, note a, with the further modification that the solution was not filtered through a sulfur absorption tube, but rather a sample of the solution was filtered through a fritted glass filter stick of grade C porosity and pressured directly into the viscometer.

b. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) melting points and freezing points were determined on Du- Pont instrument DTA-900 differential thermal analyzer employing a differential scanning calorimeter cell. The point of maximum deflection of the endotherm or exotherm under a nitrogen atmosphere was observed. Heating and cooling rates employed were each 10 per minute. The size of samples analyzed was approximately 15 mg.

c. Polymer microstructure, i.e., trans and vinyl contents were determined by infrared absorption spectroscopy (I.A.S.).

EXAMPLE 1 (Runs l-l8) The following inventive runs illustrate the invention and, in particular, the effect on conversion and trans content of varying the amount of ether, i.e., dimethyl ether, employed. Also the amount of the other catalyst components was also varied but at constant relative amounts. The runs were made in accordance with the following recipe and the results are tabulated below.

TABLE 1 Con- Run n-BuLl EtgAlH TiC1 Iodine Me O version DTA Trans Vinyl No. mhm mhm mhm mhm mhm Wt. m.p. f.p. Wt. Wt. IV

Generally trans values were increased by increasing the dimethyl ether level. Since DTA data is relatively more dependable than trans values determined by lAS,' an examination of the DTA data and a comparison of the relationship between DTA data and trans values indicates the trans value for run 6 is erroneously low. Also the polymerization rate was promoted by adding additional dimethyl ether up to a point beyond which additional ether suppressed the rate.

The inherent viscosity values of the polymers produced in accordance with the invention indicated the Aliphatic and cycloaliphatic diluents are clearly preferred over aromatic solvents as illustrated by the examples above.

EXAMPLE 111 (Runs 31-35) polymers were of useful molecular weights. Recipe EXAMPLE ll hm (Runs 19-30 The following runs illustrate the effects of variations -H 660 in the solvent wherein such variations were studied at hydnde 1'2 various dimethyl ether levels. The runs were made in DieFhy] ether variable accordance with the following recipe and the results Iodine d 0.8 mhm Titanium tetrachlori e 0.4 mhm are tabulated below. Butadiene 100 Recipe Temperature, C 50 Time, hours 18 phm n-Hexane, or cyclohexane,

or toluene 660, 780, or 860 (respectively) TABLE n-Butyllithium 1.8 mam- Diethylaluminum hydride 1.8 m m Run (C H )0 Conversion Trans Vin l s 2 Y gg' fg ether f g g No. 31m Wt. Wt. Wt. rv Titanium tetrachloride 0.5 mhm 31 0.0 55 2.2 5.3 3.29 100 32 0.5 46.4 3.8 2.69 c 33 1.0 55 54.0 3.7 2.97 Temperature, C 50 3 21 45 Time. hours 4 35 10.0 10 88.3 2.5 2.14

TABLE 11 Con- Run (CH O version Trans Vinyl DTA No. Solvent mhm Wt. Wt. Wt. 1V m.p. f.p.

l9 n-Hexane 2 55 24.0 4.6 1.87 20 n-Hexane 4 55 21 n-Hexane 8 54 75.0 2.7 3.71 22 n-Hexane 16 32 53 44 23 Cyclohexane 2 74 17.3 4.7 1.87 24 Cyclohexane 4 73 52.5 3.5 2.17 25 Cyclohexane 8 77 26 Cyclohexane 16 72 86.9 2.3 3.61 54 50 27 Toluene 2 69 15.7 3.9 4.82 28 Toluene 4 4 29 Toluene 8 0 30 Toluene l6 7 A very substantial increase in trans content was observed when the polymerization mixture contained as little as 0.5 phm diethyl ether. Also the trans content was further increased by increasing the amount of ether; however, a point was reached whereby additional ether decreased conversion.

EXAMPLE 1V (Runs 3639) What is claimed is:

l. A method for polymerizing 1,3-butadiene compriscontacting 1.3-butadiene under polymerization conditions with a four-componentcatalyst comprising; a. an organoalurninum hydride represented by the general formula R,,A1H,, wherein R is a1ky1,cycloalkyl or mixtures thereof containing from about 1 to 16 carbon atoms, a is an integer from 1 to 2, b is The runs shown below were made to determine the Z l from 1 to 2 Such that the Sum of a plus effect of varying the ether level and the aluminum/- b s i m for anos di c m d titanium atom ratios. These runs were made in accororg 0 m 0 g 0 o poun. re]?- resented by the general formula R M wherein x 18 dance with the following recipe and the results are taban integer from 1 to 4, R a hydrocarbon radical ulated below.

15 selected from the group consistlng of al1phat1c and Recipe 0 cloali hatic radicals containin from about 1 to y p a g c 20 carbon atoms per radical and M is lithium or sophm dium;

H 660 c. a titanium halide component selected from the [1' CXBHC Dimethyl ether var-[able 20 group cons sting of titanium tetrachloride plus mo- Diethylaluminum hydride 1.8 mhm lecular lodine, titanium tetrabromide plus molecumhm lar iodine, and titanium tetraiodide; and lodine variable Titanium tetrachloride variable (1. an ether represented by the general formula Butadiene I00 R"OR" wherein R" and R' are alkyl or cycloalo k l grou s containin from about 1 to 12 carbon Temperature. C 50 y p g Time, hours 4 atoms per R" or R group and wherein the ether TABLE V Con Run TiCl, lodine (CHM-,0 version Trans Vinyl DTA No. mhm mhm mhm Wt. '71 Wt. Wt. 7n IV mp. f.p.

In a comparison of the conversion and trans content of run 36 l with that of runs 37 through 39, it is evident that the lower molar ratio of aluminum alkyl hydride to titanium halide in the latter runs adversely affected the reaction.

EXAMPLE V (Runs 40-44) The following runs illustrate the operation of the inventive system at 70C. The runs were made in accordance with the following recipe and the results are tabulated below.

contains up to 20 carbon atoms per molecule.

2. The method of claim 1 wherein the mole ratio of 40 the organolithium or organosodium compound to the organoaluminum hydride is in the range of from about 1:1 to 1:3; wherein the mole ratio of the titanium tetrahalide in the titanium halide component to the or- 'ganoaluminum hydride is in the range of from about 1:1 to 01:1; wherein the mole ratio of titanium tetrachloride or titanium tetrabromide to molecular iodine is in the range of from about 1:1 to 0.1:1; and wherein the amount of the ether present during the polymerization is in the range of from about 0.01 to 30 parts by R weight per hundred parts by weight butadiene.

ecpe 3. The method of claim 2 wherein the mole ratio of the organolithium or organosodium compound to the 6.. g( organoaluminum hydride is in the range of from about n-Hexane Dimehyl ether variable 1.1 to 1.1.5, wherein the mole ratio of the titanium tet- Diethyluluminum hydride 1.8 mh rahalide 1n the titanium halide component to the ornButyll|th1um 1.8 mhm ganoaluminum hydride is in the range of from about lodine variable 0 0 h th I f Titanium tetrachloride variable 0 efeln 8 ratio 0 titanium tetra- B i 100 chloride or titanium tetrabromide to molecular iodine Temperature IS in the range of from about 0.5: 1 to 0.33:1. Time. hours 4 0 4. The method of claim 3 wherein the amount of total TABLE VI Run TiCl lodine (CH,1 )2O Conversion Tran v m;l No. mhm mhm mhm Wt. Wt. Wt 70 IV catalyst present during the polymerization based on the organoaluminum compound is in the range of from about 0.3 to 30 gram millimoles of organoaluminurn compound per hundred grams of butadiene.

5. The method of claim 4 wherein the amount of total catalyst present during the polymerization based on the organoaluminum compound is in the range of from about 0.5 to l gram millimoles of organoaluminum compound per hundred grams of butadiene.

6. The method of claim 1 wherein the polymerization is carried out in the presence of a diluent which is not detrimental to the polymerization process; wherein the concentration of butadiene in the diluent is in the range of from about I to 200 weight percent; wherein the polymerization is carried out at a temperature in the range of from about 0 to 120C; and wherein the polymerization is carried out at a pressure sufficient to maintain the polymerization mixture substantially in the liquid phase.

7. The method of claim 5 wherein the polymerization is carried out in the presence of a diluent selected from the group consisting of paraffins, cycloparaffins and mixtures thereof containing 4 to 8 carbon atomswherein the concentration of butadiene in the diluent is in the range of from about 5 to 50 weight percent, wherein the temperature is in the range of from about 30 to C, and wherein the polymerization is carried out at autogenous pressure.

8. The method of claim 7 wherein the diluent is nhexane or cyclohexane, the organoaluminum compound is diethyl aluminum hydride, the organolithium compound is normal or secondary butyllithium, the titanium halide component is titanium tetrachloride plus molecular iodine, and ether is dimethyl ether.

9, The method of claim 1 wherein butadiene is polymerized to produce polybutadiene containing a substantial trans content.

10. The method of claim 9 wherein the trans content is in the range of from about 60 to percent.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3050513 *Apr 20, 1956Aug 21, 1962Phillips Petroleum CoProcess and catalyst for production of rubbery polymers
US3066129 *Jul 15, 1960Nov 27, 1962Phillips Petroleum CoProduction of rubbery polymers with a lithium aluminum hydride-titanium chloride-iodine catalyst
US3223694 *Mar 20, 1962Dec 14, 1965Phillips Petroleum CoProcess and catalyst for production of rubbery polymers
US3361730 *May 1, 1964Jan 2, 1968Phillips Petroleum CoProcess and catalyst for production of polybutadiene
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4048427 *Apr 26, 1976Sep 13, 1977The General Tire & Rubber CompanyButadiene-styrene andor isoprene polymers
US6555627Dec 21, 2000Apr 29, 2003Acushnet CompanyGolf balls including rigid compositions and methods for making same
US6575848Dec 21, 2000Jun 10, 2003Acushnet CompanyLow modulus golf ball compositions and methods for making same
US6710114Aug 8, 2001Mar 23, 2004Acushnet CompanyComprises a solution blended polymeric composite comprising at least two polybutadienes and a plurality of nanoparticles
US6790147Apr 21, 2003Sep 14, 2004Acushnet CompanyLow modulus golf ball compositions and methods for making same
US6875131Mar 19, 2003Apr 5, 2005Acushnet CompanyMulti-layer golf ball
US6998445Jul 9, 2002Feb 14, 2006Acushnet CompanyLow compression, resilient golf balls with rubber core
US7041006Mar 17, 2004May 9, 2006Acushnet CompanyGolf balls including solution blended polymeric composite and method of making same
US7119127Mar 24, 2004Oct 10, 2006Acushnet CompanyGolf balls containing cis-to-trans converted polybutadiene and methods for making same
US7446150Oct 28, 2005Nov 4, 2008Acushnet CompanyLow compression, resilient golf balls with rubber core
Classifications
U.S. Classification526/137, 526/340.4, 502/112, 526/335, 526/142
International ClassificationC08F136/06
Cooperative ClassificationC08F136/06
European ClassificationC08F136/06