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Publication numberUS3900605 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 19, 1975
Filing dateSep 5, 1973
Priority dateSep 5, 1973
Also published asCA1005804A1, DE2441546A1
Publication numberUS 3900605 A, US 3900605A, US-A-3900605, US3900605 A, US3900605A
InventorsNorris Jr Robert W
Original AssigneeNorris Jr Robert W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of forming traffic markers having short track-free times
US 3900605 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [1 1 Norris, ,1 r.

1 1 METHOD OF FORMING TRAFFIC MARKERS HAVING SHORT TRACK-FREE TIMES [76] Inventor: Robert W. Norris, Jr., 1661 Almond Ln. N.W., Salem, Oreg. 97304 122] Filed: Sept. 5, 1973 [21] Appl. No.: 394,587

[52] US. Cl. 427/137; 350/105; 427/202 [51] Int. Cl. GOZB 5/128 [58] Field of Search 117/33, 9, 10; 350/105 X; 427/202, 137

(56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1.626508 4/1927 Carlson 117/33 2.326.634 8/1943 Gebhard et a1. 117/33 UR X 2,354,018 7/1944 Heltzer et a1. .1 117/33 X 2,354,048 7/1944 Palmquist 117/33 2,354.04) 7/1944 Palmquist 117/33 X 2,897,733 8/1959 Shuger 117/33 X 3,036,928 5/1962 Poole 1 17/33 3,283.618 11/1966 De Vries 117/33 X 1 Aug. 19,1975

3.614.199 10/1971 Altman 350/105 3,746,425 7/1973 Eigenmarm 350/105 X 3,770,483 11/1973 Komine 117/33 [57] ABSTRACT This invention relates to a method of forming traffic markers which, when applied to a traffic-bearing surface, have substantially shorter trackfree times than the pigmented organic coating compositions which are utilized in the system. The method comprises applying a coating composition to the substrate and then applying to the coating composition, while it remains wet, light reflecting particulate materials sized so that at least about 0ne-half their mass becomes embedded in the coating composition, while having a diameter greater than the thickness of the paint. The particulate material is applied at such a rate that the individual particles are separated from each other in the marker by less than their average diameter.

26 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures METHOD OF FORMING TRAFFIC MARKERS HAVING SHORT TRACK-FREE TIMES STATE OF THE ART The marking of traffic surfaces, such as asphalt or concrete, with traffic directing paint, for example, lines which delineate traffic lanes, center lines or road edges, is common. Frequently these markings contain light reflecting means, most frequently, glass spheres.

Traffic directing markings are subject to continuous wear and exposure to the elements as well as road chemicals and require periodic reapplication. When traffic directing paints are applied to an area which is travelled there is usually a significant time, during which, if the marker is not protected, the paint which is not firm or dry, can be picked up by the tires of vehicles, for example, and tracked, leaving confusing or unattractive random markings upon the traffic surface, reducing or destroying the effectiveness and/or durability of the traffic marker. To avoid this problem cones or flags or other temporary obstacles are frequently placed to'protect the marker until it is no longer subject to tracking. These temporary obstacles, which impede the normal traffic flow, must then be removed in a separate operation.

Various systems have been proposed to provide traflic marker coatings systems which have short track-free times and which can be applied to travelled surfaces without the need for secondary protection. However, these systems involve the use of relatively expensive materials and/or the use of expensive, complex application means.

As previously stated, the majority of traffic marking systems employ the use of a variety of light reflecting or scattering particulate material, preferably glass beads or spheres. The art has examined glass spheres and their use in traffic marker paints extensively, dealing with their optimum reflectivity, the modification of their properties by coating, and the problems of securely embedding the spheres in a paint film.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION It has now been found that traffic directing coatings having short track-free times can be rather simply and economically applied to a paved traffic bearing surface.

The traffic marker compositions comprise a pigmented synthetic organic vehicle resin having embedded therein substantial amounts of a relatively large light scattering or reflecting particulate material, the average diameter of the particulate material being greater than the film thickness. The resultant compositions have short track-free times, substantially shorter than the track-free times of the pigmented coating compositions without the particulate material. The track-free times measured in the order of seconds can be achieved employing the compositions and methods of the invention.

In order to obtain the greatest benefit from the invention, the pigmented coating compositions employed in the marker system of the invention should dry trackfree in about 6 minutes or less and preferably 3 minutes or less. Drying, as utilized herein, encompasses all the forms referred to a layman that is becoming tack-free by solvent evaporation, cooling, chemical crosslinking, polymerization and the like.

In a preferred embodiment, the marker system comprises a pigmented organic binder, which dries trackfree in about 6 minutes or less, at the wet film thickness employed; the organic coating composition being applied in a relatively thin film, for example, at about l5 mils wet film thickness or less, for example, preferably at about l0 mils. The final dry marker system has embedded in the dry coating film relatively large reflecting particulate material, having been incorporated into the coating, for example, by dropping or blowing the particulate material into the wet coating film before it has dried. The reflecting particulate material is of such size that it penetrates substantially the depth of the binder or coating film, so that the base of the particles are in proximity to or substantially resting upon the substrate, the preponderance of the particulate matter forming at least a monolayer of particulate material with at least one-half of the particle embedded in the binder layer, the particles being in close proximity to each other, that is touching or separated only by a very thin paint film which may be adhering to some of the particles, but which appear to the eye as essentially touching. Generally, in the compositions of the invention, the individual particles may be separated by a distance no greater than about the average diameter of the particle.

ln another preferred embodiment, a thin, pigmented, fluid paint film is applied to the traffic surface and there is then applied an excess of particulate material, sufficient to fully cover the binder coating. The excess which is not substantially bound to or embedded in the pigmented resinous binder remains at least temporarily to provide additional protection to the marker system, which is track-free so rapidly that even this fugitive protection is of benefit. By substantially bound is meant bound to the extent that the action of a broom sweeping lightly over the surface will not dislodge the particulate material.

The fluid, synthetic organic vehicle resin containing, coating compositions or binder employed in the marker compositions of the invention may vary widely. These compositions are well known in the art and need not be described in great detail. Further, a large number of coating compositions are known as having utility as coatings for materials such as concrete or asphaltic materials or have been described as useful as traffic paints. Virtually any synthetic organic polymeric binder may be employed which has sufficient adhesion to the substrate and to the particulate material to provide mechanical integrity to the marker system, and which when formulated into a pigmented coating composition yields a coating composition which drys track-free in about six minutes or less and preferably three minutes or less. This drying time is the time inherent for the coating composition per se absent the addition of light reflecting particulate material.

The synthetic organic vehicle resin used to formulate the pigmented coating composition may be either thermoplastic or thermosetting and. in addition to the pigment and the organic vehicle resin, the coating composition may contain adjuvants such as solvents, plasticizers, crosslinking agents, catalysts, flow modifiers and the like in accordance to known conventional formulating techniques. Usually the coating composition is solvent based, the solvent being employed to obtain appropriate application viscosities and track-free times. However, the coating composition may be a high solids or solvent-free coating composition such as hot melt coatings, polymer-monomer systems such as an unsatu rated polyesterstyrene system or fluid polymer systems which cure upon application such as a polyurethane 3 systems or an epoxy based systems.

Solvent based systems include acrylic resins, vinyl resins, alkyd or polyester resins, epoxy resins, urethane resins, phenoplast and aminoplast resins among others.

The coating composition is pigmented so that the traffic directing marker may be seen under varied conditions. The usual colors employed in traffic paints are yellow and white, although the coating composition may be pigmented to any desired color. Typical pigments include rutile and anatase titanium dioxide, chrome yellow (lead chromate) and the like. The compositions may likewise contain extender pigments such as silica, clay, calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate and magnesium silicate and the like. Coloring of the compositions can be augmented by, or totally produced by, the use of colored light reflecting particulate material.

The pigmented coating composition is applied to the traffic surface in a conventional manner, most preferably by spraying. Preferably it is applied at a wet film thickness of about l5 mils or less, most preferably at about mils or less. Exceptional short track-free times in the order of a few seconds have been obtained with employing wet film thickness of about 10 mils or less.

The reflective or light scattering particulate material embedded in the coating composition may be subject to wide variation. The term light reflective or reflecting particulate material as employed herein is intended to encompass those materials which scatter light such as sand, as well as true retroreflective materials such as glass spheres.

One particular reflective particulate material which is highly useful is glass spheres; these are well known in the art. The spheres commercially available are not homogeneous in size and are usually sold as a material wherein the preponderance of the sphere pass specified mesh size sieve and are retained by a smaller specified sieve size. Thus, when l5 mil spheres are employed, the preponderance of the spheres are about l5 mils but are admixed with some at least slightly smaller spheres. A typical glass sphere composition is one which meets Federal Specification TTB 1325A, Type 1, Class A characterized as follows: 100% passing mesh, 80l00% passing mesh, 18-35% passing 50 mesh.

Another preferred material is a round sand known as Ottawa sand which. unlike ordinary sand, is relatively smooth and spheroidal in shape. Two particularly useful grades are:

A B (Crystal) (Federal Fine) AFS Grain Fincss 38 47 Actual Surface Area (CMlgm) 72 97 Base Permeability 246 252 Theoretical Surface Area (CMlgm) 62 HI) Coefficient of Area l.2 l.2 Density (uncompacted) (lb/ft) 92 9| Density (compacted) (lb/ft") 97 9S 1 Retained (US. Sieve Nos.)

31) l 3b 19 50 43 70 15 25 lUU 3 9 l40 3 200 f l.

clude polymethylmethacrylate polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride copolymers and vinyl acetate copolymers and the like. The materials can be employed alone or in combination with glass spheres, spheroidal sand, common sand, crushed glass or other mineral particles, for example, of a mesh size between ab out 20 to about mesh.

The light reflecting particulate material should be of such a size so that the preponderance of the particulate material has a diameter greater than the wet film thickness of the coating composition to which it is applied, yet should be of a size small enough so that at least the initial monolayer of particulate material has at least about one-half its mass embedded in the coating composition. Where the material is spheroidal, the circumference of the spheroid should be embedded in the coating composition. While particulate material of substantially the same size can be employed, the typical commercially available materials vary in size over a range, however these materials are readily useful in the marker system of the invention provided that the preponderance of the particulate material is of the desired size. For example, where a 15 mil wet film is applied, the particulate material should be in the range of about l9 mils to 35 mils or about 20 mesh to about 35 mesh.

The weight of the particulate light material applied per unit area necessary to achieve the desired coverage may be readily calculated, assuming a monolayer of beads equally distributed, for example, by the following formula:

W= 2.5985 XVXG where w weight of spheres (grams) A unit area (centimeter S distance between centers of spheres (centimeters) V volume of sphere (centimeter (0.52 X D) G specific gravity of spheres (grams/centimeter) D diameter of sphere (centimeter). For example, for a 929 cm area l sq.ft.), employing glass spheres with a diameter of 0.3081 centimeter (0.15 inch) essentially touching each other, about 50 grams/929 cm are employed.

As previously stated, in the composition of the inven- Other useful light reflecting particulate materials tion, the spheres should be, at a maximum, about one which can be employed in the marker system of the in vention include organic polymeric particles preferably in the form of spheroids or beads. Such materials indiameter apart and more preferably, the spheres should be about one-half a diameter or less apart. Thus in the above example. at one diameter distance between spheres S equals 0.0762 centimeter W is about 13 grams; at one-half diameter distance between spheres, S equals 0.057l centimeter and W is about 24 grams.

The above formula can be used to calculate the necessary weight of a spheroidal material at any size. thus where heavy particles, or larger diameter particles are used the necessary weight is greater. if light weight plastic materials are used the necessary weight will be less.

Where nq -spheroidal particles, such as crushed glass or ordinary white beach sand, are employed the diameter may be considered as the average diameter of the particles.

The process of the invention comprises applying to the traffie bearing surface a wet film of the pigmented organic coating composition and then applying the light reflecting particulate material to said coating composition before it dries or increases in viscosity to the point where the light reflecting particulate material will not substantially penetrate the coating film.

The light reflecting particulate material is applied to the surface of the coating composition either by dropping on or preferably by being applied at a substantial velocity, for example. by means of a pressurized spray gun.

The apparatus which can be employed in a preferred embodiment is the type of apparatus heretofore used to apply traffic paints. in its simplest form, it comprises a wheeled vehicle having mounted thereon two separate pressurized vessels. one containing coating compositions, the other light reflecting particulate material. The two materials are supplied under pressure to two separate spray guns which apply the two materials as the vehicle moves forward. in rapid succession. first the paint film and second the particulate material.

In the marker system of the invention the light reflecting particulate material, with a specific gravity the order of glass spheres or sand. is usually applied to a four inch wide strip at a rate of at least about 80 lbs. per mile and preferably 160 lbs. or more per mile.

While it is not intended to limit the invention described herein to any theory it has been at least tentatively postulated that the rapid track-free times achieved in the marker systems described herein are obtained by avoiding contact of the tires of vehicles with the coating composition before it is actually dry or cured. The dense packing of the particulate material distributes the forces applied and combined with inertia, the force of a vehicle tire does not dislodge sufficient of the light reflecting particles from the coating to allow the vehicle tires to pick-up and track substantial amounts of coating even though it may not be actually dry.

Further, while it would appear that only a monolayer of particulate material of the size employed could be substantially bound to the coating composition, in practice. apparently due to the fact that the particulate material is applied with a lateral force vector. at least some of the coating material is rolled up or perhaps splashed upon the surfaces or rises between the particulate material so that frequently a substantial amount of particulate material in excess of that which forms a closely packed monolayer is substantially bound to the coating film. While some of this particulate material may sometimes become reasonably rapidly dislodged during use, it serves a highly useful initial purpose and contributes to the overall durability of the system.

It is further interesting to note that an added benefit derived from the marker systems disclosed herein is that when employed as crosswalk markers the marker systems of the invention contribute antislip characteristics, especially in wet weather, and increases the useful life of the line as compared to conventional marker systems.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS EXAMPLE I The coating composition employed in this example comprised:

Parts by weight 34% Phthalic Soya-Linsecd Alkyd I958 (60% in toluene) 12% Lead 30 Chrome Medium Yellow 3000 Rutile TiO 375 Talc 2625 Cation Modified C lay 40 (Bentone 38] Methanol )5 Calcium Carbonate (50 Micron top size) 3000 40'71 Chlorinated Parafi'in l 128 Chlorinated Rubber, 20 CPS 1500 Methyl Ethyl Kctone 4056 Antiskimming Agent 45 Epicholorhydrin 45 Methyl Amyl Acetate Paint lines were applied using the above coating composition by means of a commercial crosslink application machine employing a Binks No. 2l spray gun with No. 69D fluid tip and a No. 7 l 3 nozzle for the paint and a Binks No. 21 gun with a No. 58 fluid tip and a No. R30 nozzle for the particulate material, i.e., glass spheres (Federal Specification TT-B-l325A, Type 1, Class A).

The apparatus was operated at a brisk walk, the paint being applied from the first spray gun at a wet film thickness of l7 mils, followed immediately by the application from the second spray gun of the glass spheres. The air temperature was No pick-up or track-free times were measured by rolling a rubber vehicle tire over the deposited marker, the rubber tire having approximately the same weight per unit contact area as a passenger sedan tire. The resultant no pick-up, track-free times for varying amounts of glass spheres was plotted and shown in FIG. 1. The quantity of spheres is shown for a solid line four inches wide in pounds per mile as well as grams per square foot and pounds per gallon.

The paint was applied to glass panels to facilitate measurements. Observation of the underside of the glass panel showed numerous relatively color-free areas indicating penetration of the glass spheres through the paint film so that the glass spheres were resting in substantial contact with the substrate.

EXAMPLE 2 Example 1 was repeated with a wet paint film thickness of mils. The results for varying amounts of glass spheres was plotted against time. See FIG. 1. Trackfree times as low as 30 seconds were recorded although the paint inherently had a track-free time of 2 minutes.

EXAMPLE 3 The paint employed was that of Example 1.

In an air conditioned building, paint was applied to glass panels using a Bird applicator. The wet film thick ness was 10 mils. A preweighed amount of glass spheres (Federal Specification TT-B-l325A, Type 1, Class A) was applied to the wet film by shaking from a salt shaker having 19 holes of 0.055 inch diameter in the top. Distribution of the glass spheres was rapid and as even as possible.

Track-free times were measured in accordance with ASTM No. D-7l l-67. The results were plotted; see FIG. 1, although the paint per se demonstrated a trackfree time of about 5 minutes track-free times as low as 30 seconds were achieved employing the system of the invention.

EXAMPLE 4 Example 3 was repeated except that the light reflecting particulate material was a mixture of one-half glass spheres and one-half Ottawa Sand, Crystal Grade. Track-free times were determined for varying amounts of particulate material and plotted against quantity, see FIG. 2. It has been noted that on a wet road, mixtures of glass spheres and spheroidal sand are more visable than glass spheres, alone.

EXAMPLE 5 Example 3 was repeated except that the particulate material applied was Crystal Grade, Ottawa Sand. Track-free times were determined for varying amounts of sand and plotted against quantity, see FIG. 2.

EXAMPLE 6 Example 3 was repeated except that the light reflecting particulate material applied was a mixture of onehalf glass spheres and one-half Del Monte White Beach Sand (30 mesh). Track-free times were determined for varying amounts of particulate material and plotted against quantity, see FIG. 2.

EXAMPLE 7 Example 3 was repeated except that the light reflecting particulate material applied was a mixture of onehalf glass spheres and one-half Federal Fine Grade of Ottawa Sand. Track-free times were determined for varying amounts of particulate material and plotted against quantity; see FlG. 3.

EXAMPLE 8 Example 3 was repeated except that the light reflecting particulate material applied was Federal Fine Grade Ottawa Sand. Track-free times were determined for varying amounts of particulate material and plotted against quantity; see FIG. 3.

EXAMPLE 9 Example 3 was repeated except that the light reflecting particulate material was a mixture of one-half glass spheres and one-half Crystal Grade Ottawa Sand ap- 8 plied in two increments, first the glass spheres being applied and second the sand. Track-free times were determined for varying amounts of particulate material and plotted against quantity; see FIG. 3.

EXAMPLES lO-l 2 Example 4 was repeated except that the paint film was applied at l l, 13 and 15 mils thicknesses, respectively, the particulate material being a mixture of onehalf glass spheres and one-half Crystal Grade Ottawa Sand. Track-free times were determined for varying amounts of particulate materials for each film thickness and plotted against quantity as examples 10, l l and I2; see FIG. 4.

EXAMPLE 13 Equal volumes of plastic spheres; plastic and sand and glass spheres were applied as in Example 3 with similar results. Plastics employed were polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride copolymers and polyvinyl acetate copolymers. No pick-up and no tracking times under 1 minute were obtained when the drop-on materials were applied in the same volume as pounds per mile of glass spheres.

While the traffic markers of the invention have been described primarily as being applied by a two step application process, it is likewise possible to form the compositions of the invention in other ways. For example, a mixture of pigmented fusible resin particles or powder and light reflective particulate material may be applied to the substrate and heat fused to the substrate for example by the use of flame torches which heat the pavement and/or the fusible mixture causing the resin powder to flow and form a film having light reflective particulate material therein.

Other coating compositions, light reflective particulate materials and application techniques, including those described herein, may be substituted for those exemplified to obtain the improvement hereinabove described.

What is claimed is:

l. A method of applying a traffic directing marker to a paved trafi'ic bearing surface which comprises:

a. applying to a trafiic bearing surface a wet unset film of a pigmented synthetic organic vehicle resincontaining coating composition which dries inherently track-free within about 6 minutes after application, and

b. applying to the wet coating composition at least a monolayer of light reflecting particulate material, the preponderance of the particles of which being sized so that at least one-half their mass becomes embedded in the coating composition upon application while having a diameter greater than the thickness of the coating film, said particles penetrating substantially the depth of the wet coating composition, said particulate material being applied at such a rate that the individual particles are separated from each other in the coating film by less than their average diameter c. whereby the applied coating of resin and particles has a track-free time within the order of seconds.

2. A method, as in claim 1, where the coating composition dries inherently track-free in about three minutes or less after application and where the particulate material is applied at a rate so that the individual particles in the coating film are in substantial contact with each other.

3. A method, as in claim 1, wherein the light reflective particulate material comprises a material selected from the group consisting of glass spheres, spheroidal sand and mixtures thereof.

4. A method, as in claim 2, wherein the light reflective particulate material is applied at a rate of at least about 80 pounds of particulate material per mile to a 4 inch wide strip of coating composition.

5. A method, as in claim 3, wherein the light reflective particulate material is applied at a rate of at least about 100 pounds of particulate material per mile to a four inch wide strip of coating composition.

6. A method, as in claim 5, wherein the applicationn rate is at lent l60 pounds of particulate material per mile to a four inch wide strip of coating composition.

7. A method, as in claim 1, wherein the particulate material is applied at a rate of at least about pounds per gallon of coating composition.

8. A method, as in claim 2, wherein the applied traftic directing marker is track-free in less than about 1 minute.

9. A method of applying a traffic directing marker to a paved traffic bearing surface which comprises:

a. applying to a traffic bearing surface a wet unset film of a pigmented synthetic organic vehicle resincontaining coating composition which dries inherently track-free within about six minutes after application, and

b. applying to the wet coating composition at least a monolayer of light reflecting particulate material, the preponderance of the particles of which being sized so that at least one-half their mass becomes embedded in the coating composition upon application while having a diameter greater than the thickness of the coating film, said light reflecting particulate material having been distributed upon the coating composition before it is dry in an amount at least about W weight per unit area A where where W weight of light reflecting particulate material A unit area of the coating composition V volume of the average light reflecting particle G specific gravity of the light reflecting particle S distance between centers of the light reflecting particle evenly distributed as a monolayer in said coating composition, S being about 2D or less, where D is the diameter of the average light reflecting particle,

c. whereby the applied coating of resin and particles has a track-free time measured within the order of seconds.

10. A method, as in claim 9, where the wet coating composition has a film thickness of about mils or 10 less and the light reflecting particulate material comprises a material selected from the group consisting of glass spheres, spheroidal sand, and a mixture of glass spheres and spheroidal sand.

11. A method, as in claim 10, where the applied traffic directing marker is track-free in less than about 1 minute.

12. A method, as in claim 10, wherein the wet coating composition has a film thickness of about 10 mils or less.

13. A method, as in claim 12, where the applied traffic directing marker is track-free in less than about 1 minute.

14. A method, as in claim 10, where the coating composition dries inherently track-free in about 3 minutes or less after application and the applied traffic directing marker is track-free in less than about 1 minute.

15. A method, as in claim 9, where Sis about LSD or less.

16. A method, as in claim 15, where the wet coating composition has a film thickness of about 15 mils or less and the light reflecting particulate material comprises a material selected from the group consisting of glass spheres, spheroidal sand, and a mixture of glass spheres and spheroidal sand.

17. A method, as in claim 15, where the applied traffic directing marker is track-free in less than about 1 minute.

18. A method, as in claim 15, wherein the wet coating composition has a film thickness of about 10 mils or less.

19. A method, as in claim 15, where the applied traffic directing marker is track-free in less than about 1 minute.

20. A method, as in claim 15, where the coating composition dries inherently track-free in about 3 minutes or less after application and the applied traffic directing marker is track-free in less than about 1 minute.

21. A method, as in claim 9, where S equals about D or less.

22. A method, as in claim 21, where the wet coating composition has a film thickness of about 15 mils or less and the light reflecting particulate material comprises a material selected from the group consisting of glass spheres, spheroidal sand, and a mixture 01' glass spheres and spheroidal sand.

23. A method, as in claim 21, where the appli 1 traffic directing marker is track-free in less than oout 1 minute.

24. A method, as in claim 21, wherein the wet coating composition has a film thickness of about lO mils or less.

25. A method, as in claim 21, where the applied traffic directing marker is track-free in less than about 1 minute.

26. A method, as in claim 21, where the coating composition dries inherently track-free in about 3 minutes or less after application and the applied traffic directing marker is track-free in less than about 1 minute.

Patent Citations
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US1626508 *Jan 4, 1926Apr 26, 1927Carlson Joseph CSurfacing for automobile parts and the like
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US2354048 *Aug 3, 1940Jul 18, 1944Minnesota Mining & MfgFlexible lenticular optical sheet
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4025476 *Oct 3, 1975May 24, 1977Prismo Universal CorporationQuick-drying, three- or four-component solvent system
US4288487 *Mar 22, 1979Sep 8, 1981Ludwig EigenmannMethod of forming surface markings on roadway areas, and roadway areas produced thereby
US4750635 *Sep 8, 1987Jun 14, 1988Wsf Industries, Inc.Safety latch mechanism for closure of a pressure vessel
US5167705 *Mar 15, 1991Dec 1, 1992Coughlan Thomas NTitanium dioxide in binder
US6036764 *Jun 11, 1998Mar 14, 2000Ciba Specialty Chemicals CorporationYellow pigment blend for hot melt traffic markings
US6103053 *Mar 30, 1998Aug 15, 2000Saylor, Jr.; Edward T.Embedding beads into polymeric film(on base) so that less than half of their surface area projects from film, then curing and hardening, for floor coverings or mats having patterns, images, decorations
US6217252Aug 11, 1998Apr 17, 20013M Innovative Properties CompanyWear-resistant transportation surface marking method and materials
USRE30463 *Mar 30, 1979Dec 30, 1980Prismo Universal CorporationTraffic paint method and composition
WO2000009811A1 *Jul 15, 1999Feb 24, 20003M Innovative Properties CoWear-resistant transportation surface marking method and materials
Classifications
U.S. Classification427/137, 427/202, 359/540
International ClassificationE01F9/08, G09F13/16, E01F9/04
Cooperative ClassificationE01F9/044, E01F9/041
European ClassificationE01F9/04B, E01F9/04B3