|Publication number||US3900770 A|
|Publication date||Aug 19, 1975|
|Filing date||Jan 18, 1974|
|Priority date||Jan 18, 1974|
|Publication number||US 3900770 A, US 3900770A, US-A-3900770, US3900770 A, US3900770A|
|Inventors||Kaufman Lance R|
|Original Assignee||Gentron Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (20), Classifications (16), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1 1 Kaufman 1 ELECTRIC FENCE SHQCKER CIRCUIT  Inventor: Lance R. Kaufman, Milwaukee.
 Assignee: Gentron Corporation, Milwaukee,
 Filed: Jan. 18, 1974 21 1 Appl. NO.I 434,479
 US. Cl. 317/1485 B; 307/252 L; 315/209 SC;317/151; 317/262 5;
 Int. Cl. H03k 17/56  Field of Search... 317/96, 148.5 B, 151, 262 S; 307/252 R, 252 L, 252 O, 132, 239;
209 CD. 241; 123/148 E, 148 F  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3.596.133 7/1971 Warren 315/209 SC 14 1 Aug. 19, 1975 3.723.847 3/1973 Chaupit 321/27 R Primary Etamirzer-J. D. Miller Asxvistam E\'aminerHarry E. Moose, Jr. Armrney, Agent, or Firm-Arthur L. Morsell. Jr
 ABSTRACT Two silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs) whose anodecathode circuits are coupled in series are simultaneously triggered to discharge a capacitor through a transformer primary to generate shock pulses in an electric fence. One of the SCRs is triggered through a diode and the other is triggered through a capacitor. If either of the SCRS tends to fire early, the other SCR holds the series circuit open until the trigger pulse for the SCRs is applied thereto.
2 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures TO FENCE ELECTRIC FENCE SHOCKER CIRCUIT BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to electric fence shocker circuits such as used on farms and ranches for keeping animals within a fenced-in area. In the past, a single SCR has been used in such fench shocker circuits to periodically discharge a capacitor through a transformer primary to generate shock pulses at a rate of approximately l.l pulses per second. This pulse repetition rate allows enough time for a shocked animal to move away from the fence with only a single shock after it contacts the fence. However, it is possible for the SCR to suffer what is known as an interim failure mode in which the SCR spontaneously fires before it is triggered. In the interim failure mode, the pulse repetition rate of the SCR may rise to 60 pulses per second, and since the output pulses of the circuit are in the order of 20,000 volts in the open circuit condition, an animal or human touching the fence may be killed or seriously injured by multiple shocks before they can move out of contact with the fence.
The principal object of this invention is to provide an improved SCR circuit in which an interim failure of the SCR will not cause an increase in the pulse repetition rate.
An additional object of this invention is to provide an improved fence shocker circuit which is more reliable in operation than those heretofore known.
Other objects, advantages, and features of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the description which follows.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Two SC Rs whose anode-cathode circuits are coupled in series are simultaneously triggered on their gate electrodes. One of the SCRs is preferably triggered through a diode and the other is preferably triggered through a capacitor. If either of the SCRs tends to fire early, the other SCR holds the series circuit open until the trigger pulse for the SCRs is applied thereto.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a schematic circuit diagram of a prior art electric fence shocker circuit.
FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic representation of a prior art SCR.
FIG. 3 is a schematic circuit diagram of an improved fence shocker circuit of this invention.
FIG. 4 is a waveform of the voltage across C3 without D3 in the circuit diode.
FIG. 5 is a waveform of the voltage across C3 with D3 in the circuit.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT FIG. I is a schematic circuit diagram of a prior art electric fence shocker circuit. In this circuit, an AC input voltage is rectified by diode D1 and the rectified voltage is applied in parallel to capacitors CI and C2. Capacitor C1 is the timing capacitor and capacitor C2 is the main pulse charging capacitor. Resistor R2 is a current limiting resistor for both capacitors. Resistors R2 and R3 taken together control the charging time for capacitor C1. When the charge on capacitor C1 reaches a predetermined voltage level, it triggers a bilateral trigger diode TI and applies a gating pulse to the gate terminal of SCR OI, thereby switching SCR 0] into conduction. Capacitor C2 then discharges through the anode-cathode circuit of SCR OI and through the primary winding of voltage step-up transformer XI. The resulting output pulse on the secondary of transformer X1 is coupled to the electric fence. Diode D2 protects capacitor C2 against negative voltage surges due to the inductive kickback of transformer XI. Resistors RI and R5 are current limiting resistors for a neon lamp NI which glows whenever the circuit is energized. Resistor R4 is a bleeder resistor for capacitor C1. R6 is a series limiting resistor for T1. F1 is a slow blow fuse for over-current protection.
There are three modes of SCR failure that can affect the foregoing circuit: (1) an open anode-cathode circuit, (2) a shorted anode-cathode circuit. and (3) the interim failure mode in which the SCR fires spontaneously before it is triggered by the trigger pulse from the bilateral trigger diode TI. In the open circuit mode. the circuit is inoperative. In the shorted mode, excessive current flow causes fuse F1 to blow. In the interim mode, the normal turn-on turn-off mechanism of the SCR is no longer operable and the pulse repetition rate increases from 1.1 pulses per second to pulses per second or to an intermediate value between LI and 60 pulses per second. At high pulse repetition rates, the electric fence becomes a lethal weapon capable of killing or causing serious injury to animals and humans. Accordingly, it is highly desirable for the circuit to be protected against the fast firing rates that occur in the interim failure mode. Historical data indicates that approximately 1 in 750 SCRs is a potential candidate for the fast fire interim failure mode. Causes can be traced to poor crystal structure or poor passivation or other faults that cause the SCR to fire prematurely.
As shown in FIG. 2, an SCR has alternate P-type zones and N-type zones which are arranged in a PNPN pattern defining three PN junctions J1, J2, and J3. The outer P-type zone serves as the anode and the outer N- type zone serves as the cathode. The inner P-type zone serves as the gate.
In normal operation, when a forward voltage is initially applied across the SCRs cathode-anode circuit, junctions J1 and J3 will be forward biased and junction J2 will be reverse biased. As long as junction J2 remains reverse biased, the forward current is limited to a low forward leakage current level. When the forward voltage across the SCRs cathode-anode circuit is increased past the avalanche breakdown level for junction J2, or when avalanche breakdown is initiated by injecting current carriers into the gate electrode, junction J2 breaks down and begins to conduct significant levels of current in the reverse direction. Once the avalanche condition is reached, the current increases rapidly, the voltage across junction J2 drops, and the device is turned on. It has entered the high conduction region and will remain there as long as the anode current is greater than a minimum value called the holding current. When the anode current drops below the holding current level, the junction J2 will revert to its reverse biased state, thus turning the device off.
In the interim failure mode, the level of forward voltage required to initiate avalanche breakdown of junction J2 is lowered so that it falls within the normal charging range of capacitor C2, thereby causing the SCR to fire spontaneously before it is triggered. Also, should the holding current deteriorate, in addition to the above. the fast fire mode may also occur. Thus, instead of firing at the l l pulse per second rate set by the gate pulses, the SCR will fire at a faster rate that falls between L] pulses per second and 60 pulses per second,
FIG. 3 shows the electric fence shocker circuit of this invention in which the circuit is protected against the adverse effects of an interim mode failure by means of an additional SCR Q2 whose cathode-anode circuit is connected in series with the cathode-anode circuit for SCR and whose gate is coupled in parallel with the gate of SCR 0] ln the circuit of this invention, if either of the SCRs should suffer an interim mode failure, the other SCR will hold the discharge path of C2 open until the trigger pulse from timing capacitor Cl is generated and applied to the gates of Q1 and ()2. Thus, the pulse repetition rate of the circuit does not increase if one of the SCRs should fire prematurely. The pulse repetition rate will be affected if both SCRs should suffer an interim mode failure at the same time, but since the chance of a single interim mode failure is l in 750, the chance of a double interim mode failure is only I in 750 X 750 562,500.
If the gate terminals of the SCRs Q] and Q2 were connected together directly, the interim mode failure of one SCR might trigger the other by conduction of charge carriers from the gate electrode of the defective SCR to the gate electrode of the good SCR. To prevent this, the gate electrodes of the two SCRs are isolated from each other by a capacitor C3 connected in series with the gate electrode of SCR 0] and a diode D3 connected in series with the gate electrode of SCR 02. Capacitor C3 provides DC isolation between the two gate electrodes. Diode D3 adds to the isolation with respect to negative pulses and extends the recombination time for current carriers in the SCRs, thus aiding in recovery in the junctions of the SCRs. The position of capacitor C3 and diode D3 in the circuit is not interchangeable. The voltage waveform across C3 is shown in FIG. 4 without diode D3 in the circuit. FIG. 5 shows the same waveform with diode D3 in the circuit.
It has been found by experiment that single SCRs which have suffered a fast-fire interim mode failure in the circuit of FIG. I may become shorted or open circuited in the circuit of FIG. 3. This is due to the good SCR passing relatively high levels of current through the bad SCR, thus significantly accelerating its total de terioration. This is desirable because with an open or short the fast fire problem is eliminated. Further, if C3 or D3 should fail, the probability of the fast fire device taking over the circuit is significantly lessened when the fast fire device fails to change to an open or short,
Although one illustrative example of this invention has been described herein, it should be understood that this invention is not limited to the disclosed embodiment since changes can be made in the disclosed circuit without departing from the basic principles of the invention. For example, although the invention has been described in connection with a fence shocker circuit, it is applicable to any circuit which utilizes an SCR, as, for example, an automobile ignition system. Similar modifications of the disclosed circuit will be apparent to those skilled in the art, and this invention includes all modifications falling within the scope of the following claims.
What I claim is:
l. In an electric fence shocker circuit including a capacitor, a transformer primary winding, and a silicon controlled rectifier, means connecting said capacitor, said transformer primary winding, and the anodecathode circuit of said silicon controlled rectifier together in series, means for charging said capacitor, and trigger means coupled to the gate electrode of said silicon controlled rectifier for firing the same to discharge the charge on said capacitor through said transformer primary winding, the improvement comprising a second silicon controlled rectifier, means connecting the anode-cathode circuit of both silicon controlled rectifiers together in series, and means coupling trigger pulses to the gate electrodes of both silicon controlled rectifiers, whereby if one of the silicon controlled rectifiers should suffer an interim mode failure, the other silicon controlled rectifier will hold said series circuit open until the gate electrode of said other silicon controlled rectifier is triggered by said trigger means, there being a capacitor connected in series with the gate electrode of one silicon controlled rectifier and a diode connected in series with the gate electrode of the other silicon controlled rectifier.
2. An electric fence shocker circuit as defined in claim I wherein said capacitor is connected to the gate electrode of the silicon controlled rectifier nearest to said winding.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3596133 *||Sep 30, 1969||Jul 27, 1971||Warren Glenn B||Solid-state multispark ignition|
|US3723847 *||Jul 1, 1971||Mar 27, 1973||Comp Generale Electricite||Semiconductor system redundant control arrangement|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4316232 *||May 5, 1980||Feb 16, 1982||Phillips Dougald S M||Electric fence controllers|
|US4396879 *||Nov 21, 1980||Aug 2, 1983||Horizont-Geratewerk Gmbh||Coupled series and parallel resonant circuit, in particular for electric fence apparatus|
|US4455589 *||Jul 6, 1982||Jun 19, 1984||Kidde, Inc.||Fuel valve latch out system|
|US4713723 *||Jul 1, 1986||Dec 15, 1987||Kaufman Lance R||Isolation transformer|
|US5046345 *||Dec 15, 1989||Sep 10, 1991||Zieve Peter B||Power supply for electromagnetic proof load tester and dent remover|
|US5381298 *||Sep 9, 1992||Jan 10, 1995||Waters Instruments, Inc.||Electric fence charger|
|US5404664 *||Dec 21, 1993||Apr 11, 1995||Brooks; David H.||License plate security frame|
|US5663869 *||Jan 17, 1996||Sep 2, 1997||Vlt Corporation||Packaging electrical components|
|US5778526 *||May 5, 1997||Jul 14, 1998||Vlt Corporation||Packaging electrical components|
|US5790023 *||Jul 19, 1996||Aug 4, 1998||Waters Instruments Inc.||Apparatus and method for control of electric fence|
|US5877949 *||Mar 25, 1997||Mar 2, 1999||Waters Instruments, Inc.||Direct capacitive discharge electric fence controller|
|US5894818 *||Jul 16, 1997||Apr 20, 1999||Betzen; Keith||Electric animal repelling and training device|
|US6314914||Jan 18, 2000||Nov 13, 2001||Keith M. Betzen||Capacitor powered animal repelling and training device without bait|
|US6316737||Sep 9, 1999||Nov 13, 2001||Vlt Corporation||Making a connection between a component and a circuit board|
|US6479909 *||Dec 14, 1999||Nov 12, 2002||Lacme||Closure electrifier with a low mass transformer|
|US6985341||Apr 24, 2001||Jan 10, 2006||Vlt, Inc.||Components having actively controlled circuit elements|
|US7443229||Jul 23, 2004||Oct 28, 2008||Picor Corporation||Active filtering|
|US7944273||Jun 20, 2008||May 17, 2011||Picor Corporation||Active filtering|
|US20040160714 *||Feb 13, 2004||Aug 19, 2004||Vlt Corporation, A Texas Corporation||Components having actively controlled circuit elements|
|WO1991008847A1 *||Dec 14, 1990||Jun 27, 1991||Peter B Zieve||Power supply for electromagnetic proof load tester and dent remover|
|U.S. Classification||361/156, 327/471, 361/190, 315/209.0SC, 361/232|
|International Classification||H03K3/57, H05C1/00, H02M1/088, H03K3/00, H05C1/04|
|Cooperative Classification||H02M1/088, H03K3/57, H05C1/04|
|European Classification||H02M1/088, H03K3/57, H05C1/04|
|Mar 23, 2000||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: TELEDYNE TECHNOLOGIES INCORPORATED, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:TELEDYNE INDUSTRIES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:010703/0172
Effective date: 19991129
Owner name: TELEDYNE TECHNOLOGIES INCORPORATED 2049 CENTURY PA
|Nov 12, 1996||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: TELEDYNE INDUSTRIES, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GENTRON CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:008215/0577
Effective date: 19960923