US 3897173 A
Disclosed is an improved pump for liquids or gasses and an improved method for pumping such materials.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Mandroian July 29, 1975  ELECTROLYSIS PUMP  Filed: Mar. 22, 1973  Appl. No.: 343,658
 U.S. Cl. 417/73; 60/26.11; 417/240; 417/557  Int. Cl. F04f 1/16; F04f 7/10; F04b 21/00  Field of Search 417/73, 74, 75, 240, 241, 417/557, 138,142
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 379,674 3/1888 Bolmer 417/73 1,027,430 5/1912 Poore et a1. 417/74 1,626,070 4/1927 Bond et al. 417/74 2,272,477 2/1942 Pfleger 417/73 2,857,853 10/1958 Siegmund 417/73 2,916,200 12/1959 Siegmund 417/73 3,136,455 6/1964 Coes 417/557 3,155,049 11/1964 Mandelbaum et al.. 417/138 X 3,275,021 9/1966 ,Loveless 417/138 X FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 8,801 ll/1900 Norway 417/557 IGNITION COIL Primary Examiner-William L. Freeh Attorney, Agent, or Firm--Nilsson, Robbins, Bissell, Dalgarn & Berliner 5 7 ABSTRACT Disclosed is an improved pump for liquids or gasses and an improved method for pumping such materials.
ln all embodiments, the motive principle of the pump and the essence of the method is forcible ejection of the substance to be pumped from a pumping chamber by the explosion of hydrogen in the presence of oxygen, these two gasses being created by electrolysis of water containing at least a trace amount of ionized impurity. Where this water is substance to be pumped, it is drawn into a single chamber and electrolyzed, whereupon the explosion occurs within the chamber, forcibly ejecting the water therefrom. In embodiments where other substances are pumped, the electrolysis and explosion take place in a first closed chamber, and the forces created are transmitted, either through the water or through the gasses, into a second chamber containing the material to be pumped.
POWER SUPPLY CONTROL SHEET I POWER SUPPLY IGNITION ,75
COIL CONTROL SIGNAL -70 PROCESSOR INGRESS EGRESS MEANS MEANS w+H2O K 20A, 25A ZOA, 25A
Fig. 2 Fig 3 PATENTED JUL 2 91975 SHEET SUPPLY POWER SUPPLY POWER 5 Q k //4 w 7 O I v I, D W /////VV 5 p U o 5 v I Q ELECTROLYSIS PUMP BACKGROUND OF INVENTION A. Field of Invention This invention relates to the field of gas and liquid pumps and methods for pumping such substances.
B. Description of Prior Art Numerous types of gas and liquid pumps have been in use during all of recorded history.
In modern times, axial and centrifugal mechanical pumps are the most commonly used. An axial pump utilizes an impeller in the nature of a compressor which draws the material through its inlet opening and forcibly directs it along the axis of the pump through its outlet. A centrifugal pump ordinarily utilizes a screw-type impeller which draws the material along the pump axis and forcibly ejects it in a tangential direction, near the pump circumference. In either case, the impeller constitues a moving part which must be bearing-mounted and coupled with some form of mechanical driving means, such as an electric motor.
Thus, pumps currently in use depend for their performance on a large number of moving parts. Moving parts wear because of friction and material fatigue. Lubrication can prolong the service life of such parts but cannot prevent, indefinitely, the destruction of these parts, resulting in termination, or at least temporary interruption, of service of the pump.
Likewise, clay, sand, dust and other debris suspended in the gas or liquid pumped through these mechanisms have a tendency to clog the moving parts and eventually terminate the usefulness of the pump.
Replacement of worn or damaged parts and cleaning of pumps is, at best, a nuisance. In situations where the pump is utilized to extract ground water from a water table of great depth, such servicing is impractical, if not impossible. Elimination of the great majority of the moving parts in pumps would render them far more servicable, particularly under such conditions.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, it is the object of this invention to provide a pump for gaseous or liquid materials which requires few or no moving parts.
It is a further object of this invention to provide an improved method for pumping such materials.
Briefly, the pump of the present invention, in each of its embodiments, is based on the same motive principle. A quantity of water having at least a trace amount of ionized impurity is electrolyzed, thereby creating gaseous hydrogen and oxygen. These gasses are ignited in a substantially closed chamber, creating an explosion, the force of which is employed in expelling the material to be pumped from the pump in a downstream direction. Similarly, the method of the present invention comprises electrolyzing such water and creating such an explosion, whereby the material is pumped by the action of the force of the explosion.
In embodiments where the material to be pumped is itself water containing at least a trace amount of ionized impurity, the pump of the present invention comprises a chamber with means for ingress and egress of the water being pumped thereby. The ingress and egress means are each adapted to restrict upstream flow of the water, for example, by means of simple spring-loaded or check valves, or by use of inlet and outlet tubes which constrict inthe direction of flow,
thus utilizing the viscosity of water and other factors to retard upstream movement. In particular, the ingress and egress means may each comprise series of such constriction devices arranged, in a downstream direction, such that each constriction feeds into a region of greater cross-sectional area, to compound the retarding influence of the individual devices.
Propulsion of the water through the pump. in these embodiments, is accomplished by electrolysis of a portion of the water itself and subsequent ignition, within the chamber, of the hydrogen and oxygen generated thereby. Subsidence of each explosion creates a net vacuum within the chamber with respect to the source of the material being pumped, which, because of the upstream flow restrictive means, causes an additional charge of water to be drawn into the chamber from the source. The electrolysis and ignition means may each comprise a pair of electrodes within the pump chamber, the ignition means being inserted in the region wherein the gasses of electrolysis tend to collect. A source or sources of electrical energy are provided to these means, and the flow of current may be controlled as desired for optimal performance of the pump.
In embodiments of the pump wherein the substance to be pumped is not the water itself, a second pumping chamber is utilized. In these embodiments, the electrolysis and ignition steps occur within a substantially closed first chamber containing the impure water. The force created by the explosion is transmitted to a second chamber containing the gaseous or liquid substance to be pumped. The second chamber may be provided with ingress and egress for upstream flow restriction similarly to the basic chamber in the previously described embodiment. The communication of the forces between the first chamber and the second chamber is accomplished by some force transmissive means such as a flexible diaphragm or piston or, in some cases, direct contact. The force may be transmitted either through the water contained in the first chamber or fromthe expanding gasses directly, depending on the placement and nature of the force transmissive means.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a sectional, partially schematic view of a pump according to an embodiment of this invention.
FIG. 2 is a sectional view of ingress means for the material to be pumped according to an embodiment of this invention.
FIG. 3 is a sectional view of egress means for the material to be pumped according to an alternative embodiment of this invention.
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a set of electrolysis electrodes according to an embodiment of this invention.
FIG. 5 is a sectional, partially schematic view of a pump according to another embodiment of this invention.
FIG. 6 is a sectional, partially schematic view of a portion of a pump according to an embodiment of this invention differing in certain measure from that shown in FIG. 5.
FIG. 7 is a sectional, partially schematic view of a portion of a pump according to the present invention differing in certain measurefrom that shown in FIG. 6.
FIG. 8 is a schematic, partially sectional view of a pump according to yet another embodiment of this invention.
FIG. 9 is a schematic, partially sectional view of a pump according to still another embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 10 is a schematic, partially sectional view of a pump according to an additional embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 11 is a schematic sectional view of an impulse generator according to the present invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS This invention consists both of a method of pumping liquids or gasses and apparatus for pumping such materials. Various embodiments of the apparatus of the present invention will now be described in detail, following which the method will be described in more summary fashion.
Referring to FIG. 1, the pump 10, according to the preferred embodiment of this invention which is uniquely adapted to pumping water containing at least a trace amount of ionized impurity, comprises a chamber 15, together with ingress means into the chamber and egress means out of the chamber. The ingress means is adapted to permit entrance, into the chamber, of the water to be pumped from a source not shown. Depending on the application for the pump, the source may be a water pipe, tank or other container, or simply ground water contained within the ambient.
The pump housing should be constructed of a reasonably strong material, such as heavy-gauge stainless steel, since it must withstand the shock of repeated explosions. Likewise, it should be reasonably resistent to corrosion by gaseous oxygen and by ions found in the type of water to be pumped. In any event, the selection of the proper material is well within the capacity of those skilled in the art to which this invention pertains.
The egress means 25 is adapted to conduct the pumped water out of the pump. In most embodiments, the egress means will transmit the water into pipes or other tubing, not shown, for delivery to a storage tank or another apparatus.
Both the ingress means 20 and the egress means 25 must be designed to retard or, preferably, to prevent the backward (i.e., upstream) flow of water through the chamber. This may be accomplished by numerous means. For example, simple spring-loaded mechanical valves, ball check valves, etc., well-known to those skilled in the art to which this invention pertains, may be employed.
If it is desired to produce a pump having no moving parts whatever, an ingress tube 20a and an egress tube 25a, as shown in FIG. 2 may be employed. Since both the ingress tube and the egress tube accomplishes substantially the same purpose, their design is substantially identical. Basically, each is simply a hollow conduit having at least a portion of its interior of a progressively decreasing cross-sectinal area along the direction of water flow. The constriction 80 accomplishes this purpose and, in effect, joins the region of the tube having relatively large cross-sectional diameter D1 with that having relatively small cross-section diameter D2.
The function of this design is rather simple and is based on the fact that the liquid of gaseous substance (water in this embodiment) pumped by the pump of the present invention is driven in relatively short bursts. Under such circumstances, the inherent viscosity of the material causes its flow to be turbulent when directed from a region of large cross-sectional area, discontinuously into one of much smaller cross-sectional area. On the other hand, flow would be rather smooth, and perhaps even laminar, where the cross-sectional area progressively decreases in a downstream direction.
Referring again to FIGS. 1 and 2, it can be seen that under the circumstances of operation of this pump the ingress tube 200 would present a great impediment to the upstream movement of the water within the chamber 15.
Likewise, the egress tube 25a would create the same impediment to upstream movement of water into the chamber from the region beyond the pump.
This effect can be increased by the use of a series of ingress tubes 20b and/or a series of egress tubes 25b, as shown in FIG. 3. In a downstream direction, this ingress tube 20b (or egress tube 25b) comprises a series of constrictions interspersed with regions where the internal diameter of the tube discontinuously increases. It will be easily understood by those skilled in the art to which this invention pertains that the effect of these series tubes 20b, 25b will be to compound the effect of the individual ingress tube 20a or egress tube 25a.
By carefully selecting the ratio D1/D2 of the internal diameters of the tubes and the lengths of the constrictive regions 80 between the portions of diameter D2 and the portions of diameter D1, and/or by adjusting the number of elements within the series ingress tubes 20b and/or egress tubes 25b, those practicing this invention may greatly reduce upstream flow while optimizing the smooth downstream flow of water through the pump.
Of course, the ingress and egress restrictive means may be placed at any point, relative to the position of the pump chamber, in or in association with the egress and ingress means, respectively. E.g., the pump chambermay be positioned below the ground water table, while the restrictive means may be at the surface for easy observation and/or servicing. Thus, they need not be in close proximity to the chamber, as shown in FIGS. 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10.
Propulsion of water through the pump 10 is accomplished by electrolyzing a portion of the water in the pump chamber 15 and by igniting the hydrogen and oxygen thus generated. It is well known in the chemical art that gaseous hydrogen ignited in the presence of oxygen will create one of the greatest energy-per-mass explosions known. Thus, very little electrolytic decomposition of water need be accomplished for each burst of the pump, and each burst will tend to eject the water through the egress means 25 with great force.
It is also well known that electrolysis of water may be accomplished simply by immersing a pair of electrodes 30 within the water and causing a current to flow through the water between them. Absolutely pure water will not conduct electricity. However, even the minutest trace of ionized impurities in the water will render it sufficiently conductive to support electrolysis. Virtually all water from substantially every source contains this necessary amount of trace impurity. Thus, the pump of this embodiment of the present invention may be used under nearly all circumstances requiring the pumping of water, aqueous solutions or aqueous suspensions.
The electrolysis circuitry consist of a pair of electrolysis electrodes 30, which are in close proximity within the portion of the chamber 15 containing water, and a suitable power supply 35 to deliver the necessary electrical energy to the electrodes. The power supply may be as simple as an ordinary ac source without any electrical circuitry elements whatever intervening between it and the electrodes. On the other hand, the power supply may be as sophisticated as desired, containing whatever timing, switching and transformer means prove to be advantageous to those practicing this inventionin any particular application. While in FIG. 1, the electrolysis electrodes are shown to be separate from the pump housing, one of the electrodes may, of course, be a portion of the interior surface of the housing itself if the latter is of electrically conductive material. In the latter case, the separate electrolysis electrode would be insulated from the housing, and a portion of it would be placed in close proximity to the conductive portion of the interior surface of the pump chamber.
In particular, in the embodiment of the present invention shown in FIG. 4, the electrolysis electrodes 30a comprise a set of coaxial cylindrical conductive shells 85, 90. Alternative shells 85 are insulated from the conductive portion of the pump housing 12 on which the shells are mounted, and are in electrical communication with" the power source 35. The remaining shells 90 are in electrical communication with the conductive portion of the interior of the pump housing and are at a lower electricalpotential than the first set. In particular, the shells 90 may be in electrical communication 'with ground. Theflow of water into the interstices be- "tween adjacent shells may be promoted by perforating the shells.- However, this is not absolutely necessary, since very little water will be decomposed during electrolysis, and it will readily be replaced by other water within the pump chamber 15 which will flow into the interstices to replace the mass of the gasses generated by the electrolysis and released from within the interstices.
In any event, electrolysis of the water within the chamber 15 will cause the generation of hydrogen and oxygen bubbles 77 which will flow through the water into the ignition chamber 40. Inserted within the ignition chamber are the ignition electrodes 45 separated by the spark gap 50. As in the case of the electrolysis electrodes 30, one of the ignition electrodes may be a conductive portion of the interior of the pump housing within the ignition chamber. The ignition electrodes (or in the latter case the hot electrode) electrically communicate with the ignition coil 55 whose function is substantially identical to the ignition coil in an ordinary automobile engine. The ignition power supply 60, which may be identical to the electrolysis power supply 35, provides electrical energy to the ignition coil.
In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, control of the flow of electrical energy to the ignition electrodes 45 (i.e., control of the operation of the ignition coil 55) is provided by the control means 75. This means may, in various applications, comprise electrical and/or mechanical switching means of conventional design. The switch may, in turn, be controlled by any sort of conventional timer, either alone or together with sensor means of various designs. In particular, the sensor means and the timer may independently operate the switch, or one may override the other. The design of the necessary circuitry to accomplish this result is well within the purview of the ordinary electrical engineer.
The sensor means may be variously designed depending on the particular function it is to serve. For example, it can be a pressure transducer to detect the total pressure of the gasses within the ignition chamber 40. It might also be a depth sensing device to monitor the depth of the water remaining within the pump chamber 15. It may be a thermocouple or other temperature sensing device to monitor the instantaneous temperature of the gasses or of the water. Likewise, it may be any combination of these and/or other means for monitoring the physical characteristics of the materials within the pump chamber.
The sensor means 65, whatever its precise nature, will generate an electrical signal whose value depends on the instantaneous value of the physical quantity being monitored. This signal will, in most cases, need to be processed by a signal processor which may consist simply of ordinary amplifier, before it can operate the control means 75.
Since thefunctions of the sensor 65, whatever its precise nature, the signal processor 70, the control means 75, the ignition coil 55 and the power supply 60 will. with the foregoing description, be well understood by those skilledin the electrical engineering art, it will not be necessary to discuss their exact characteristics in great detail. Such control systems are well known and, if not commercially available for the particular type of control to be accomplished, may be easily designed for optimal performance of the pump in any particular application by such an individual. By carefully selecting and mutually adjusting the operating characteristics of the components used in the control circuitry, the cycle (burst-to-burst) time and power of the pump may be optimized for any particular application of the pump.
Of course, completely satisfactory results may be obtained for most applications by employing control means consisting of nothing more than a simple mechanical or electrical timer which operates the ignition coil.
In an event, the net result is a pump 10 having no moving parts except, in the embodiments in which valves are used in the ingress means 20 and/or egress means 25 and/or where a mechanical timer is employed for the control means. Such a pump may be used in any situation where water, an aqueous solution or an aqueous suspension is to be pumped. It is particularly well suited for use in pumping ground water in areas where the water table is very low, since the entire mechanism may be submerged into the ground water, having only an electrical outlet and a water outlet leading to the surface.
However, the application of this invention is by no means limited to pumping water having ionized impurity. In other embodiments, thepump may be utilized in pumping any gaseous or liquids substance, including de-ionized water.
For example, to pump a gas or liquid which is of lower specific gravity than water, substantially immiscible therewith and substantially inert with respect thereto, pump 10a, as shown in FIG. 5, may be used. This embodiment of the invention utilizes two chambers, a force generator and a pumping station 100, which are connected by a communication duct 105. The force generator operates identically to the embodiment of the pump 10 described above, except that there is no ingress and egress means for the water. 'I.e., the force generator operates as a more-or-less closed system. As in the previous embodiment, the water (preferably containing a small amount of sodium hydroxide) is electrolyzed, and the resulting hydrogen and oxygen is ignited. Also as in the previous embodiment, control means, etc. of any desired type may be employed.
The ex losion of the hydrogen in the presence of the oxygen transmits force into the water, that force being transmitted through the duct 105 into the remainder of the water contained in the pumping chamber 100.
The upper portion of the pumping chamber 100 is the pumping reservoir 110 of the material being pumped. This material enters the reservoir through the ingress means 21, and is pumped from the reservoir, by the forces transmitted thereto, through the egress means 26. The ingress means 21 and egress means 26 serve an identical function to the ingress means 20 and egress means 25 of the previous embodiment, except that the material transmitted therethrough is something other than impure water. Accordingly, ingress means 21 may comprise a valve, an ingress tube 20a and/or a series ingress tube 20b. Of course, the egress means may be similarly constructed.
The pumping station 100 shown in FIG. contains no force transmissive device other than the interface between the water and the material being pumped. In embodiments of the pump a wherein the material being pumped is miscible with, reactive with, and/or more dense than water (for example, de-ionized water itself), some sort of impervious force transmissive interface must be provided. Examples of such structures are a slidable piston 115 within the pumping station 100a, as shown in FIG. 6, and a flexible diaphragm 120 sealed at its periphery 125 within pumping station 100b, as shown in FIG. 7. Doubtless those confronted with the problem of force transmission through means separating the material being pumped from the water through which the forces are transmitted will find other means of accomplishing this result.
Where the material being pumped is denser than water, the embodiment of the present invention shown in FIG. 8 may be conveniently employed. This pump 10b is substantially identical to the pump 100 shown in FIG. 5, except here the reservoir 110a, containing the dense material being pumped is in the lower portion of the pumping station 100C, in contrast to the reservoir 110 of the less dense substance being located above the water contained in the pumping station 100. The material pumped by this embodiment of the present invention, being more dense than water would, by gravitional force, naturally seek a lower level. Thus, this embodiment of the pump 10b is adapted to accommodate this occurrence, rather than resisting it. As in the case of the pump 10a, as shown in FIGS. 5, 6 and 7 the interface between the water and the material being pumped may be any means, including direct contact, which is force transmissive and which accomplishes any neces sary separation between the materials. Thus, it need not necessarily be a piston 115a, as shown in FIG. 8.
Likewise, control circuitry as described in the previously-cited embodiments may be employed in connection with this embodiment of the pump 10b, as desired, to accomplish the particular purpose to which the pump is applied.
The force necessary to pump the material, in embodiments where the material is not itself the impure water, may be transmitted directly from the gasses within the ignition chamber, rather than through the water. An embodiment of the present invention utilizing this feature is shown in FIG. 9. Here, the forces of explosion within the ignition chamber 40a are naturally transmitted from the force generator 950 through its opening 130 into the pumping chamber 100d. The nature of the pumping chamber 100d is similar to that of the pumping chambers described in the other embodiments of this invention, cited above, in which material other than impure water is pumped. Thus, the ingress means 21b, egress means 26b, reservoir "Oh and piston ll5b accomplish substantially the same result as in the other embodiments, and may be designed and utilized similarly. Likewise, as in the previous embodiments. the ignition process may be controlled as desired, utilizing means similar to those discussed above.
Likewise, as shown in FIG. 10, a flexible diaphragm may be utilized in separating the gasses from the substance being pumped. As shown in FIG. 10, the pump 10d comprises a force generator b and a pumping chamber e, separated by a bulkhead 135. Gasses from the ignition chamber 40b flow through the opening a into the upper region of the pumping chamber, below which is the reservoir 1100 containing the substance being pumped. Separating the gases from the reservoir is a force transmissive, flexible diaphragm 120a sealed at its periphery 125a. Upon ignition, the force is transmitted through the opening and acts on the diaphragm which extends, thus transmitting the force into the reservoir, whereupon the substance which has entered through the ingress means is forcibly ejected through the egress means. This embodiment of the present invention may be further refined by the addition of upstream flow restrictive means, control means and all other previously recited improvements whose function and design is substantially identical to those described in connection with the other embodiments of this invention hereinabove specified.
In cases where contamination of the substance being pumped by hydrogen, oxygen and/or water is not considered important, the partition means (e.g. the piston ll5b or the diaphragm 120a) may be eliminated entirely.
Yet another embodiment of this invention, that shown in FIG. 11, is an impulse generator. While not a pump in the strictest sense of the term, which implies the passage of material into and out of a chamber, this device is pumplike in its operation, and its motive principle is substantially identical to that in the other embodiments of this invention. In fact, the only basic difference between this embodiment and those previously described is that here the substance being pumped is solid, and it returns during each pump cycle.
Accordingly, the impulse generator 11 comprises a walled force generator 950 having an ignition chamber 40c in the upper region thereof. Electrolysis electrodes are inserted within the water contained in the generator, and ignition electrodes are inserted into the ignition chamber. The ignition coil, power supply (or supplies), control means and the like are also incorporated as necessary or desirable, as in the previously described embodiments. Here, however, the force is transmitted through the water (or directly from the gasses in an embodiment not illustrated) to the ram 147, the base of. which is in close-fitting (seals may be used to prevent leakage), slidable relationship with the interior of the generator. The head 152 of the ram is rigidly connected to the base by means of the shaft 153 which slides out of the generator through its basal opening 154. The ram is prevented from wholly exiting the generator by the fact that itsmovement in the direction of the arrow must necessarily cease when the leading edge 155 of its base 150 abuts the base 160 of the generator. The return spring 165 causes the ram to return to its rest position after each thrust, the latter being caused by the explosion of the hydrogen in the presence of the oxygen within the ignition chamber.
This impulse generator will find wide application in uses such as metallic bonding, pile driving, sheet metal cutting, punching, etc. Depending on the particular application, the ram head 152 may be of a shape other than that shown in FIG. 1 1. Pressure release valves and other safety means may also be incorporated in this device in its various embodiments.
Having now described various embodiments of the pump of the present invention for use in particular applications, the invention may now, in effect, be summarized by describing the method of pumping incorporated therein.
In essence, the method consists in introducing a quantity of the substance to be pumped into a chamber having means through which the substance may exit the chamber, the chamber being adapted to retard or restrict upstream flow of the material. A quantity of water containing at least a trace amount of ionized impurity is electrolyzed, and the hydrogen generated thereby is ignited in the presence of the oxygen similarly generated. The force of this explosion is directed toward the substance to be pumped, within the chamber from which it is to be pumped, thus forcible ejecting the material therefrom. Subsidence of the explosion creates a partial vacuum with respect to the source of the material which, because of the upstream flow restrictive means, causes a new charge of material to be introduced into the pumping chamber. The basic method contemplates pumping of the electrolyzed water itself or of a liquid other than that water (for example, de-ionized water) or of a gaseous substance or even a solid ram, in certain embodiments.
1. A pump comprising:
a substantially enclosed chamber, said chamber having ingress and egress means for a substance to be pumped, said ingress means having means to restrict egress of said substance from said chamber including a tube communicating between the interior of said chamber and a source of said substance external to said chamber, at least a portion of said tube having progressively decreasing internal cross-sectional area along the direction from said source to said interior and said egress means having means to restrict ingress of said substance into said chamber;
a volume of water containing at least a trace amount of ionized impurity in said chamber;
alternating current means for electrolyzing said water within said chamber, whereby gaseous hydrogen and oxygen are formed from a portion of said water within said chamber; and
means for igniting the hydrogen in the presence of the oxygen, within said chamber, whereby an ex- 6 means, whereupon, when said explosion subsides, a partial vacuum is created within said chamber causingadditional of said substance to be drawn into said chamber through said ingress means.
2. Pump as in claim 1, wherein a plurality of said tubes is provided in series.
3. Pump as in claim 1, wherein said ingress means comprises a mechanical valve.
4. Pump as in claim 1, wherein said electrolysis means comprises:
a pair of mutually displaced electrodes immersed, at least in part, within the water contained within said chamber; and
activation means to cause electrical current to flow between said electrodes through the water.
5. Pump as in claim 4, wherein a plurality of said electrode pairs is provided and said activation means is operative on each of said pairs.
6. Pump as in claim 5, wherein said plurality of electrode pairs comprises a substantially coaxial set of substantially cylindrical conductive shells, each of said shells being operatively connected to said activation means in such manner as to cause current to flow between each of said shells and an adjacent one of said shells, through the water.
7. Pump as in claim 4, wherein at least a portion of the wall of said chamber is electrically conductive and in electrical communication with one of said electrodes, said one electrode being in electrical communication with ground.
8. Pump as in claim 1, wherein said ignition means comprises:
a pair of mutually displaced electrodes, said electrodes being positioned within said chamber in such manner as to be in contact with the gasses formed. by said electrolysis;
means to create an electrical potential difference between said electrodes sufficient to cause sparking between said electrodes through the gasses; and
regulation means to selectively operate said creation means.
9. Pump as in claim 8, wherein said regulation means comprises:
a switch; and
a timer, said timer being adapted to operate said switch at selected intervals of time and for selected durations.
10. A pump comprising:
a substantially enclosed chamber, said chamber having ingress and egress means for a substance to be pumped, said ingress means having means to restrict egress of said substance from said chamber and said egress means having means to restrict ingress of said substance into said chamber including a tube communicating between the interior of said chamber and the exterior of said chamber, at least a portion of said tube having progressively decreasing internal cross-sectional area along the direction from said interior to said exterior;
a volume of water containing at least a trace amount of ionized impurity in said chamber;
alternating current means for electrolyzing said water within said chamber, whereby gaseous hydrogen and oxygen are formed from a portion of said water within said chamber; and
means for igniting the hydrogen in the presence of the oxygen, within said chamber, whereby an ex- 11 12 plosion ensues causing at least a portion of said causing additional of said substance to be drawn substance within said chamber to be forcibly into said chamber through said ingress means. ejected from said chamber through said egress 1]. Pump as in claim 10, wherein a plurality of said means, whereupon, when said explosion subsides, tubes is provided in series. a partial vacuum is created within said chamber 5