Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3898416 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 5, 1975
Filing dateSep 7, 1973
Priority dateSep 7, 1973
Also published asCA1023532A, CA1023532A1, DE2442109B1, DE2442109C2
Publication numberUS 3898416 A, US 3898416A, US-A-3898416, US3898416 A, US3898416A
InventorsMoon William Earl, Porter Jr Sidney Clark, Shotting Kenneth Frederic
Original AssigneeCombustion Eng
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for the banding of objects
US 3898416 A
Abstract
A method and apparatus for securely fastening a band to at least one object such as a refractory nozzle for a molten steel pouring ladle. A tab is affixed to the end of a band and the band is wrapped around the object so as to divide the band into a wrapped section and an unwrapped section, a first portion of the wrapped section overlying the tab and a second portion of the wrapped section. While the tab is restrained against movement in one direction around the object, the unwrapped section of the band is pulled so as to tighten the band around the object. While the band is held in this position, automatic welding means indirectly pressure spotweld the tab and the first and second portions of the wrapped section together.
Images(6)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Shotting et al. Aug. 5, 1975 [54] METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR THE 2,972,294 2/1961 Lecocq 100/33 R x 3,439,606 4/1969 Bursik et al 100/29 x BANDING OF OBJECTS Inventors: Kenneth Frederic Shotting,

Coraopolis, Pa.; Sidney Clark Porter, Jr., East Liverpool, Ohio; William Earl Moon, Chester, W. Va.

[73] Assignee: Combustion Engineering, Inc.,

Windsor, Conn.

[22] Filed: Sept. 7, 1973 [21] Appl. No.: 395,206

[52] U.S. Cl. 219/; /2; 100/29; 100/33 R; 219/56; 219/91 [51] Int. Cl..... B23k 9/12; B65b 13/04; B65b 13/32 [58] Field of Search 100/2, 29, 32, 33 R; 219/56, 80,91

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 181,052 8/1876 DeGray 100/29 2,233,526 3/1941 Hagedorn et al. 219/91 X 2,438,386 3/1948 Chamberlain 100/29 X Primary ExaminerJ. V. Truhe Assistant Examiner-N. D. Herkamp Attorney, Agent, or FirmEldon H. Luther 5 7 ABSTRACT A method and apparatus for securely fastening a band to at least one object such as a refractory nozzle for a molten steel pouring ladle. A tab is affixed to the end of a band and the band is wrapped around the object so as to divide the band into a wrapped section and an unwrapped section, a first portion of the wrapped section overlying the tab and a second portion of the wrapped section. While the tab is restrained against movement in one direction around the object, the unwrapped section of the band is pulled so as to tighten the band around the object. While the band is held in this position, automatic welding means indirectly pressure spotweld the tab and the first and second portions of the wrapped section together.

13 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures SHEET PATENTED AUG 5 I975 NE W 6rd mm .32 Q3 v8 0 X: 93 9 mm mm v8 m8 v8 on YOQM v2 m8 mm m5 QVRQQNSQQ ND 09 1 y 98 k\ Nm\ NW NON Om m2 9 m2 m8 02 mt mm m9 v@ .m/ JC 7 com mm: mm:

vm w 09 m@ v9 mm m m9 mm Wm mm VO\ PATENTEU AUG 5 I975 SHEET METHOD AND APPARA' US FOR THE BANDING OF OBJECTS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to the art of placing bands around one or more objects and more particularly to a method and apparatus for tightly wrapping and securely fastening bands around such objects including refractory nozzles for molten steel pouring ladles.

In the making of steel, a ladle is required for receiving molten steel from the steel-making furnace and transporting the steel from the furnace to an area in which ingots or castings are made. The molten steel is then allowed to flow from the ladle into the appropriate molds or dishes through one or more nozzle openings in the bottom thereof, the nozzle openings being closed and opened by means of a stopper which can be raised and lowered in the ladle. These ladles must have some means to prevent the molten steel from penetrating to the outer metal sheath of the ladle and as such require a refractory lining. Furthermore, nozzles are required in the bottom of the ladle which are made of a refractory material so as to be capable of withstanding the extreme heat experienced in the ladle and the erosive action due to the stopper being raised and lowered. As still further protection by insuring that molten steel will not pass around the outside surface of the nozzles, a refractory mortar is packed into the openings in the bottom of the ladle before the nozzles are inserted. This refractory mortar serves to close any passages around the outside of the nozzles.

Experience has indicated that most nozzles crack to some extent when the molten steel is received from the steel-making furnace. However, due to the nature of the ceramic refractory, reheat expansion occurs in which the ceramic material bloats and welds or fuses itself back together again. In some instances, this reheat expansion is sufficient to fully heal the cracks and prevent further breaking up of the nozzles. On the other hand sometimes the reheat expansion is insufficient to heal the cracks. If this occurs, the cracks might spread and the molten steel might leak around and through the cracked, nozzle, thereby damaging the outer metal sheath of the ladle. This would result in expensive repair work to the ladle. Accordingly, for steel making facilities which experience this insufficient reheat expansion, metal bands have beenused which are tightly wrapped around the nozzles to prevent the nozzles from totally breaking apart.

However, disadvantages exist with the prior art procedures for fastening these bands to the nozzles. One prior art method involves having one man wrap a band around the nozzle and pulling one end tight while the other end is held agaist the nozzle surface. Then while the band is tight, a second man spotwelds the overlapped portions together. As can be appreciated, it is very difficult to make the band tight around the nozzle with such a procedure. Furthermore, it is difficult to achieve a consistent and dependable weld since the welding procedure depends on the skill of the operator and the welding apparatus.

Another prior art method involves placing a clip on one end of the band, passing the other endaround the nozzle and through an opening in the clip, pulling the band tight around the nozzle and then crimping the clip. Although this procedure results ina strong, dependable and tight fitting band, the clip is too thick and accordingly it shears away too much protective mortar when the nozzle is pushed into place in the ladle bottom.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention overcomes the above discussed and other disadvantages by providing a novel method for securely fastening bands to an object or group of objects. The method comprises first affixing a tab to one end of the band. Next, the object or group of objects is held in position and the band is wrapped therearound so as to divide the band into a wrapped section and an unwrapped section with a first portion of the wrapped section overyling a second portion of the wrapped section. As the band is wrapped around the object or group of objects, the tab is restrained against movement in a first direction therearound. Next, the unwrapped section of the band is pulled so that the first portion of the wrapped section of the band is moved in the first direction to tighten the band around the object or group of objects. While the band is held in this pulled position, the first and second portions of the wrapped section of the band are welded together.

Apparatus for accomplishing this method is also disclosed which comprises a table for supporting the object or group of objects and a clamp means for holding the object or group in a fixed position on the table. Tab restraining means engagable with the tab is provided for restraining the tab against movement in a first direction around the object or group. Pulling means are also provided engagable with the unwrapped section of the band for pulling the band in the first direction to exert a force on the first portion of the wrapped section of the band. Finally welding means is provided for welding together the first and second portions of the wrapped section of the band. In the preferred embodiment, the welding means is an automatic welding apparatus which is operable when the band has been pulled tight by the pulling means.

Use of such a method and apparatus for securely fastening bands to an object or group of objects ensures that the band will be tightly wrapped around the object or group. The use of automatic welding apparatus as opposed to hand welding will result in a more consistent and dependable weld. Furthermore, by using a relatively thin tab, the problem of shearing away protective mortar when a refractory nozzle is pushed into place in a molten steel pouring ladle can be minimized.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a partial side sectional view of a molten metal pouring ladle showing one use for a banded obect.

FIG. 2 is a front elevational view of the banding apparatus of the present invention.

FIG. 3 is a side elevational view of the banding apparatus taken along line 3-3 of FIG. 2 but shown with an object to be banded in place.

FIG. 4 is a sectional plan view taken along line 4-4 of FIG. 2 but shown with an object to be banded in place.

FIG. 5 is an enlarged view of a portion of the view of FIG. 4 but with the cutting means being shown in the cutting position.

FIG. 6 is an elevational view taken along line 6-6 of FIG. 4 showing the pulling means.

FIG. 7 is a side view taken along line 7-7 of FIG. 5.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring now to the drawings, FIG. 1 shows a partial side sectional view of a typical molten steel pouring ladle 12 in which the pouring nozzle 10 is banded in accordance with the present invention as described hereinbelow. The ladle 12 comprises a steel shell or vessel 14 lined interiorally with refractory brick 16. A nozzle opening 18 is defined in the bottom of the vessel 14 by a refractory nozzle block 21 and a cylindrical steel ring 20 whose inner dimensions are slightly larger than the outer dimension of the nozzle 10. Refractory mortar 22 is typically packed in the nozzle opening 18 and a cylindrically shaped nozzle 10 is slipped into the opening 18 from below the ladle 12. As best seen in FIGS. 1 and 3, the nozzle is made of a refractory material and has a central bore 24 therethrough. One end of the nozzle is provided with a reduced cylindrical portion 26 which fits through an opening in the nozzle cover plate 28 which is attached to the steel ring 20 to hold the nozzle 10 in place in the ladle 12. The other end of the nozzle is provided with a conical surface into which a stopper or plunger 30 may be fitted to stop the flow of molten steel therethrough out of the ladle 12. For the banding apparatus described hereinbelow, the nozzle sizes may vary from 6-12 inches in diameter although other sizes of cylindrically shaped objects may be accommodated with slight modifications.

As noted hereinabove, it is sometimes desirable to band the nozzle 10 to protect against insufficient reheat expansion of the nozzle. When such bands 32 are used, some of the protective mortar 22 is sheared away as the nozzle 10 is inserted into the nozzle opening 18. As can be appreciated, it is desirable to minimize the amount of mortar 22 which is sheared away by the insertion of the nozzle 10. Accordingly the thickness of the band 32 about the circumference of the nozzle 10 must be kept to a minimum.

This is accomplished in accordance with the present invention by welding a steel tab 36 to one end of the band 32 to be wrapped around the nozzle 10. The band 32 is then wrapped around the nozzle 10 so as to divide the band 32 into a wrapped section 38 and an unwrapped section 40. A first portion of the wrapped section 38 which is adjacent to the unwrapped section 40 overlies or overlaps a second portion of the wrapped section 38 which is adjacent to the tab end of the band 32. While the tab 36 is restrained against movement in a first direction around the nozzle 10, the unwrapped section 40 of the band 32 is pulled so as to move the first or overlapping portion in the first direction. The band 32 is held in this position and the overlapped and overlapping portions are welded together. Preferably, the overlapping portion, the overlapped portion and the tab 36 are all welded together by an automatic welding apparatus so as to provide a strong, dependable and consistent weld.

As an example, by using a /8 inch wide, 0.022 inch thick band 32 and a 1 inch square steel tab 36 which is 0.059 inch thick, the maximum thickness of the fastened band 32 outward from the surface of the nozzle can be made to be approximately A; inch. With the prior art method of using a clip and a similar size band, the thickness of the band at the crimped end can only be minimized to approximately 5 inch. Accordingly,

with the use of the present invention the amount of sheared mortar 34 when the nozzle 10 is inserted into the ladle 12 can approximatelybe cut in half, thereby reducing the probability of molten steel leaking through the mortar 22 and damaging the steel ladle 12.

The apparatus 50 for tightly wrapping and automatically welding the band around the nozzle will now be described with reference to FIGS. 2 through 7. As will be apparent hereinbelow, the apparatus 50 can be used to band any object or group of objects in which it is desirable to tightly wrap and securely fasten a band around the object or group of objects. However, for simplicity, reference will only be made to the banding of refractory nozzles 10. The apparatus 50 comprises generally a base 52, an object supporting and holding means 54, and a banding platform 56 supported for longitudinal and pivotal movement so that the platform 56 can be moved longitudinally and laterally relative to the nozzle 10. The banding platform 56 supports the means 58 for positioning and holding the platform laterally relative to the nozzle 10 to be banded, the tab restraining means 60, the band pulling means 62 and the automatic welding means 64.

Referring first to FIGS. 2 and 3, the base 52 supports a vertical upright support standard 66 by means of braces 68. The upright support standard 66 has a laterally extending portion 70 at its upper end from which is supported the control panel 72 for the banding apparatus 50 and a vertical extending air cylinder 74. The piston rod 76 of the air cylinder 74 is adapted for vertical reciprocal movement and has a clamping pad 78 attached to its end. The air cylinder 74 and clamping pad 78 are aligned and spaced from an object support table 80 which is fixedly supported on the base 52 by standard 82. The nozzle 10 which is to be banded is positioned on the table 80 beneath the clamping air cylinder 74 and the air cylinder 74 may then be actuated to clamp and rigidly hold the nozzle 10 in place. The surface of the table 80 and the clamp pad 78 are preferably made of rubber or other resilient material so as not to damage the object which is to be supported therebetween.

The base 52 also supports a vertically extending substantially cylindrical support column 84 for rotation about the central axis of the column. The lower end of the support column 84 is journaled in a bearing 86 affixed to the base 52 and the upper end is journaled in a bearing 88 which is laterally supported from the upright support standard 66. A platform hoist motor 90 having a chain 92 is attached to the upper end of the rotating support column 84. The banding platform 56 is supported from the support column 84 by the chain 92 and is guided for longitudinal movement therealong by a roller assembly 94 integrally attached to the platform 56. The roller assembly 94 comprises three pairs of spaced rollers 96 circumferentially arranged and supported between upper and lower annular support plates 98, 100. As shown in FIG. 3, the lower support plate 98 is integrally attached to the platform such as by welding or bolting. The rollers 96 are adapted to enter guideways 102 defined between longitudinally extending guide rails 104 affixed to the outer surface of the rotating support column 84. By actuation of the hoist motor 90, which is controlled by lever 106, the platform 56 can be raised or lowered relative to the support column 84 and accordingly, relative to the nozzle 10 to be banded which is supported on the table 80.

By virtue of the bearings 86, 88, the support column 84 and platform 56 freely pivot as a unit about the axis of the support column 84 to adjust the lateral position of the platform 56 relative to the supported nozzle as will be apparent hereinbelow.

The banding platform 56 supports all the equipment necessary to securely fasten bands to cylindrically shaped objects. As can best be seen with reference to FIG. 4, the left side of the platform 56 supports a tab restraining means 60 and automatic welding means 64. The tab restraining means 60 is of a two-piece construction and acts as a guide and holder for the tab 36 affixed to the end of the'band 32. One piece is a stationary support member 108 which is supported at one end from the platform 56 such as by welding. The other piece is a guide member 110 which is supported from the other end of the support member 108 for pivotal movement about a pin 112 which is positioned in opposed recesses 113 in the support and guide members 108, 110. A spring 114 (or two springs if necessary) holds the two members 108, 110 together and biases the guide member 110 for counterclockwise pivotal movement about the pin 112. A second pin 116, laterally extending from the support member 108, is adapted to enter a recess 118 in the guide member 110 for guiding the pivotal motion thereof. The guide member 110 is provided with upper and lower spaced feet 120, 122 for engaging the nozzle 10 when the platform 56 is pivoted about the axis of a support column 84. As can be appreciated, the guide member 110 will pivot clockwise against the bias of spring 114 to ensure that all four feet 120, 122 engage the nozzle 10 as the platform 56 is pivoted to move the guide member 110 into position. The vertical spacing between the feet 120, 122 should be greater than the width of the band 32 and less than the diagonal length of the tab 36 so that the band 32 can freely pass around the nozzle while the tab 36 is restrained. For the lateral spacing between the feet 120, 122, a convenient length may be chosen depending on the range of sizes of the nozzles 10 to be banded.

The three welding guns 124 of the automatic welding means 64 are mounted on the piston rods 128 of three air cylinders 126 which in turn are mounted on the platform in a triangular arrangement as can best be seen in FIG. 3. By actuation of the air cylinders 126 through air lines 130, the electrodes 132, 134, 136 of the welding guns 124 can be moved into contact with the band 32 and tab 36 to indirect pressure spotweld the band 32 and tab 36. The indirect pressure spotweld technique is utilized in order to obtain a strong, dependable and consistent weld. This technique involves the use of a welding electrode, a dummy electrode and the pieces to be welded to complete the circuit to the welding transformer (not shown). In the embodiment shown, two welding electrodes 132, 136 and one dummy electrode 134 are used to make two indirect pressure spotwelds as indicated by reference numeral 138 in FIG. 7.

The welding procedure is as follows. Two of the air cylinders 126 are actuated to move and press the dummy electrode 134 and one of the welding electrodes 136 into contact with the tab 36 and band 32 respectively. As best seen in FIG. 7, the dummy electrode 134 just contacts the uppermost corner of the tab 36 (indicated by numeral 140) and the welding electrode 136 contacts the outer overlapping portion of the band 32 near one of the two side corners of the tab (indicated by 138). Current is then passed from the welding transformer (not shown) through the welding electrode 136, through the overlapping and overlapped portion of the band 32, through the tab 36 to the dummy electrode 134 and then back to the welding transformer. Due to the pressure and current applied, the overlapping portion of the band 32, the overlapped portion of the band 32 which is attached to the tab 36 and the tab 36 are welded together as indicated by weld contact 38. After the first weld is completed, the welding electrode 136 is retracted and the other welding electrode 132 pressed into contact with the overlapping portion of the band 32 near the other side corner of the tab 36 and current then passed through the welding electrode 132 to make a second weld. Both the dummy electrode 134 and the other welding electrode 132 are then retracted. The required current passing through the electrodes 132, 134, 136 and the required pressure applied against the band 32 and tab 36 to obtain a strong, dependable weld depends on the thickness of the band 32 and tab 36, the diameter of the electrode tip which contacts the band 32 and tab 36, and the time of contact. The use of this procedure and the determination of these parameters is deemed to be within the skill of the artisan and accordingly, no further recitation with regard to this is deemed necessary in order to fully understand the present invention.

The means 58 for laterally positioning and holding the platform 56 relative to the nozzle 10 is mounted on the right side of the platform 56 opposite from the tab restraining means 60 and welding means 64 and comprises an air cylinder 142 and piston rod 144. The piston rod 144 of the air cylinder 142 is provided with a band guide 146 which contacts the nozzle 10 when the air cylinder 142 is actuated to pivot the platform 56 about an axis of a support column 84 to move the four feet 120, 122 of the tab restraining means 60 into engagement with the nozzle 10. The air cylinder 142 and piston rod 144 also serve to restrain the platform 56 against pivotal movement when the pressure of the welding guns 124 is applied against the nozzle 10. The air cylinder 142 is fixed to the platform 56 so that the band guide 146 is located approximately diametrically opposite the guide member of tab restraining means 60 when the nozzle 10 is in position on the table 80. As can be appreciated, this position is approximate in order that the banding apparatus 50 be able to accommodate a variety of nozzle sizes and since precise positioning is not required. The band guide 146 has a contact surface 148 which roughly approximates a portion of the circumference of the nozzle 10. To maintain proper horizontal positioning of the guide 146 with respect to the nozzle 10, the guide 146 has one end fixed to the end of the piston rod 144 and the other end fixed to a bar 150 which is slidably positioned in a channeled member 152 adjacent the air cylinder 142. In this way, rotation of the piston rod 144 within the air cylinder 142 is prevented. When the band 32 which is to be wrapped around the nozzle 10 is being positioned in place for welding, the band 32 will rest on edge on the upper surface of the guide 146 between the nozzle 10 and the vertically extending lip 154 of the guide 146.

The band pulling means 62 for pulling the unwrapped section 40 of the band to tightly wrap it around the nozzle is positioned on the backside of the platform and comprises a rotary air motor 156, a reciprocal air cylinder 158 and two rollers 160, 162. The air motor 156 is vertically mounted on the platform 56 by means of a standard 164. The drive shaft 166 of the air motor 156 extends downward and is journaled in a lower casing 168. A knurled drive roller 160 is mounted on a roller hub 170 which is supported from the drive shaft 166 in the slotted opening 172 in the lower casing 168. The air cylinder 158 is pivotably. horizontally mounted to the platform 56 by pin 174 and has a piston rod 176 to which an idler roller support yoke 178 is pin connected by means of a pin 180. An idler roller 162 is pin supported between the two flanges 182 of the idler support yoke 178 by pin 184 and is adapted to engage the knurled roller 160 ofthe air motor 156. As seen in FIG. 4, the idler support yoke 178 has an extension 186 which is also pin connected to the platform 56 by pin 188 to ensure proper mating engagement between the idler roller 162 and the knurled roller 160 upon actuation of the air cylinder 158. The band 32 which is to be pulled by the pulling means 62 is fed between the knurled roller 160 and the idler roller 162 and the air cylinder 158 actuated to move the idler roller 162 into position to clamp the band 32 between the rollers 160, 162. The air motor 156 can then be actuated to rotate the knurled roller 160 counterclockwise which causes the band 32 to be pulled through the two rollers 160, 162 as a result of the frictional engagement between the band 32 and the two rollers 160, 162.

A cutting means 190 for removing or severing the un' wrapped section 40 from the wrapped section 38 of the band 32 after welding has been completed is shown positioned between the tab restraining means 60 and the automatic welding means 64. The cutting means 190 is mounted to the platform 56 by means of a bracket 192 at substantially the same vertical elevation as the tab restraining means 60 and the lower two welding guns 124. The cutting means 190 comprises an air cylinder 194 with a horizontally extending piston rod 196 and a cutting blade 198 mounted to the piston rod 196 by means of a chuck 200. As best seen with reference to FIGS. 4, and 7, the cutting blade 198 is provided with a vertical cutting edge 202 for contacting and cutting the outer overlapping portion of the band 32 to the left of the two welds 138 as seen in FIG. 7. The vertical height of the cutting edge 202 is slightly greater than the width of the band 32 but less than the vertical spacing between the upper and lower set of feet 120, 122 of the tab restraining means 60. The extension of the cutting blade 198 outwards from the piston rod 196 and the stroke length of the piston rod 196 are adjustable so that the cutting edge 202 will only cut the outer overlying portion of the band 32 when the air cylinder 194 of the cutting means 190 is actuated.

Operation of the banding apparatus 50 to tightly wrap and securely fasten a band 32 about a nozzle 10 will now be described. First, and not done by the banding apparatus 50, at least one band 32 and more practically a plurality of bands 32, are assembled with a tab 36 attached to one end of each band 32. This can be accomplished for example by spot welding. As hereinabove noted, it is desirable to use tabs 36 ofa minimum thickness so that the thickness of the welded band will be a minimum. With the embodiment shown in-the drawings, the tabs 36 are square and the band 32 is welded across two diagonally opposite corners of a tab 36. Such an arrangement permits the tab to be restrained at the other two corners by the tab restraining means 60 while permitting the band 32 attached thereto to pass between the upper and lower sets of feet 120. 122 and then wrap around the nozzle 10.

Next, a nozzle 10 is positioned on the table of the banding apparatus 50 and then clamped by the clamping air cylinder 74. The platform 56 is then positioned vertically with respect to the nozzle 10 by actuation of the air hoist motor for the first banding operation and pivoted about the central axis of a support column 84 to move the tab restraining means 60 adjacent the nozzle 10. The backup air cylinder 142 is then actuated through the control panel 72 to finish lateral adjustment of the platform 56 with respect to the nozzle 10 and to hold it thereinplace.

The band 32, with the tab 36 affixed to one end, is then positioned around the nozzle as follows. First the free end of the band is pulled between the upper and lower feet 120, 122 of the tab restraining means 60 to position the tab 36 in place adjacent the right side of the guide member as seen in FIGS. 5 and 7. Next, the free end of the band 32 is wrapped around the nozzle 10 with the lower edge being allowed to rest on the band guide 146 of the positioning means 56. This ensures that the band 32 will be horizontal when it is pulled tight since the vertical elevation of the band guide 146 is substantially equal to the vertical elevation of a tab restraining means 60 and the band pulling means 62. The free end is then fed a second time between the upper and lower feet 120, 122 to overline the tab 36 and a portion of the wrapped section 38 of the band 32. The free end or unwrapped section 40 of the band is then fed between the knurled roller and the idler roller 162 of the band pulling means 62 and the air cylinder 158 and air motor 156 actuated. As can be appreciated, this action will cause the band 32 to be pulled tight around the nozzle 10 since the tab end of the band 32 is restrained against movement by the tab restraining means 60 in the direction that the unwrapped section 40 of the band 32 is being pulled.

While the torque of the air motor 156 is still being applied, the air cylinders 126 associated with the welding gun 124 are sequentially actuated through the control panel 72 to weld together the overlapping portion of the band 32 the overlapped portion of the band 32 and the tab 36. As hereinabove described, the central dummy electrode 134 is first pressed into contact with just the tab 36 and then the other electrodes 132, 136 pressed into contact and retracted, one at a time, to indirectly pressure spotweld the band portions and tab 36 together. The central dummy electrode 134 is then retracted and the air motor 156 of the pulling means 62 stopped. The air cylinder 194 of the cutting means can then be actuated to cause the cutting blade 198 to contact just the unwrapped section 40 of the band 32 adjacent the wrapped section 38 to cut or sever the unwrapped section 40.

After the free or unwrapped section 40 of the band 32 is severed from the wrapped section 38, the piston rods 176, 144 of the air cylinder 158 and the backup air cylinder 142 are retracted. If a second or more bands 32 are to be securely fastened to the nozzle 10 at other longitudinal positions, the air hoist motor 90 can be actuated to adjust the longitudinal elevation of the platform 56. The banding operations at these other elevations are then accomplished in a similar manner as described hereinabove. After all bands are securely fastened to the nozzle 10, the clamping air cylinder 72 can be retracted and the nozzle 10 removed from the table 80. This completes the operation of the banding apparatus 50.

It should be noted that it is not necessary that the cut ting blade 198 completely sever the band or that the cutting means 190 be used at all. For example, the cutting blade 198 could just dent" the unwrapped section 40 of the band 32 so that the band 32 is broken upon bending of the free end of the band 32. Or, after welding is completed, the free end could be flexed back and forth to break the band 32.

Of course, as can be appreciated, the size of the air cylinders and air motors and their operating pressures are dependent upon the specific requirements of the apparatus 50 and of the size of the objects to be 'banded. The determination of these and other parameters is deemed to be within the ordinary skill of the artisan and accordingly it is not deemed necessary to further detail the system described hereinabove with reference to such parameters.

Accordingly there is disclosed herein a novel method and apparatus for securely fastening bands 32 to an object or plurality of objects. Use of a relatively thin tab 36 to which the ends of the wrapped sections 38 of the band 32 are welded, results in a strong, dependable and consistent means of securing a band to an object. Furthermore, the use of such a tab 36 permits the band to be tightly wrapped around the object. Still further, when the present invention is used to band refractory nozzles 10, the lateral protrusions at the band joint can be maintained within acceptable limits as hereinabove noted.

While one preferred method and apparatus in accordance with the invention has been shown and de scribed, it will be understood that such is merely illustrative and that changes may be made without departing from the scope of the invention as claimed.

What is claimed is: l. A method of securing a band to at least one object comprising the steps of:

affixing a tab to one end of said band; holding said object in place; wrapping said band with said tab affixed thereto around said object to provide a wrapped section including said one end of said band which has said tab affixed thereto and an unwrapped section of said band, a first portion of said wrapped section of said band overlapping both said one end of said band and said tab; restraining said tab against movement in a first direction around said object; I

pulling said unwrapped section of said band to pull said wrapped section in said first direction to tighten said band around said object; and

welding together said first portion of said wrapped section of said band, said one end of said band and said tab.

2. The method of claim 1 including after the step of welding, the step of severing said unwrapped section of said band from said wrapped section.

3. The method of claim 2 wherein the step of restraining said tab against movement in said first direction comprises: rigidly, temporarily positioning a tab restraining means on the surface of said object, said tab restraining means permitting said band to pass freely between said tab restraining means and the wall of said object but preventing said tab from passing therebetween.

4. The method of claim 3 wherein the step of pulling said band comprises: guiding said unwrapped section of said band between a drive roller and an idler roller; moving one of said rollers toward the other of said rollers to clamp said band therebetween; and rotating said drive roller to move said'unwrapped section of said band between said rollers.

5. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of welding together said first portion of said wrapped section, said one end of said band and said tab comprises indirectly pressure spotwelding said first portion, said one end and said tab together.

6. An apparatus for tightly wrapping and securely fastening a band wrapped around at least one object, the band having a tab affixed to one end thereof and being divided into a wrapped section which is wrapped around the object and an unwrapped section, the wrapped section of the band having a first portion which overlaps both the tab and the one end of the band having the tab affixed thereto, the apparatus comprising:

object holding means for holding the object in place;

tab restraining means engagable with said tab for restraining said tab from movement in a first direction around the object;

pulling means engagable with the unwrapped section of said band for pulling said wrapped section in said first direction to tighten said band around the ob ject; and

welding means for welding together the first portion of said wrapped section, said one end of said band and said tab.

7. The apparatus of claim 6 further including a platform on which said tab restraining means, said pulling means and said welding means are fixedly supported; and platform support means for supporting said platform for relative longitudinal movement and relative lateral movement with respect to the object.

8. The apparatus of claim 7 further including means for laterally positioning and holding in place said platform with respect to the object to properly position said tab restraining means, said pulling means and said welding means.

9. The apparatus of claim 8 wherein said platform support means comprises a longitudinally extending support column having a longitudinal axis which supports said platform for lateral pivotal movement about said longitudinal axis and for longitudinal movement therealong; and wherein said lateral positioning means comprises a cylinder means mounted on said platform having a piston rod engagable with the object for pivoting said platform into position and to hold it thereinplace.

10. The apparatus of claim 9 wherein said tab restraining means comprises a guide member and a support member for supporting said guide member from said platform, said guide member being adapted to contact the surface of the object when said platform is pivoted into position to permit said band to pass between said guide member and the object and to prevent said tab from passing therebetween.

11. The apparatus of claim 10 wherein said cylinder means is mounted on said platform substantially opposed to said guide member and on the opposite side of the object from said guide member; wherein said guide member has longitudinally spaced feet for contacting the object, the longitudinal spacing between said feet being greater than the longitudinal dimension of the wrapped section of said band but less than the longitudinal dimension of the tab affixed to said band, and wherein said guide member is pivotably mounted on said support member to pivot about a longitudinal axis when the object is moved into contact with said guide member by said cylinder means.

12. The apparatus of claim 11 wherein said pulling means comprises: a pair of rollers mounted for rotational movement about parallel axes and adapted to engage the unwrapped section of said band therebetween;

end of said band, and said tab.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US181052 *Aug 15, 1876 Improvement in band pulling and locking machines for baling cotton
US2233526 *Sep 28, 1938Mar 4, 1941Bernhard BerghausApparatus for double spot or seam welding
US2438386 *Jul 12, 1945Mar 23, 1948Signode Steel Strapping CoBundle binding machine
US2972294 *Aug 5, 1957Feb 21, 1961Laminoirs Sa DesBinding machine
US3439606 *Oct 5, 1967Apr 22, 1969Vitkovice ZelezarnySteel-tape binding machine
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4340802 *Sep 17, 1979Jul 20, 1982Covington Brothers TechnologiesMethod and apparatus for welding
US4655264 *Dec 11, 1985Apr 7, 1987Ben Clements & Sons, Inc.Twist tying machine
US4946088 *Jul 14, 1989Aug 7, 1990Chuang Shyue SBushing forming machine
US5225765 *Nov 25, 1991Jul 6, 1993Michael CallahanInductorless controlled transition and other light dimmers
Classifications
U.S. Classification219/80, 219/78.15, 219/56, 100/2, 219/86.41, 219/91.2, 100/29, 100/33.00R
International ClassificationB23K11/00, B22D41/50, B22D41/52, B22D45/00
Cooperative ClassificationB22D41/52
European ClassificationB22D41/52
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Apr 29, 1992ASAssignment
Owner name: PREMIER REFRACTORIES AND CHEMICALS INC., A DE CORP
Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY OF A SECURITY AGREEMENT RECORDED AT REEL 5125 FRAME 0289;ASSIGNOR:CONTINENTAL BANK N.A.;REEL/FRAME:006098/0524
Effective date: 19911211
Dec 27, 1991ASAssignment
Owner name: CONTINENTAL BANK N.A. A NATIONAL BANKING ASSOCIA
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:AMERICAN PREMIER, INC., A DE CORP.;REEL/FRAME:005971/0674
Effective date: 19911211
Owner name: CONTINENTAL BANK N.A.
Jun 30, 1989ASAssignment
Owner name: CONTINENTAL BANK N.A., A NATIONAL BANKING ASSOCIAT
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:PREMIER REFRACTORIES AND CHEMICALS INC.;REEL/FRAME:005125/0289
Effective date: 19890621
Feb 21, 1989ASAssignment
Owner name: PREMIER REFRACTORIES AND CHEMICALS INC.,
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. EFFECTIVE 10-28-88;ASSIGNOR:VFR, INC.,;REEL/FRAME:005020/0764
Effective date: 19890118
Oct 14, 1988ASAssignment
Owner name: VFR, INC., 901 EAST 8TH AVENUE, KING OF PRUSSIA, P
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:COMBUSTION ENGINEERING, INC.;REEL/FRAME:004993/0109
Effective date: 19880927