Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3900636 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 19, 1975
Filing dateJul 18, 1974
Priority dateJan 21, 1971
Publication numberUS 3900636 A, US 3900636A, US-A-3900636, US3900636 A, US3900636A
InventorsClipstone Colin John, Curry Francis Russell
Original AssigneeGillette Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of treating cutting edges
US 3900636 A
Images(5)
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1191 Curry et al.

[451 Aug. 19, 1975 1 1 METHOD OF TREATING CUTTING EDGES [75] Inventors: Francis Russell Curry, Maidenhead;

Colin John Clipstone, Spencers Wood, both of England [73] Assignee: The Gillette Company, Boston,

Mass.

22 Filed: July 18, 1974 211 Appl. No.: 489,751

Related U.S. Application Data [63] Continuation of Ser. No. 218,824, Jan. 18, 1972,

117/132 CF, 131, 106 R; 250/492, 398, 400; 30/3465, 346.54, 346.55, 350

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,108,900 10/1963 Papp 117/93.l GD

3,117,022 1/1964 Bronson et al 1l7/93.3 3,127,283 3/1964 Chadwick 117/106 R 3,203,829 8/1965 Seyer et al.. 117/132 CF 3,341,352 9/1967 Ehlers 117/93.3 3,389,070 6/1968 Berghaus 117/93.1 GD 3.480483 11/1969 Wilkinson 117/132 CF 3,573,098 3/1971 Bieber et a1. l17/93.3

FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 10/1969 United Kingdom 30/346,54

Primary Examiner-Ralph Husack Asa-ism! Examinerlohn I-l. Newsome Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Richard A. Wise; Oistein .1. Bratlie; William M. Anderson [57] ABSTRACT The present invention is concerned with providing improved cuttingqedges on cutting instruments such as razor blades implanting in the cutting edge ions of a metal, reactiv emon-metal, or an inert gas.

7 Claims, No Drawings METHOD OF TREATING CUTTING EDGES This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 218,824 filed Jan. 18, 1972 now abandoned.

This invention is concerned with a method of improv ing the properties of cutting edges, such" as those of razor blades. While the invention will be described hereinafter with specific reference to razor blades, it is to be understood that the method is equally applicable to other metal cutting edges, both as used in the razor art and also such as are formed as surgical instruments and the like.

Broadly, we have found that properties of a cutting edge can be improved by subjecting the edge to an ion implantation treatment.

The technique of ion implantation is known. Briefly, the equipment used comprises an ion source, an accelerator, an analysing magnet and an implantation chamber. In the method of the invention, one or more, usually a stack, of razor blades is placed in the chamber and the cutting edges are irradiated with a beam of high energy ions from the ion source. The ions enter the material of the cutting edge and cause modification of its properties.

We have found, in particular, that ion implantation can be used (i) to improve the hardness of cutting edges, (ii) to improve the adhesion of metallic and nonmetallic coatings on cutting edges, and (iii) to improve the corrosion resistance of the cutting edge material. To obtain all these types of improvement, it is necessary to use the appropriate ion species for implantation and to use the appropriate ion energy and ion dose, that is to say, the total number of ions implanted per unit area. The ion energy will determine the depth of penetration of the ions into the substrate, the higher the energy the greater being the penetration, and the dose will determine the number of ions implanted.

Suitable ions for obtaining the effects referred to will be described below. The optimum values of the other parameters of the process, that is the ion energy and the ion dose, can readily be determined in each particular case by routine trial. The cutting edges are preferably subjected to the ion implantation treatment in their sharpened state and care should be taken that the ion energy and/or the period of irradiation are not so great that physical damage to the cutting edge due to erosion or overheating of the cutting edge material takes place. Useful improvements in cutting edge properties can, however, be obtained in substantially all cases without risk of such erosion or overheating.

i. Cutting edge hardness In general, it is the case that the harder the material in which a cutting edge, for example that of a razor blade, is formed, the greater is its useful life, other things being equal. The harder the material, the better able the cutting edge is to retain its as-sharpened c'onfiguration, provided that the hardness is not accompanied by an undesirably high degree'of brittleness. If the latter is present, use of the cutting edge tends to cause the breaking away of portions of the cutting edge, rather than wearing down or deformation of the assharpened configuration.

We have found that there are two classes of ions which can be used to improve the hardness of steel cutting edges: (a) ions of non-metallic elements which can form compounds with the metal elements present in the steel, for example, H, B, C, N, O, Si, P and S, and (b) ions of metallic elements which may or may not form alloys or compounds with elements present in the steel, for example strong carbide-forming elements, such as Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Zr, Mo, Hf, 'Ta,-and W,1and other transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Cu, Re, Os, lr, Pt and Au.

With both classes of ions, particular combinations of ion energy and ion dose may lead to the increase in hardness being accompanied by an undesirable increase in brittleness'and we have found that this is due to the implanted ions exceeding a threshold concentration at a particular depth from the surface of the substrate. In general this situation can be avoided by using a lower ion dose for the particular ion. For nitrogen ions, for example, this threshold concentration is between 50 and lOO atomic 1 1 Suitable ion doses are, in general, at least" "10 ions/0m The following examples illustrate effective and noneffeetive ion implantation conditipnsfor certain of the ion species mentioned above. i i

All these examples, and those given below, were carried out as follows:

A stack of sharpened steel razor blades was placed in the implantation chamber of an ion implantation apparatus. The blades were mounted in a holder so that each blade overlapped the one above it by about 0.005 inch. The holder was placed in the implantation chamber so that one side of the cutting edge bevel was facing the ion beam. The apparatus was then pumped down to a pressure of about 10' torr. A beam of-the ionsto be implanted of the required energy was provided from an ion source and analysed bypassing through the centre of the pole pieces of the magnet. This beam of ions passed down a flight tube and impinged directly on the blade edges, the number of ions arriving on the blades being closely monitored. When the required does had been received, the implantation chamber was sealed by afbaffle valve from theion beam and' the implanted blades removed after admitting air to the chamber.

The stainless steel and carbon steel blades referred to in the Examples of this specification were formed, respectively, of a conventional stainless steel containing l2.5l3.5% Cr and O.60.7% C'and a conventional carbon steel containing l.l 5l .3% C.

The hardness of the cutting edges, before-and after treatment was assessed by an indentation test which, in principle, is similar to a standard indentation hardness determination in which the length of the impression made by a diamond indentor pressed'into the material under test is inversely proportional to the hardness of the material. The improvement, if any, in hardness of the blade edges after ion implantation treatment is shown by the percentage decrease in the length of the indentation compared with that of the untreated blades. Because of the nature of the indentation test,

small decreases in indent length (that is decreases of more than 2.5%) can represent significant increases in edge hardness(decrease of less than are usually not significant). I I

EXAMPLES l] 5 Stainless steel blades were implanted with nitrogen ions.

Steel cutting edges which have been coated with thin films of metals, such as Cr, Pt, W, Ti and Al, and mixtures or alloys of two or more of these metals, can also ion Energy ion Dose "A Decrease in EX Kev ions/cm indent Length be hardened by ion implantatlon. For this purpose any I 75 6 X on H 5 of the ions in groups (a) and (b) above can be used; the 3 80 I X .1; i, ion energy used should be such that the majority of the 3 X0 0 implanted ions remain in the thickness of the metal 2 if :81: 3 coating. Suitable ion doses are, in general, at least 10 6 150 2.75 x 10 7.1 ions/cm IT g :8 10 The following examples illustrate suitable conditions 9 150 7.2 10"- o for ion implantation into coated razor blades. 10 150 3.6 X 10 5.2 11 250 3.6 X 10 5.9 E MP 27 12 250 1.4 X 10'? 5.3 :2 Stainless steel blades having a sputtered coating of 15 55 1 m 0 15 aluminium 40 nm thick were implanted with oxygen ions so that the majority of the ions remained within the coating thickness.

EXAMPLES 16-22 Carbon steel blades were implanted with nitrogen 20 ion Energy ion Dose "/1 Decrease in 1on5 KeV ions/cm indent Length ion Energy ion Dose l1 Decrease in Ex KcV ions/cm indent Length 16 so 1 x 10'? 4.2 EXAMPLE 28 i; 28 5 Z: Stainless steel blades having a sputtered coating of i9 150 2.7 5 X 10 2.x titanium 100 nm thick were implanted with nitrogen 3 i 30 ions so that the majority of the ions remained within the 52 250 1 4 x 10 4 coating thickness.

EXAMPLE 23 i i v Ion Energy ion Dose Decrease in 1 1,, KeV ions/cm indent Length Stainless steel blades were implanted with oxygen ions. 100 1.1 x 10* 5.7

' ii. Coating adhesion Energy F 9: Decrease in 40 i We have found that the adhesion of metaliicand me- Kcv "ms/cm lndcm Length tailic compound, such as metallic oxide, coatings on 15 1.6 X 11)" 4.5 cutting edges can be improved by implanting ions with energies such that the ions penetrate the substrate/- coating interface. The coatings in question are, for ex- EXAMPLE 24 ample, W, Ta, Ti, Au, V, Mo, Pt and A1 0 they may be'formed on the cutting edge by any procedure that Stainless steel blades were implanted with t1tan1um gives a thin uniform coating, for example, Sputtering lons' There are two classes of ions which can be used to bring about such increase in coating adhesion (a) ions of inert gases, that is He, Ne, A, Kr and Xe, and (b) [on Energy Ion dose Decrease in ions of elements which are capable of reacting with the K V ions/0mg lndcm Length substrate material and/or the coating material, for example Cr.

As indicated above, the ion energy should be such that alsubstantial proportion of the implanted ions penetrate the substrate/coating interface and suitable ion EXAMPLES 25 and 26 energies will, of course, depend on the ion species used Stainless steel blades were implanted with nickel and the nature of the coating and substrate materials. The ion dose required will normally be at least l0 ions/ch1 The following examples illustrate suitable conditions for ion implantation to obtain increased adhesion of 250 2 X it) 7.6

iOnS. 6

ion Energy ion dose '7: Decrease in Ex KeV ions/cm indent Length COUtlngS Of the kind referred to,

q 7 l 6 g In these examples, the coated blades were used in a X 32 288 2,3 X 8"; standard shaving test, some without having been subjected to ion implantation and the others after this treatment, and the degree of coating loss was estimated by microscopical examination of SOOX magnification on a l to 10 scale. where 10 =complete loss of coating and l no loss.

10 surface. l

adhesion of the polymer was assessed as described for Examples 29-37,

EXAMPLES 3 -4 Stainlesssteel blades having sputtered coatings of W or Mo and carbon steel blades were implanted with Cr or F ions, and then coated with polytetrafluoroethylene. The ion energies used were su'ch'afsito implant the majority of ions within 100A of the substrate Degree ofcoating i i Coating Thickness Energy of Degree of coating 5 Ex material of coating A ions loss on blade with--' loss on 'blade afte'r 5 nm KeV out argon'implanb Y argonimplantation t i ation 29 w 50 200 7 t 3 30 Ta ltll) 3()() 6 4 3 1 Ti 50 100 3 l 32 Au 40 Z 4' 3 33 V Hill 200 2 Ex Blade Implanted lon Energy lonDoser Av. degree of polymerg Av.,degrec of polymer ion KeV ions/cm loss without implant loss after implant 38 Carbon Steel Cr l0 X .356 2.9 39 Stainless steel Cr 5 X 10"" l0 5,5 with 50 nm W coating j I 40 Stainless Steel Cr 1() 5 X 10" 4.9 3.9

with 50 nm Mo coating 41 Stainless steel F 10 5 X 10 55 3.0

with ll) nm Mo coating EXAMPLES 34-37 Stainless steel blades with various sputtered coatings 3 were implanted with Cr ions so that a substantial pro portion of the implanted ions penetrated beyond the substrate/coating interface iii. Corrosion resistance We have found that the corrosion resistance of steel cutting edges, more particularly that of carbon steel razor blades, can be improved by implanting ions of elements which are capable of imparting corrosion resis- Coating Coating Energy of Dose of Degree of coat- Degree of coating Ex Material Thickness Cr ions Cr ions ing loss without loss after nm KeV ions/cm Cr implant Cr implant 34 A1 0 50 I25 2 X 10"" 6 4 W 35 340 l X 10 9 2 36 Mo 150 5 X 10"" 5 2.5 37 Pt 25 l5() 5 X 10"" 6 2 We have also found that the adhesion of polymer coatings to cutting edges can be improved by ion implantation of the substrate with ions of elements which are capable of reacting with the substrate material and- /or the polymer which is subsequently applied. The polymer coating may be directly on a steel cutting edge or on a thin metal or metallic compound coating previously applied to the cutting edge, examples of suitable metal or metallic compound coatings being as mentioned above. The polymer coating most widely used on razor blade cutting edges is polytetrafluoroethylene and suitable ions for increasing the adhesion of polytetrafluoroethylene coatings are Cr and F.

The ion energy used should be such that a substantial proportion of the implanted ions are within 100A of the substrate surface. The ion dose required will normally be at least 10" ions/cm.

The following examples illustrate suitable conditions for ion implantation to obtain increased adhesion of polytetrafluoroethylene coatings. In these examples the tance when incorporated as alloying elements into carbon steels, for example, Cr, Ta, M0, W, Au, and Pt. Suitable ion energies are determined by substantially the same factors as referred to in the first part of section (i) above; the ion dose required will normally be at least 10 ions/cm" The following examples illustrate suitable conditions for ion implantation to obtain improved corrosion resistance in carbon steel blades.

in these examples, the blades were used in a standard shaving test, some without having been subjected to ion implantation and the others after this treatment, and the degree of corrosion of the blade edges and facets was assessed on a 1-10 scale by microscopical exami nation at SOOX magnification. On this scale, 1 no corrosion, 10 corrosion.

EXAMPLES 42 and 43 Carbon steel blades were implanted with Cr ions.

Ion Energy lon Dose Av. degree of Av. degree of Ex KeV ions/cm corrosion without corrosion after implantation implantation .42 250 l X l" 9 6.5

plus 125 2.5 X 10"" 43 400 l X l0" plus 280 7 X 10"" 4 2 plus 200 5 X What we claim is:

l. A process for improving a coated or uncoated steel cutting edge, said process comprising implanting ions selected from the group consisting of metals, reactive non-metals and inert gases into said cutting edge. said ions being propelled at said cutting edge in the form of an ion beam at energies of between about 10 to 400 KeV until a dose of between about l X l0 ions/cm to 6 X 10" ions/cm has been implanted.

2. A process as defined in claim 1 in which said cutting edge is a razor blade.

3. A process as defined in claim 2 in which metallic or non-metallic ions which will improve the hardness or corrosion resistance of the steel cutting edge are implanted.

4. A process as defined in claim 2 in which a thin metal coating is on the cutting edge and metallic or non-metallic ions which will improve the hardness or corrosion resistance of the coating are implanted at energies at which a substantial proportion of the ions will be in the coating.

5. A process as defined in claim 2 wherein a thin metallic coating is on the cutting edge and metallic, nonmetallic or inert gas ions are implanted at energies such as to penetrate through the cutting edge-coating interface to improve the adhesion of said coating.

6. A process as defined in claim 2 in which the cutting edge is coated with a polytetrafluoroethylene coating and ions will improve the adhesion of the polyethylene are implanted at energies such that a substantial proportion of said ions are implanted within 100A of the polytetrafluoroethylene substrate surface.

7. A process as defined in claim 6 in which said ions are selected from chromium and fluorine.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3108900 *Apr 13, 1959Oct 29, 1963Cornelius A PappApparatus and process for producing coatings on metals
US3117022 *Sep 6, 1960Jan 7, 1964Space Technhology Lab IncDeposition arrangement
US3127283 *Oct 2, 1959Mar 31, 1964Union Carbide CorporationMicrons for
US3203829 *Sep 25, 1962Aug 31, 1965Eversharp IncRazor blades
US3341352 *Dec 10, 1962Sep 12, 1967Kenneth W EhlersProcess for treating metallic surfaces with an ionic beam
US3389070 *Nov 4, 1963Jun 18, 1968Bernhard BerghausMethod and means for treating articles on all sides
US3480483 *May 4, 1966Nov 25, 1969Wilkinson Sword LtdRazor blades and methods of manufacture thereof
US3573098 *May 9, 1968Mar 30, 1971Boeing CoIon beam deposition unit
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4326898 *Feb 20, 1980Apr 27, 1982Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyOxidation resistant iron
US4352698 *Dec 2, 1980Oct 5, 1982United Kingdom Atomic Energy AuthorityMethod of improving the wear resistance of metals
US4433005 *Jan 13, 1982Feb 21, 1984United Technologies CorporationFatigue resistant tatanium alloy articles
US4470895 *Mar 22, 1983Sep 11, 1984United Kingdom Atomic Energy AuthorityRefractory protective coatings
US4483068 *Apr 28, 1981Nov 20, 1984Wilkinson Sword LimitedRazors, razor blades and razor blade dispensers
US4486247 *Jun 21, 1982Dec 4, 1984Westinghouse Electric Corp.Wear resistant steel articles with carbon, oxygen and nitrogen implanted in the surface thereof
US4540636 *Dec 27, 1983Sep 10, 1985General Motors CorporationMetal bearing element with a score-resistant coating
US4565710 *Jun 6, 1984Jan 21, 1986The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyProcess for producing carbide coatings
US4629631 *Sep 9, 1985Dec 16, 1986United Kingdom Atomic Energy AuthorityHardening substrates
US4640169 *Mar 28, 1985Feb 3, 1987Westinghouse Electric Corp.Cemented carbide cutting tools and processes for making and using
US4645715 *Mar 17, 1982Feb 24, 1987Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.Oxide, boride, carbide or nitride of one or more transition metals
US4704168 *Jan 29, 1986Nov 3, 1987The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space AdministrationIon-beam nitriding of steels
US4743308 *Jan 20, 1987May 10, 1988Spire CorporationCorrosion inhibition of metal alloys
US4764394 *Jan 20, 1987Aug 16, 1988Wisconsin Alumni Research FoundationMethod and apparatus for plasma source ion implantation
US4774103 *Feb 28, 1986Sep 27, 1988Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo KenkyushoForming silicon nitride by reaction of silicon and nitrogen
US4849082 *Feb 3, 1986Jul 18, 1989The Babcock & Wilcox CompanyIon implantation of zirconium alloys with hafnium
US4855026 *Jun 2, 1988Aug 8, 1989Spire CorporationSputter enhanced ion implantation process
US4863810 *Sep 21, 1987Sep 5, 1989Universal Energy Systems, Inc.Corrosion resistant amorphous metallic coatings
US4872922 *Mar 11, 1988Oct 10, 1989Spire CorporationExposure to ion beam radiation while contained in clean rotating cages; uniform depth and dosage
US4915746 *Aug 15, 1988Apr 10, 1990Welsch Gerhard EMethod of forming high temperature barriers in structural metals to make such metals creep resistant at high homologous temperatures
US4968006 *Jul 21, 1989Nov 6, 1990Spire CorporationIon implantation of spherical surfaces
US5079032 *Jul 25, 1990Jan 7, 1992Spire CorporationIon implantation of spherical surfaces
US5123924 *Nov 28, 1990Jun 23, 1992Spire CorporationUltrahigh molecular weight polyethylene and cobalt-chromium alloy with doped surface layer
US5142785 *Aug 26, 1991Sep 1, 1992The Gillette CompanyForming wedge-shaped sharpened edge on substrate, depositing molybdenum layer on edge, depositing diamond or diamond-like layer on molybdenum layer, applying adherent polymer coating on diamond edge; razor blade and shaving unit
US5152795 *Jan 9, 1992Oct 6, 1992Spire CorporationSurgical implants and method
US5154023 *Jun 11, 1991Oct 13, 1992Spire CorporationPolishing process for refractory materials
US5167725 *Aug 1, 1990Dec 1, 1992Ultracision, Inc.Titanium alloy blade coupler coated with nickel-chrome for ultrasonic scalpel
US5232568 *Jun 24, 1991Aug 3, 1993The Gillette CompanyRazor technology
US5246741 *Dec 20, 1990Sep 21, 1993Hitachi, Ltd.Vacuum, reduction, reaction with accelerated ions
US5295305 *Jan 25, 1993Mar 22, 1994The Gillette CompanyForming wedge sharpened edges forming a multilayer material from silicon, silicon carbide, metals or alloys
US5303574 *Dec 9, 1992Apr 19, 1994Hughes Aircraft CompanyEvaluation of the extent of wear of articles
US5347887 *Mar 11, 1993Sep 20, 1994Microsurgical Techniques, Inc.Process for making a blade
US5458928 *Jun 2, 1993Oct 17, 1995Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd.Method of forming metal material film with controlled color characteristic
US5497550 *Feb 3, 1994Mar 12, 1996The Gillette CompanyShaving system
US5653032 *Dec 4, 1995Aug 5, 1997Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc.Having long-lasting cutting edge
US5669144 *Nov 7, 1995Sep 23, 1997The Gillette CompanyRazor blade technology
US5807613 *Nov 1, 1996Sep 15, 1998Cametoid Advanced Technologies, Inc.Method of producing reactive element modified-aluminide diffusion coatings
US5985742 *Feb 19, 1998Nov 16, 1999Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled cleavage process and device for patterned films
US5994207 *Feb 19, 1998Nov 30, 1999Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled cleavage process using pressurized fluid
US6010579 *Feb 19, 1998Jan 4, 2000Silicon Genesis CorporationReusable substrate for thin film separation
US6013563 *Feb 19, 1998Jan 11, 2000Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled cleaning process
US6027988 *Aug 20, 1997Feb 22, 2000The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaMethod of separating films from bulk substrates by plasma immersion ion implantation
US6048411 *Feb 19, 1998Apr 11, 2000Silicon Genesis CorporationSilicon-on-silicon hybrid wafer assembly
US6077572 *Jun 18, 1997Jun 20, 2000Northeastern UniversityVapor deposition of conformal sheaths from hydrocarbon gas; high ion flux and controlled, low energy ion bombardment
US6136385 *Jul 29, 1999Oct 24, 2000Saatec Engineering CorporationSurface reforming method of a metal product
US6146979 *Feb 19, 1998Nov 14, 2000Silicon Genesis CorporationPressurized microbubble thin film separation process using a reusable substrate
US6155909 *Feb 19, 1998Dec 5, 2000Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled cleavage system using pressurized fluid
US6159824 *Feb 19, 1998Dec 12, 2000Silicon Genesis CorporationLow-temperature bonding process maintains the integrity of a layer of microbubbles; high-temperature annealing process finishes the bonding process of the thin film to the target wafer
US6159825 *Feb 19, 1998Dec 12, 2000Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled cleavage thin film separation process using a reusable substrate
US6162705 *Feb 19, 1998Dec 19, 2000Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled cleavage process and resulting device using beta annealing
US6187110May 21, 1999Feb 13, 2001Silicon Genesis CorporationPrepared by introducing energetic particles in a selected manner through a surface of a donor substrate to a selected depth underneath the surface, where the particles have a relatively high concentration to define a donor substrate
US6221740Aug 10, 1999Apr 24, 2001Silicon Genesis CorporationSubstrate cleaving tool and method
US6245161Feb 19, 1998Jun 12, 2001Silicon Genesis CorporationEconomical silicon-on-silicon hybrid wafer assembly
US6263941Aug 10, 1999Jul 24, 2001Silicon Genesis CorporationNozzle for cleaving substrates
US6284631Jan 10, 2000Sep 4, 2001Silicon Genesis CorporationMethod and device for controlled cleaving process
US6291313May 18, 1999Sep 18, 2001Silicon Genesis CorporationMethod and device for controlled cleaving process
US6291326Jun 17, 1999Sep 18, 2001Silicon Genesis CorporationPre-semiconductor process implant and post-process film separation
US6294814Aug 24, 1999Sep 25, 2001Silicon Genesis CorporationCleaved silicon thin film with rough surface
US6391740Apr 28, 1999May 21, 2002Silicon Genesis CorporationGeneric layer transfer methodology by controlled cleavage process
US6458672Nov 2, 2000Oct 1, 2002Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled cleavage process and resulting device using beta annealing
US6486041Feb 20, 2001Nov 26, 2002Silicon Genesis CorporationMethod and device for controlled cleaving process
US6500732Jul 27, 2000Dec 31, 2002Silicon Genesis CorporationCleaving process to fabricate multilayered substrates using low implantation doses
US6511899May 6, 1999Jan 28, 2003Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled cleavage process using pressurized fluid
US6513564Mar 14, 2001Feb 4, 2003Silicon Genesis CorporationNozzle for cleaving substrates
US6528391May 21, 1999Mar 4, 2003Silicon Genesis, CorporationControlled cleavage process and device for patterned films
US6548382Aug 4, 2000Apr 15, 2003Silicon Genesis CorporationGettering technique for wafers made using a controlled cleaving process
US6554046Nov 27, 2000Apr 29, 2003Silicon Genesis CorporationSubstrate cleaving tool and method
US6558802Feb 29, 2000May 6, 2003Silicon Genesis CorporationSilicon-on-silicon hybrid wafer assembly
US6632724Jan 13, 2000Oct 14, 2003Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled cleaving process
US6691596Aug 11, 2000Feb 17, 2004Irwin Industrial Tool CompanyCircular saw blade for cutting fiber cement materials
US6726542 *May 17, 2000Apr 27, 2004Jagenberg Papiertechnik GmbhGrinding wheel, grinding system and method for grinding a blade
US6790747Oct 9, 2002Sep 14, 2004Silicon Genesis CorporationMethod and device for controlled cleaving process
US6890838Mar 26, 2003May 10, 2005Silicon Genesis CorporationGettering technique for wafers made using a controlled cleaving process
US7056808Nov 20, 2002Jun 6, 2006Silicon Genesis CorporationCleaving process to fabricate multilayered substrates using low implantation doses
US7160790Aug 19, 2003Jan 9, 2007Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled cleaving process
US7191522May 24, 2005Mar 20, 2007Rovcal, Inc.Cutting blade and cutting blade assembly for electric shaver
US7348258Aug 6, 2004Mar 25, 2008Silicon Genesis CorporationMethod and device for controlled cleaving process
US7371660Nov 16, 2005May 13, 2008Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled cleaving process
US7410887Jan 26, 2007Aug 12, 2008Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled process and resulting device
US7759217Jan 26, 2007Jul 20, 2010Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled process and resulting device
US7776717Aug 20, 2007Aug 17, 2010Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled process and resulting device
US7811900Sep 7, 2007Oct 12, 2010Silicon Genesis CorporationMethod and structure for fabricating solar cells using a thick layer transfer process
US7846818Jul 10, 2008Dec 7, 2010Silicon Genesis CorporationControlled process and resulting device
US8187377Oct 4, 2002May 29, 2012Silicon Genesis CorporationNon-contact etch annealing of strained layers
US8293619Jul 24, 2009Oct 23, 2012Silicon Genesis CorporationLayer transfer of films utilizing controlled propagation
US8329557May 12, 2010Dec 11, 2012Silicon Genesis CorporationTechniques for forming thin films by implantation with reduced channeling
US8330126Jul 29, 2009Dec 11, 2012Silicon Genesis CorporationRace track configuration and method for wafering silicon solar substrates
US20110236592 *Nov 30, 2009Sep 29, 2011Quertech IngenierieMethod for treating a metal element with ion beam
DE3046695A1 *Dec 11, 1980Sep 17, 1981Atomic Energy Authority UkVerfahren zur verbesserung der verschleissfestigkeit von titan und titanlegierungen
DE4402988A1 *Feb 1, 1994Aug 3, 1995W W Modersohn PraezisionswerkzImproving endurance of cutting, drilling and milling tools
EP0206494A1 *May 13, 1986Dec 30, 1986United Kingdom Atomic Energy AuthorityImproved cutting edges
EP0499215A2 *Feb 12, 1992Aug 19, 1992Hughes Aircraft CompanyEvaluation of the extent of wear of articles
WO1982003230A1 *Mar 15, 1982Sep 30, 1982Eskildsen Svend StensigMethod of producing an alloy or a mixture of elements in the surface of a substrate
Classifications
U.S. Classification427/526, 250/492.1, 427/523, 427/528, 250/423.00R, 30/346.53, 204/192.16, 427/531, 30/346.55
International ClassificationC23C14/48, B26B21/54, B26B21/00
Cooperative ClassificationC23C14/48, B26B21/54
European ClassificationB26B21/54, C23C14/48